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date: 18 August 2022


The Oxford Companion to English Literature
Dinah BirchDinah Birch

Associations first founded in Italy in the 15th century to promote intellectual and cultural debate on a wide range of topics. The earliest, like that of Ficino in Florence, were informal groups of humanist scholars who aimed to revive the ancient Platonic academy and its traditions of dialogue and debate. In the 16th century these informal groupings gave way to more formally constituted bodies, often characterized by punning titles, nicknames for members, witty emblems, and mottoes. Among the best known of this period are the Intronati (Siena), the ... ...

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