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date: 23 July 2019

Environmental and Conservation Movements in Metropolitan America 

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Urban History
Robert R. GioielliRobert R. Gioielli

By the late 19th century, American cities like Chicago and New York were marvels of the industrializing world, with sprawling, integrated factories, the first skyscrapers, and majestic suspension bridges tying the metropolis together. The shock urbanization of the previous quarter century, however, brought on a host of environmental problems. “The sickening stench on the branch of the river known as “Bubbly Creek” at times make that section of the city unbearable,” Jane Addams wrote about the Chicago packinghouse district’s urban stream in ... ...

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