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date: 27 September 2022

Human-Environmental Interrelationships and the Origins of Agriculture in Egypt and Sudan 

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Agriculture and the Environment
Simon HoldawaySimon Holdaway, Rebecca PhillippsRebecca Phillipps

Northeast Africa experienced significant environmental changes spanning the period from the end of the Pleistocene through to the mid-Holocene. The African Humid Period induced the greening of the Sahara, and water flow in the Nile River shifted, changing the conformation of the Nile Valley and creating the Nile Delta. This period also saw the first evidence for the use of domesticated plants and animals. There is no indication for incipient agriculture in Northeast Africa at this time, so the evidence is largely in the form of inputs of domesticated plants and animals originating from Southwest Asia. Much scholarship has focused on how and why agriculture arrived in Northeast Africa from adjacent regions and from the links made between the arrival of domesticates and environmental changes. Some researchers see the environment as the major driver for both the diffusion of ideas and materials concerned with establishing agriculture and pastoralism in the lower Nile Valley and in adjacent desert regions. For example, some consider that a period of drier climate was the stimulus for the movement of herders from modern Sinai into northern Egypt, bringing with them domestic animals (... ...

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