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Welfare State

Welfare State   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
7,958 words
Illustration(s):
2

...American states beginning in the late nineteenth century. Of course, there had long been state activity envisaged as protecting citizens or subjects, but there was no widely shared conception of systematic state intervention into affairs of private citizens to establish a “social minimum”—a term used by some British economists during the 1890s—nor any sense of the governmental-administrative apparatus being answerable to the expressed demands of citizens about their welfare needs.para/>Though welfarism has been implemented in significantly different ways in...

Communitarianism and Community

Communitarianism and Community   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
7,717 words

...what human rights are designed to do—provide everyone , and not just the greatest number, with secure access to what they vitally need to live a minimally decent life in the modern world. Human rights defenders insist that it is far more important to secure for everyone the social minimum of decent treatment for all than it is to secure the maximization of the majority's happiness. Common ground. These reflections and admissions do not add up to the belief that rights are necessarily antidemocratic. The relationship is more complex. Surely, the raw...

Economic and Social Rights

Economic and Social Rights   Reference library

William F. Felice

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
9,215 words

...capabilities includes ten broad areas: life; bodily health; bodily integrity; senses, imagination, and thought; emotions; practical reason; affiliation; other species; play; and control over one’s political and material environment. Nussbaum’s goal is to establish acceptable social minimums, contending that the structure and function of community and political organizations should be designed to meet these needs at a threshold level. This minimum threshold is central to her argument as these human rights claims trump culture, family, and religion ( Nussbaum ...

Feminist Perspectives on Human Rights

Feminist Perspectives on Human Rights   Reference library

Laura Parisi

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
14,628 words

...recognizable and desirable as well as necessary to the flourishing of human life (2000:78–80). She suggests that by using capabilities, rather than rights, as the goals to be achieved, we will have the tools for developing a cross-cultural consensus for “determining a decent social minimum in a variety of areas” ( Nussbaum 2000 :75). In her view, the capabilities approach is universal but not ethnocentric, for “ideas about activity and ability are everywhere, and there is no culture in which people do not ask themselves what they are able to do, what...

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