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Musical Instruments

Musical Instruments   Reference library

John MYERS

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...Sounds” During the time of the Zhou dynasty ( 1045–256 bce ), instruments were classified according to their material composition and associated sound qualities. These categories, known as bayin 八音 ‎ (eight sounds), included the following: silk, bamboo, stone, wood, metal, clay, gourd, and skin. Through correlative cosmology, these categories were connected with the primary directions and seasons of the year. Court rituals were supposed to harmonize the earthly realm with the cosmos, and officials took responsibility to see that instruments were tuned...

Noguchi, Isamu

Noguchi, Isamu (1904–88)   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of American Art and Artists (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
1,718 words

...as abstract expressionism and minimalism , yet he remained independent of movements. Although best known for simplified stone carvings, often highly polished but sometimes featuring roughly textured surfaces, he experimented fruitfully with many substances, including metals, clay, and even humble materials, such as paper, string, and found objects. Although most of his independent sculpture seems to be directed primarily toward aesthetic effects, from his earliest days as a mature artist Noguchi sought to affect people’s lives through socially oriented...

A Religio-Ecological Perspective on Religion and Nature

A Religio-Ecological Perspective on Religion and Nature   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
2,054 words

...British colonizers, save for remnant pockets of horticultural-hunting villages in the interior mountains. Further changes in socio-economic structures leads to increasing distance from the earlier human patterns in these relationships. As industrial manufacturing desacralized metals, clay and wood, so the spread of industry over agriculture led to the desacralizing of Earth, plants and animals in every regard. It is to be noted that this process begins in Christian cultures that had long since limited the numinous to the male Sky and understood the female...

Containers

Containers   Reference library

Peter Ross, Linda Campbell Franklin, and Andrew F. Smith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Like any other kind of tool, equipment for the hearth is made out of various materials, which are chosen for a variety of characteristics; among these might be cost, availability, performance, desirability, and fashion. Raw materials may be divided into three categories: metals, clays, and organics (animal components and wood). Metals can be worked in three ways: casting (pouring into a mold while molten), forging (hammering solid metal while it is either hot or cold), or cutting (stock removal). Each method has its benefits and drawbacks. And different...

Cycladic

Cycladic   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
5,433 words
Illustration(s):
2

...animals were far more frequently depicted at this time. Cycladic craftsmen of the ec period also manufactured attractive shallow bowls in silver (e.g. Oxford , Ashmolean); they may have made other vessels in silver, though none survive. The recurrence of some vase shapes in metal, clay and stone emphasizes the extent to which works in one medium influenced those in another. Until the appearance of bronze and copper, stone had been used largely, though not exclusively, for tools and implements. The introduction of bronze provided a new material that could...

Painting

Painting   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
40,690 words
Illustration(s):
17

...The condition is fragmentary, but enough remains to suggest an outdoor festival similar to those shown in the miniatures of Knossos and the islands. (iv) Bull-sports . The theme of bull-leaping has a long history in the Aegean ; it appears on other media (seals, ivory, metal, clay and in miniature painting on a crystal plaque) as well as in Mycenaean painting. In Minoan painting the theme reflects an important event of ritual competition, which took place in the palatial court(s) at Knossos . Depictions of bulls and bull-sports were thus restricted to ...

Utensils

Utensils   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
230 words

...between utensils and tools (see Tools and Household Fittings ) , on the one hand, and utensils and liturgical vessels, on the other, as described in texts is sometimes conventional and reveals itself more in function than in form. Utensils were made of wood, stone, metal, clay ( ceramic ), glass, bone, skin, osier, and cloth; there was a hierarchy of materials in which gold and silver stood above bronze and iron, ebony and cedar above other kinds of wood, ivory above ordinary bone, etc. A 14th-C. historian ( Greg . 2:788.15–18) stresses the hierarchy...

Ānandalaharī

Ānandalaharī   Reference library

Alastair Dick and Jeremy Montagu

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
676 words

... has the role of percussion instrument to accompany a vast repertory of epic-religious ballads and devotional songs. Another variable-tension chordophone with a gourd body is the premtāl of Uttar Pradesh, which is also called tumbā (‘gourd’). Other types, with wood, metal, clay, or gourd resonators, are widespread in the Indian subcontinent: for types with associated (not attached) neck, see Pulluvān ku ḍam ; for those with laterally-attached neck, with or without a tuning peg (not all of which are played with variable tension), see Apang, Coṇak,...

Variable tension chordophone

Variable tension chordophone   Reference library

Alastair Dick and Jeremy Montagu

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
959 words

...can play both rhythmic and melodic music, with swooping portamento leaps within about an octave. The ānandalaharī is used especially by Baul religious mendicant singers. This type of instrument has several sub-types, widespread in the Indian subcontinent, with wood, metal, clay, or gourd resonators. These include the jhamalikā ( jamidikā ), a beggar’s instrument of Maharashtra and the Deccan, and the jamuku of Andhra, which accompanies ballad singing, particularly in the Godavari area, but with these the body is a brass tube, roughly 22.5 cm in...

Aniconism

Aniconism   Reference library

Mark K. George

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and the Arts

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Religion, Art & Architecture
Length:
7,574 words

...images and what they represent are likely to fail because they cannot seize and abolish the very object of their efforts, that is, the mental image in the mind of the viewer. The various writers of the Hebrew Bible understood the materiality of idols to include wood, precious metals, clay fashioned into terracotta figurines, and stones (both carved and unhewn). In later periods the use of such materials continued, a situation that presumably made aniconic arguments easier, since such materials for idols were explicitly prescribed by the biblical texts. The...

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