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information paradox

information paradox   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Physics (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Science and technology, Physics
Length:
89 words

...paradox A paradox in quantum gravity concerning the fate of information, such as the contents of an encyclopedia, that is dropped into a black hole which then evaporates by the Hawking process : is the information lost? Although Stephen Hawking originally argued that this is the case, such an outcome violates the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics . The issue has not yet been definitively resolved, but indications from superstring theory suggest that the information is not lost and that quantum mechanics is not violated. Hawking now...

Abraham Lincoln effect

Abraham Lincoln effect  

The tendency for a block portrait to be difficult to recognize as a meaningful image when viewed close up but to become more recognizable when viewed from a distance or when blurred by half closing ...
block portrait

block portrait  

A degraded image, usually of a face, divided into large rectangles or blocks, the lightness of each block being set to the average of the image in that region, so that a block overlaying an area of ...
Abraham Lincoln effect

Abraham Lincoln effect n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Lincoln effect n. The tendency for a block portrait to be difficult to recognize as a meaningful image when viewed close up but to become more recognizable when viewed from a distance or when blurred by half closing the eyes, for example, loss of information paradoxically increasing the recognizability of the image. See block portrait (and accompanying illustration). [Named by the US biomedical engineer Leon D(avid) Harmon ( 1922–82 ) after Abraham Lincoln ( 1809–65 ), the 16th US president, whose image he used to construct the first block...

block portrait

block portrait n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Medicine and health, Psychiatry
Length:
193 words
Illustration(s):
1

... filtered out and are impossible to recognize when viewed close up in clear detail, but they are easy to recognize when viewed from a distance or blurred by half-closing the eyes or overlaying the portrait with tissue paper or frosted glass, the resulting loss of information paradoxically increasing the recognizability of the image. The first block portrait was constructed by the US biomedical engineer Leon D(avid) Harmon ( 1922–84 ) and published in a technical report in 1971 , followed by an article in Scientific American magazine in 1973 . See...

event horizon

event horizon   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Cosmology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...unclear, but should perhaps be thought of as negative energy particles (in the sense of their negative gravitational potential energy exceeding their positive mass–energy) entering the event horizon, rather than anything leaving it. Related to this is the black hole information paradox , whereby information entering a black hole appears to be lost even though quantum mechanics insists that information is preserved. Recently, superstring theory has led to some progress in understanding this issue. The quantum creation of inflationary perturbations can...

National Security Apparatus, American

National Security Apparatus, American   Reference library

Loch K. Johnson

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
5,733 words

...months. A military rescue attempt by the Carter administration resulted in the crash of helicopters in the Iranian desert and a series of military communications snafus, all beyond the control of the White House. Further, presidents and their aides are inundated by information. Paradoxically, this overload becomes a limitation on their powers that is just as paralyzing as is the problem of insufficient information about world conditions. The early warning predicting a Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941 , for example, was lost in the “noise” of...

National Security Apparatus, American

National Security Apparatus, American   Reference library

Loch K. Johnson

The Oxford Companion to Comparative Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
5,726 words

...months. A military rescue attempt by the Carter Administration resulted in the crash of helicopters in the Iranian desert and a series of military communications snafus, all beyond the control of the White House. Further, presidents and their aides are inundated by information. Paradoxically, this overload becomes a limitation on their powers that is just as paralyzing as is the problem of insufficient information about world conditions. The early warning predicting a Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941 , for example, was lost in the “noise” of several...

paradox

paradox noun   Quick reference

New Oxford American Dictionary (3 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
195 words

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