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Rabiah al-Adawiyah

Rabiah al-Adawiyah  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
(d. 801)Female mystic of slave origin from Basra, often called the first Islamic saint. Introduced the doctrine of selfless love into Sufism. Demonstrated the importance of attitude and spiritual ...
Rabiah al-Adawiyah

Rabiah al-Adawiyah (801)   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
113 words

...Sufism. Demonstrated the importance of attitude and spiritual motivation for actions, rather than mere ritual correctness. Emphasized ascetic detachment, renunciation of the world, meditation, and love of God. Taught that people should worship God out of love, rather than the fear of hell or promise of paradise. Wrote passionate poems about the desire to be joined to God, permanently influencing the development and nature of Sufism. She symbolizes the importance of spiritual excellence over gender and serves as a historical example of female autonomy and...

Stoddard, Solomon

Stoddard, Solomon (1643–1729)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Literature (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Literature
Length:
237 words

...Answer to Some Cases of Conscience Respecting the Country ( 1722 ), he attacked contemporary foibles, immorality, wigs, lavish dress, and undue bibulousness. His belief that ministers should frighten congregations with threats of damnation is expounded in The Efficacy of the Fear of Hell To Restrain Men from Sin ( 1713 ) and A Guide to Christ ( 1714 ). His grandson, Jonathan Edwards , who followed him at Northampton, did not believe in...

hell

hell   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
362 words

...in the Apostles' Creed and the Athanasian Creed (but not the Nicene Creed); it is the subject of Article 3 of the Thirty-Nine Articles . This doctrine, which was known in English as the Harrowing of Hell, was a popular subject of both art and drama. Piero Camporesi , The Fear of Hell (1991); D. P. Walker , The Decline of Hell ...

Heaven and Hell

Heaven and Hell   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,357 words
Illustration(s):
1

...contemporary Mesoamericans who have not converted to Protestantism, afterworld beliefs are only partially coincident with Christian doctrine; what follows is a sampling of diverse beliefs. Although many people are familiar with the basic teaching that sinners will go to Hell, fear of Hell is uncommon and a this-worldly orientation prevails. The devil may be master of the underworld and carry wicked individuals off to his domain as slaves, but such abductions are more the stuff of folklore than something people dread will actually happen to them. More salient is...

Stoddard, Solomon

Stoddard, Solomon (1643–1729)   Reference library

Robert E. Brown

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Churches Explained and Proved (Boston, 1700). The Way for a People to Live Long in the Land that God hath given them (Boston, 1703). An Appeal to the Learned. Being a Vindication of the Right of Visible Saints to the Lords Supper (Boston, 1709). The Efficacy of the Fear of Hell, to Restrain Men from Sin (Boston, 1712). A Guide to Christ. Or, The Way of Directing Souls that are under the Work of Conversion (Boston, 1714). A Treatise Concerning Conversion (Boston, 1719). An Answer to Some Cases of Conscience Respecting the Country (Boston, 1722)...

Confession

Confession   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,046 words

...Many priests had adequate training in at least one language, typically Nahuatl in Central Mexico, but speakers of other tongues often had to confess in Nahuatl or through an interpreter, which was understandably inhibiting. Priests had little success over all in inculcating a fear of Hell among people who did not traditionally view the afterlife in terms of reward and punishment and who attributed some of their acts to superhuman forces. Moreover, native people did not view the human self as a battleground between immortal soul and corrupt flesh. Many felt fear...

Teresa of Ávila

Teresa of Ávila (1515–1582)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
1,155 words

...this obsession with honor and pedigree as totally incompatible with true religious life. After a secure childhood darkened by the loss of her mother at an early age, the charming and vivacious Doña Teresa decided to embrace the monastic life. Moved more by the “servile fear” of hell than by the love of God, as she later wrote in her autobiography, she entered Ávila's Carmelite convent of the Incarnation in 1535 , at the age of twenty. She remained in this house for twenty-seven years. Teresa soon found that life in the convent essentially reproduced in...

Abbot, Francis Ellingwood

Abbot, Francis Ellingwood (1836–1903)   Reference library

The Dictionary of Modern American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
3,825 words

...this world, but Free Religion seeks the following of instinctive ideals which will move humans toward individual and social perfection. The aim of Free Religion is to develop in the individual character – character for its own sake emancipated from the hope of heaven and the fear of hell. The goal of character is thoroughly secularized. Abbot was arguing that the aims of the individual and society are really one and the same. Individual character can only be attained when one lives for universal ends – for justice, truth, freedom, progress, and love. In living...

Death

Death   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
2,961 words

...and last things, which had occupied such a central place in the reconquest of souls by the two reformations (Protestant and Catholic), undergo a contraction? It would seem not. If we look at the message of the Catholic Church, an anguished focus on the themes of salvation and fear of Hell, and a desire to shorten the time spent in purgatory through masses and good works, still dominate the treatises and sermons. It is noticeable, however, that although the contents do not change, this literature subsides in quantity: a graph can be plotted for the number of...

Ideas of the Afterlife in American Religion

Ideas of the Afterlife in American Religion   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Religion in America

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Religion
Length:
11,922 words

...on changing attitudes toward death itself, psychological preparation for and reactions to it, and rituals of grieving and commemorating that accompany it. As with the literature on the afterlife in Europe, some of these books also posit a trajectory in which the declining fear of hell gives way to the hope of heaven, which was once conceived of in scriptural terms, but is increasingly voided of Christian content. Since the 1990s, scholars have begun to devote more sustained attention specifically to the afterlife in the United States. Jonathan M. Butler’s ...

Revivals, Awakenings, and Conversion in American Protestantism

Revivals, Awakenings, and Conversion in American Protestantism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Religion in America

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Religion
Length:
8,728 words

...in Northampton, Massachusetts, who claimed to have reaped five special “harvests” of converted souls over his long career (in 1679 , 1683 , 1690 , 1712 , and 1718 ). Stoddard championed the role of powerful preaching in bringing sinners to Christ, especially through the fear of hell and the hope of heaven, a recommendation that would have particular influence on his grandson, Jonathan Edwards ( 1703–1758 ), a key figure in forging the idioms and techniques of revival practice. Edwards assumed his grandfather’s pastorate in Northampton in 1729 , but it...

Isaac of Nineveh

Isaac of Nineveh   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
339 words

...readers by eliminating some of his references to suspect authors, such as Evagrios Pontikos , and replacing them with references to more official church fathers. Isaac presented the way of salvation as consisting of three stages: repentance, purification, and perfection. The fear of Hell serves as a strong stimulus in the search for righteousness. Isaac rarely thinks in terms of deification but speaks of seeing God as if in a mirror, an ancient image in Syriac religious writing. Prayer plays the major part in Isaac's ideal behavior. His works were used by some...

Rābiʿah al-ʿAdawīyah

Rābiʿah al-ʿAdawīyah   Reference library

Asma Afsaruddin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
627 words

...c. 1221) who composed a hagiography of her life, Rābiʿah was inclined to fast all day and pray through the night. Many wondrous deeds and miracles are attributed to her. Her emphasis on the selfless love of God is exemplified in the well-known tradition, “If I worship You for fear of Hell, then burn me in Hell, and if I worship You in hope of Paradise, then exclude me from therein, but if I worship You for Your own sake, then do not withhold from me Your eternal beauty.” Unlike most mystics in Islam, Rābiʿah never married and is said to have refused many offers...

Fire

Fire   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
2,580 words

...by a perpetual fire. The specter of hell-fire was vividly reinforced by burning heretics at the stake during the Christian inquisition. These public executions by fire, often employing other gruesome techniques of torture sanctified by the Church, helped condition a dread fear of hell among the common people. As a precursor to hell, the souls of sinners are believed to burn from the torment of knowing they are living apart from God. Fire as Purgatory and Apocalypse In the Western tradition, fire is also employed as an instrument of God's angry judgment and...

hedonism

hedonism   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
2,537 words

... Essay on Charity ( 1723 ) says, ‘thousands give money to beggars from the same motives as they pay their corn-cutter, to walk easy.’ Shaftesbury advocated the cultivation of virtue for its own sake, believing the introduction of any ulterior motive, like hope of heaven or fear of hell, rendered it ‘illiberal and unworthy of any honour or commendation’. Christian apologists retorted that only the prospect of eternal pains and pleasures could ensure good behaviour among the population at large. A properly regulated hedonism must find moral approval from a...

Decretum of Gratian

Decretum of Gratian   Reference library

Bruce C. Brasington

The Oxford Guide to the Historical Reception of Augustine

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
2,411 words

...text in the First Recension, a citation from ep . 93 to Vincentius) the question is whether evil people can be compelled to do good. The dictum concludes by quoting Aug. on Psalm 127 on the salutary affects produced by the fear of hell. Sometimes, Aug.'s opinion demanded a more critical reading lest the reader be misled to believe the bishop had gone against canonical tradition. C. 24, q. 1, d.p.c. 39 concerns clergy excommunicated by heretics because...

Emotions and Experience

Emotions and Experience   Reference library

Pekka Kärkkäinen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Martin Luther

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Religion
Length:
7,744 words

...advancing in more spiritual motivation. For Luther, fear of temporal punishment can only cause reliance on one’s own merits or lead to desperation and hating God. Nevertheless, Luther accredits another related kind of fear, the fear of hell. The decisive point in servile fear is that it involves temporal punishment, whereas fear of hell or final judgment is directed to eternal punishment. This aspect annuls all human effort based on self-love. Thus, for Luther the right kind of fear does not lead to a higher level of spiritual life, as it did in the medieval...

Heresy

Heresy   Reference library

Daniela MÜller

The Oxford Guide to the Historical Reception of Augustine

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
5,526 words

...underscoring of the legitimacy of ecclesiastical methods of punishment. In his pre- 1148 comment on the Decretum (ed. Thaner, 94) Rolandus Bandinelli (later Pope Alexander III) recalled that Aug. had attributed a positive, sin-repelling power to the fear of hell. According him, those who were evil had to be coerced into goodness in order that they might become so accustomed to that which in the beginning had been forced on to them that it would ultimately turn into a matter of their...

Gender Themes

Gender Themes   Reference library

Karen G. Ruffle, Kelly Pemberton, and Nazila Isgandarova

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
6,285 words

...Abū Bakr Ibrāhīm ( 1145 / 1146–1221 ce ), Farīd ud-Dīn, and ʿAttār, are well-known. The purpose of this book was to express the importance of this woman who established the Doctrine of Selfless Love, which is well expressed in her prayer: “O my Lord, if I worship Thee from fear of Hell, put me in hell, and if I worship Three in hope of Paradise, exclude me thence, but if I worship Thee for Thine own sake, then withhold not form me Thine Eternal Beauty” (Smith, 1994 , p. 50). As a mystic, Rābiʿa's major contribution to ritual prayers was her emphasis on the...

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