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Rabiah al-Adawiyah

Rabiah al-Adawiyah  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
(d. 801)Female mystic of slave origin from Basra, often called the first Islamic saint. Introduced the doctrine of selfless love into Sufism. Demonstrated the importance of attitude and spiritual ...
Rabiah al-Adawiyah

Rabiah al-Adawiyah (801)   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
113 words

...Sufism. Demonstrated the importance of attitude and spiritual motivation for actions, rather than mere ritual correctness. Emphasized ascetic detachment, renunciation of the world, meditation, and love of God. Taught that people should worship God out of love, rather than the fear of hell or promise of paradise. Wrote passionate poems about the desire to be joined to God, permanently influencing the development and nature of Sufism. She symbolizes the importance of spiritual excellence over gender and serves as a historical example of female autonomy and...

Stoddard, Solomon

Stoddard, Solomon (1643–1729)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Literature (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Literature
Length:
237 words

...Answer to Some Cases of Conscience Respecting the Country ( 1722 ), he attacked contemporary foibles, immorality, wigs, lavish dress, and undue bibulousness. His belief that ministers should frighten congregations with threats of damnation is expounded in The Efficacy of the Fear of Hell To Restrain Men from Sin ( 1713 ) and A Guide to Christ ( 1714 ). His grandson, Jonathan Edwards , who followed him at Northampton, did not believe in...

hell

hell   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
362 words

...in the Apostles' Creed and the Athanasian Creed (but not the Nicene Creed); it is the subject of Article 3 of the Thirty-Nine Articles . This doctrine, which was known in English as the Harrowing of Hell, was a popular subject of both art and drama. Piero Camporesi , The Fear of Hell (1991); D. P. Walker , The Decline of Hell ...

Heaven and Hell

Heaven and Hell   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,357 words
Illustration(s):
1

...contemporary Mesoamericans who have not converted to Protestantism, afterworld beliefs are only partially coincident with Christian doctrine; what follows is a sampling of diverse beliefs. Although many people are familiar with the basic teaching that sinners will go to Hell, fear of Hell is uncommon and a this-worldly orientation prevails. The devil may be master of the underworld and carry wicked individuals off to his domain as slaves, but such abductions are more the stuff of folklore than something people dread will actually happen to them. More salient is...

Stoddard, Solomon

Stoddard, Solomon (1643–1729)   Reference library

Robert E. Brown

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Churches Explained and Proved (Boston, 1700). The Way for a People to Live Long in the Land that God hath given them (Boston, 1703). An Appeal to the Learned. Being a Vindication of the Right of Visible Saints to the Lords Supper (Boston, 1709). The Efficacy of the Fear of Hell, to Restrain Men from Sin (Boston, 1712). A Guide to Christ. Or, The Way of Directing Souls that are under the Work of Conversion (Boston, 1714). A Treatise Concerning Conversion (Boston, 1719). An Answer to Some Cases of Conscience Respecting the Country (Boston, 1722)...

Confession

Confession   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,046 words

...Many priests had adequate training in at least one language, typically Nahuatl in Central Mexico, but speakers of other tongues often had to confess in Nahuatl or through an interpreter, which was understandably inhibiting. Priests had little success over all in inculcating a fear of Hell among people who did not traditionally view the afterlife in terms of reward and punishment and who attributed some of their acts to superhuman forces. Moreover, native people did not view the human self as a battleground between immortal soul and corrupt flesh. Many felt fear...

Teresa of Ávila

Teresa of Ávila (1515–1582)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
1,155 words

...this obsession with honor and pedigree as totally incompatible with true religious life. After a secure childhood darkened by the loss of her mother at an early age, the charming and vivacious Doña Teresa decided to embrace the monastic life. Moved more by the “servile fear” of hell than by the love of God, as she later wrote in her autobiography, she entered Ávila's Carmelite convent of the Incarnation in 1535 , at the age of twenty. She remained in this house for twenty-seven years. Teresa soon found that life in the convent essentially reproduced in...

Death

Death   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
2,961 words

...and last things, which had occupied such a central place in the reconquest of souls by the two reformations (Protestant and Catholic), undergo a contraction? It would seem not. If we look at the message of the Catholic Church, an anguished focus on the themes of salvation and fear of Hell, and a desire to shorten the time spent in purgatory through masses and good works, still dominate the treatises and sermons. It is noticeable, however, that although the contents do not change, this literature subsides in quantity: a graph can be plotted for the number of...

Abbot, Francis Ellingwood

Abbot, Francis Ellingwood (1836–1903)   Reference library

The Dictionary of Modern American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
3,825 words

...this world, but Free Religion seeks the following of instinctive ideals which will move humans toward individual and social perfection. The aim of Free Religion is to develop in the individual character – character for its own sake emancipated from the hope of heaven and the fear of hell. The goal of character is thoroughly secularized. Abbot was arguing that the aims of the individual and society are really one and the same. Individual character can only be attained when one lives for universal ends – for justice, truth, freedom, progress, and love. In living...

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