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Normans In Italy

Normans In Italy   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,088 words

...Anglo-Norman kingdom in the late 11th and early 12th centuries. Both were accompanied by the introduction of feudal institutions. Animated by the same spirit of conquest – also shown in the Spanish Reconquest , with Roger of Tosny at Barcelona ( 1068 ) –, in 1035 William of Hauteville , called Bras de fer , began with his brothers the military conquest of Apulia and Calabria. What caused the Norman descent into Italy? Historians list various causes, some of them contingent, like the intestine struggles of the duchy of Benevento from the 9th c., with...

Romanesque art and architecture

Romanesque art and architecture   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Christian Art & Architecture (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
11,081 words

...century as pilgrims to the shrine of S. Michael Archangel on Monte Gargano (a shrine in a cave founded in the 490s), and many remained as mercenaries. They soon realized that the land was an ‘empty quarter’, and they set about conquering it. By the end of the 11th century William of Hauteville took the title of Count of Apulia. In 1054 Pope Leo IX was defeated by the Norman Robert Guiscard, who made himself Duke of Apulia and Calabria and in 1059 a later pope invested him with the fief, and promised him the Kingdom of Sicily ‘if he could expel the Saracens’. He...

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