(b Zhitomir, 11 Apr. 1865; d Leningrad, 6 Jul. 1926)
Russian dance critic, art historian, and ballet school director. One of the most influential ballet critics in St Petersburg in his day and an outspoken critic of Fokine, whom he blamed for leading ballet away from its true course. Author of Problems of Russian Ballet (1923) and The Book of Exultation: A Primer in the Classical Dance (1926). He founded the private Russian Choreographic School, where Vaganova had her first teaching job.