French and Indian War
Anglo-French conflicts in North America, part of the international rivalry between the two nations, in which many Native Americans became embroiled. They consisted of King William's War (1689–97), Queen Anne's War (1703–13), King George's War (1744–48), and the French and Indian War (1755–63), the American part of the Seven Years War. As a result of an alliance with Prussia, Pitt was able to devote more British resources to America. In 1755 the British commander, General Braddock, led forces into Ohio but was defeated at Fort Duquesne. Other forces defeated the French at the Battle of Lake George, but no advantage was taken. The French claimed a number of victories in 1756 and 1757 against the British, already weakened by friction between the new commander, Lord Loudoun, and the states of Massachusetts and Virginia. In 1759, however, Wolfe defeated the French at the Battle of the Plains of Abraham. Quebec surrendered shortly thereafter, followed by Montreal one year later, all Canada then passing into British hands. By the Treaty of Paris (1763) Britain gained Canada and Louisiana east of the Mississippi.