(100 bc — 144 ad) politician, author, and military commander
Roman general and statesman. He established the First Triumvirate with Pompey and Crassus (60), and became consul in 59, obtaining command of the provinces of Illyricum, Cisalpine Gaul, and Transalpine Gaul. Between 58 and 51 he fought the Gallic Wars, subjugating Transalpine Gaul and defeating Vercingetorix, invading Britain (55–54), and acquiring immense power.
Resentment at this on the part of Pompey and other powerful Romans led to civil war; in 49 bc Caesar crossed the Rubicon into Italy, and next year Pompey was defeated at Pharsalia in Thessaly.
Julius Caesar was made dictator of the Roman Empire and initiated a series of reforms, including the introduction of the Julian calendar; in Egypt he had a brief liaison with Cleopatra. Hostility to Caesar's autocracy culminated in his murder on the Ides (15th) of March in a conspiracy led by Brutus and Cassius.