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Abbreviations and symbols

Source:
A Dictionary of Psychology

Appendix II: Abbreviations and symbols

In this appendix, for convenience, Greek letters and numerals precede roman letters. Terms that are more commonly used in their abbreviated forms, such as IQ, RNA, and PET scan, are cross-referenced to the full entries.

κ effect

See kappa effect.

μ

See mu wave.

τ effect

See Kendall's tau, tau effect.

2D:4D

See digit ratio.

5-HT

5-hydroxytryptamine. See serotonin.

16PF

Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire. See 16pf.

A-A

See axoaxonic.

AAS

Anabolic androgenic steroid. See anabolic steroid.

ABC

Activating event, beliefs, consequences; or antecedent, behaviour, consequence. See abc.

ABH

Actual bodily harm. See gbh (1).

Ac

Achievement via conformance. See California Psychological Inventory.

ACT*

See act*.

A-D

See axodendritic.

ADAM

Androgen decline in the ageing male. US androgen decline in the aging male. See irritable male syndrome.

ADC

AIDS dementia complex. See HIV dementia.

ADD

Attention-deficit disorder. See attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

ADH

Antidiuretic hormone. See vasopressin.

ADP

Adenosine diphosphate. See adp.

AER

Average evoked response. See average evoked potential.

AHA

Anger, hostility, and aggression. See Type A.

Ai

Achievement via independence. See California Psychological Inventory.

AIDS

Acquired immune (or immuno-) deficiency syndrome. See aids.

AKI

Autokinetic illusion. See autokinetic effect.

AMP

Adenosine monophosphate. See AMP.

AMS

Ageing male syndrome. US aging male syndrome. See irritable male syndrome.

ANN

Artificial neural network. See neural network.

APA

American Psychiatric Association, American Psychological Association.

ARIMA

Autoregressive integrated moving average. See arima.

A-S

Anti-Semitism, ascendance–submissiveness, axosomatic. See A–S Reaction Study, A–S scale, axosomatic.

A/S

Association/sensation. See A/S ratio.

ATP

Adenosine triphosphate. See atp.

ATPase

Adenosine triphosphatase, See ATPase.

BAL

Blood alcohol level. See blood alcohol concentration.

BAP

Beta-amyloid protein. See amyloid plaque.

BASIC-ID

Behaviours, affective processes, sensations, images, cognitions, and interpersonal relationships springing from drugs. or biological factors. See basic-id.

BDSM

Bondage, domination, sadism, and masochism. See bondage (2), sexual sadism, sexual masochism.

BIP

See bip.

BMDP

Bio-Medical Data Package. See bmdp.

BOLD

Blood-oxygen-level-dependent. See mri.

BOSS

Basic Orthographic Syllabic Structure. See boss.

BP

Bereitschaftspotential. See readiness potential.

BPS

British Psychological Society.

BSE

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy. See bse.

BSRF

Brainstem reticular formation. See reticular formation.

BZ

Benzilic acid. See BZ gas.

Ca

See calcium.

CAGE

Cut, annoyed, guilty, eye-opener. See cage.

Cal.

See Calorie.

cal.

See calorie.

cAMP

See cyclic AMP.

CAT

See Children's Apperception Test. Also computed (or computerized, or computer-aided, or computer-assisted) axial tomography: see CT scan.

C–B

Cost–benefit. See cost–benefit analysis.

CBT

Cognitive behaviour therapy. See cognitive behaviour modification.

CCC

Consonant–consonant–consonant. See CCC trigram.

CCHS

Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome. See central hypoventilation syndrome.

cd

See candela.

CDSR

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. See Cochrane review.

cGMP

Cyclic guanosine monophosphate. See cyclic GMP.

CIE

Commission Internationale de l'Éclairage. See CIE colour system.

CIND

Cognitive impairment no dementia. See mild cognitive impairment.

CN

Chloroacetophenone. See CN gas.

CNN

Connectionist neural network. See connectionism, neural network.

Co

Comparison stimulus. See variable stimulus.

CREB

Cyclic AMP response element binding protein. See creb.

CRF

Corticotrophin-releasing factor. See corticotrophin-releasing hormone.

Cs

See consciousness. Also capacity for status: see California Psychological Inventory.

CSI effect

See CSI effect.

CT

Computed (or computerized) tomography. See CT scan.

CV

Consonant–vowel. See CV digram.

CVA

Cerebrovascular accident. See stroke.

CVC

Consonant–vowel–consonant. See cvc, and CVC trigram.

D

See Cook’s D, drive strength, Somers' D. Also depression: see mmpi; desynchronized: see REM sleep.

d

See Cohen's d.

d

Detectability or discriminability. See d prime.

D2:D4

Digit 2:Digit 4. See digit ratio.

DAN

Dorsal attention network. See task-positive network.

DAT

See Differential Aptitude Tests. Also dementia of the Alzheimer type: see Alzheimer's disease.

dB

See decibel.

dB SPL

Decibel sound pressure level. See decibel.

DF

DeFries and Fulker. See DF extremes analysis.

DHEA

Dehydroepiandrosterone. See dhea.

DIMS

Disorders of initiating and maintaining sleep. See dyssomnias.

DL

Difference limen. See difference threshold.

DMT

Dimethyltryptamine. See dmt.

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid. See dna.

DOES

Disorder of excessive somnolence. See primary hypersomnia.

DOM

Dimethoxy-methylamphetamine. See stp.

DSM

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. See dsm.

DZP

See diazepam.

ECS

Electroconvulsive shock. See electroconvulsive therapy.

ED

See effective dosage: ED-1 is the dosage that produces a specified effect in 1 per cent of the population, ED-2 is the dosage that produces a specified effect in 2 per cent of the population, and so on. Also erectile dysfunction or erectile disorder: see erectile disorder, impotence (2).

ED-50

Effective dosage 50. Also written ED50. See median effective dosage.

EDR

Electrodermal response. See galvanic skin response.

EEG

Electroencephalogram. See eeg.

EST

Electric shock therapy. See electroconvulsive therapy.

est

Erhard Seminars Training. See est.

F

Potentiality for fascism. See F scale.

F

See Bartlett–Box F test, F statistic. Also validity: see mmpi.

F1

First filial generation. See filial generation.

fan

Facts associated with node. See fan effect.

FAST

See fast.

FCT

Facilitated communication training. See facilitated communication.

FEF

Frontal eye field. See motor cortex.

fff

Flicker fusion frequency. See critical flicker frequency.

FFM

Five-factor model. See Big Five.

FG

Fast glycolytic. See fast glycolytic fibre.

FI

Fixed-interval. See fixed-interval schedule.

FIRO–B

Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation–Behavior. See firo–b.

F max

See Hartley's F max.

fMRI

Functional magnetic resonance imaging. See mri.

FOG

Fast oxidative glycolytic. See fast oxidative glycolytic fibre.

FR

Fixed-ratio. See fixed-ratio schedule.

FTC

Frequency threshold curve or frequency tuning curve. See tuning curve.

ft-L

See foot-lambert.

FXT

See fluoxetine.

G

See guanine. Also Gräfenberg: see G spot.

g

General ability or intelligence. See g.

GABA

Gamma-aminobutyric acid. See gaba.

GBH

Grievous bodily harm. See gbh.

GHB

Gamma-hydroxybutyrate. See ghb.

Gi

Good impression. See California Psychological Inventory.

GIGO

Garbage in, garbage out (computer slang).

Gly

See glycine.

GMP

Guanosine monophosphate. See cyclic GMP.

GTS

Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome. See Tourette's disorder.

H

See heroin.

HEXACO

See hexaco.

HIV

Human immunodeficiency virus. See hiv.

HOUND

Humble, old, unattractive, non- verbal, dumb. See hound.

HPA axis

Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. See HPA axis.

HRSD

Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. See Hamilton Depression Rating Scale.

HRI

High rising intonation. See uptalk.

HRT

High rising terminal. See uptalk.

Hs

Hypochondriasis. See mmpi.

HSD

Honestly significant difference. See Tukey-HSD test.

Hy

Hysteria. See mmpi.

Hz

See hertz.

I

See luminous intensity. Also Induction (intelligence factor): See primary mental abilities.

IAPS

See iaps.

Ia

See Ia fibre.

Ib

See Ib fibre.

ICD

International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. See icd.

ICSH

Interstitial-cell-stimulating hormone. See luteinizing hormone.

ICSI

Intracytoplasmic sperm injection. See icsi.

Ie

Intellectual efficiency. See California Psychological Inventory.

IgA, IgG, IgM

See immunoglobulin.

II

See II fibre.

INDSCAL

Individual differences scaling. See indscal.

IPIP

International personality item pool. See ipip.

IQ

Intelligence quotient. See iq.

IR

See infra-red.

ISPOCD

International Study of Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction. See post-operative cognitive dysfunction.

ITC

Inferior temporal cortex. See inferior temporal gyrus.

jnd

Just noticeable difference. See difference threshold.

K

See kappa statistic, potassium. Also Correction factor: see MMPI.

kcal

Kilocalorie. See Calorie.

KPR–V

Kuder Preference Record–Vocational. See Kuder Preference Record.

K–R 20

Kuder–Richardson 20 formula. See Kuder–Richardson coefficient.

K–R 21

Kuder–Richardson 21 formula. See Kuder–Richardson coefficient.

L

See luminance. Also Lie scale: see mmpi.

LAS

Language acquisition system. See language acquisition device.

LD-50

Lethal dosage 50. Also written LD50. See median lethal dosage.

L-dopa

Laevo-dihydroxyphenylalanine. See L-dopa.

LGB

See lesbian, gay, bisexual.

lm

See lumen.

LSD

Lysergic acid diethylamide. See lsd.

LTH

Luteotrop(h)ic hormone. See prolactin.

lvf

Left visual field. See visual field.

M

Magnocellular, mean, memory (intelligence factor). See magnocellular system, M cell, mean, primary mental abilities.

MA

See mental age.

Ma

Hypomania. See mmpi.

MBD

Minimal brain dysfunction. See attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

MBPS

Munchausen by proxy syndrome. See factitious disorder imposed on another.

MDA

Methyl-dioxy amphetamine. See mda.

MDMA

3,4-methylene-dioxy-methamphetamine. See MDMA.

MED-50

Median effective dosage, 50 per cent. See med-50.

MEM 1414

Memory 1414. See mem 1414.

Mf

Masculinity–femininity. See MMPI.

MHPG

3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethylene glycol. See MHPG.

MID

Multi-infarct dementia. See vascular dementia.

MMPI

See MMPI.

MPB

See meprobamate.

MPD

Multiple personality disorder. See dissociative identity disorder.

MPP+

Methylphenylpyridine. See mpp+.

MPPP

1-Methyl-4-phenyl-4-propionoxy-piperidine. See MPPP.

MPTP

1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. See MPTP.

MRH

Müllerian regression hormone. See Müllierian inhibiting substance.

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging. See MRI.

mRNA

See messenger RNA.

MRS

Modern Racism Scale. See modern racism.

MT

See massage therapy. Also, median or middle temporal. See MT.

MTF

Modulation transfer function. See contrast sensitivity function.

MUD

Multi-user dungeon, or multi-user dimension. See MUD.

N

Often used to represent the total number of scores in a data set or total number of research participants or subjects in an experiment or investigation. Compare n. Also Number (intelligence factor): see primary mental abilities.

n

Often used for the number in a subsample. Compare N.

N140

Negative deflection, 140 milliseconds. See n140.

N400

Negative deflection, 400 milliseconds. See n400.

Na

See sodium.

N Ach

See need for achievement. Also written nAch.

N Aff

See need for affiliation. Also written nAff.

Na+-K+

Sodium–potassium. See sodium pump.

NANC

Non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic. See nanc.

NE

Norepinephrine. See noradrenalin.

NEO

Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to experience. See NEO.

NEO-FFI

Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to experience Five-Factor Inventory. See NEO.

NEO-PI-R

Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to experience Personality Inventory- Revised. See NEO.

NHST

Null hypothesis significance testing. See null hypothesis, significance, significance test.

nm

See nanometre.

NREM

Non-rapid-eye-movement. See NREM sleep.

NUD*IST

Non-numerical unstructured data indexing. See NUD*IST.

nvCJD

New-variant CJD. See Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease.

OBS

Organic brain syndrome. See organic disorders.

OC

Oleoresin capsicum. See pepper spray.

OHS

Obesity hypoventilation syndrome. See Pickwickian syndrome.

OTC

Over-the-counter, in contradistinction to prescription drugs.

P

Parvocellular, perceptual speed (intelligence factor). See P cell, and primary mental abilities.

p

Probability. See p value.

P50

Positive deflection, 50 milliseconds. See p50.

P200

Positive deflection, 200 milliseconds. See p200.

P300

Positive deflection, 300 milliseconds. See p300.

P600

Positive deflection, 600 milliseconds. See p600.

Pa

Paranoia. See MMPI.

PAM

Precategorical acoustic memory. See precategorical acoustic store.

PC

See politically correct. Also an abbreviation of personal computer.

PCL

Psychopathy checklist. See Psychopathy Checklist–Revised.

p-CPA

See parachlorophenylalanine. Also written PCPA.

Pcs

See preconscious.

pcs

See preconscious.

Pd

Psychopathic deviate. See MMPI.

PDP-CNN

Parallel distributed processing connectionist neural network. See parallel distributed processing, connectionism, neural network.

PEC

Political and economic conservatism. See PEC scale.

PET scan

Positron emission tomography scan. See PET scan.

PG

See Prostaglandin. Different prostaglandins are given names such as PGA, PGB, PGFα, and so on.

PGHS

Prostaglandin H2 synthase. See prostaglandin.

PGO

Pontogeniculo-occipital. See PGO spike.

PGR

Psychogalvanic response. See galvanic skin response.

pH

Potential of hydrogen. See pH.

PMC

Premotor cortex. See motor cortex.

PMDD

Premenstrual dysphoric disorder. See premenstrual syndrome.

PMT

See Porteus Maze Test. Also premenstrual tension: see premenstrual syndrome.

PNMT

Phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase. See PNMT.

POMC

Pro-opiomelanocortin. See POMC.

PONS

Profile of non-verbal sensitivity. See PONS.

PPVT-R

Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised. See Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test.

PrL

See prolactin.

PRP

Psychological refractory period. See refractory period (3).

PrP

Prion protein. See PrP.

PS

Paradoxical sleep. See REM sleep.

PSL

Psicología social de la liberación. See liberation psychology.

Pt

Psychasthenia. See MMPI.

PTC

Phenylthiocarbamide. See PTC.

Py

Psychological-mindedness. See California Psychological Inventory.

QS

Quiet sleep. See NREM sleep.

R

See Reiz, response, R-methodology. Also reasoning (intelligence factor): See primary mental abilities.

RAS

Reticular activating system. See ascending reticular activating system.

RC

Re-evaluation counselling. See co-counselling.

Re

Responsibility. See California Psychological Inventory.

Rep

See reproducibility. Also Repertory: See Repertory Grid Test.

RER

Rough endoplasmic reticulum. See endoplasmic reticulum.

RL

Reiz limen. See absolute threshold.

RNA

Ribonucleic acid. See RNA.

rvf

Right visual field. See visual field.

S

See stimulus, standard stimulus. Also Spatial ability (intelligence factor): see primary mental abilities; synchronized: see NREM sleep.

Sa

Self-acceptance. See California Psychological Inventory.

SaH

See subarachnoid haemorrhage. Also written SAH.

SAS

Statistical Analysis System. See SAS.

Sc

Schizophrenia. See MMPI. Also self-control: see California Psychological Inventory.

SCAN

Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry. See SCAN.

SDAT

Senile dementia of the Alzheimer type. See senile dementia and sdat.

SDS

Self-Directed Search. See Holland codes.

SEN

Special educational needs. See learning disability.

SER

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum. See endoplasmic reticulum.

Si

Social introversion. See MMPI.

SiR

Aggregate inhibitory potential. See Hullian learning theory.

SIS

Sensory information store. See sensory register.

SMA

Supplementary motor area. See motor cortex.

snRNP

Small nuclear ribonucleoprotein. See snurp.

SNST

Stroop Neuropsychological Screening Test. See Stroop effect.

SO

Slow oxidative. See slow-twitch fibre.

SOD

Sexual orientation disturbance. See ego-dystonic sexual orientation.

SOI

Structure of intellect. See Guilford's cube.

Sp

Social presence. See California Psychological Inventory.

SPECT

Single photon emission computed tomography. See SPECT scan.

SPET

Single photon emission tomography. See SPECT scan.

SPSS

Statistical Product and Service Solutions, or (formerly) Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. See SPSS.

SQUID

Superconducting quantum interference device. See SQUID.

SRO

Steele–Richardson–Olszewski syndrome. See progressive supranuclear palsy.

SSS

Sensation Seeking Scale. See sensation seeking.

STX

See saxitoxin.

SUD

Subjective Units of Distress. See eye-movement desensitization and reprocessing.

SWOT

Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats. See SWOT analysis.

SYSTAT

System for Statistics. See SYSTAT.

T

See thymine, T-maze. Also true: see T score; thymus: see T lymphocyte; training: see T-group.

TAT

Thematic Apperception Test. See TAT.

TATA

Thymine adenine thymine adenine. See TATA box.

TD-50

Toxic dosage 50. Also written TD50. See median toxic dosage.

TH

See tyrosine hydroxylase. Also thyrotrophic hormone: see thyroid-stimulating hormone.

TNN

Task-negative network. See default mode network.

TOT

Tip of the tongue. See tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon.

TOTE

Test–Operate–Test–Exit. See TOTE.

tRNA

See transfer RNA.

Trp

See tryptophan.

TS

Tourette's syndrome. See Tourette's disorder.

TTX

See tetrodotoxin.

Tyr

See tyrosine.

UPGMA

Unweighted pair-group method of analysis. See upgma.

V

See Cramér's V, stimulus intensity dynamism, variable stimulus. Also Verbal comprehension (intelligence factor): see primary mental abilities.

V1

Visual area 1, the primary visual cortex. Also V2, V3, V3A, V4, V5, V6, V7, V8. See visual cortex.

vCJD

Variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease. See Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease.

VI

Variable interval. See variable-interval schedule.

VNTR

Variable number of tandem repeats. See repetitive DNA and vntr.

VX

Methylphosphonothioic acid. See VX.

WAIS

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. See Wechsler scales.

WASI

Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence. See Wechsler scales.

WB

Wechsler–Bellevue. See Wechsler scales.

Wb

Sense of well-being. See California Psychological Inventory.

WISC

Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. See Wechsler scales.

WPPSI

Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence. See Wechsler scales.

X

See X chromosome. Also parvocellular system cell: see parvocellular system.

XTC

See ecstasy (2).

XYZ

Euclidian coordinates. See CIE colour system.

YAVIS

Young, attractive, verbal, intelligent, successful. See YAVIS.

YRMODA

Year, month, day. See YRMODA.