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date: 22 July 2018

The planets: orbital and physical data

Source:
A Dictionary of Astronomy

Table 9. The planets: orbital and physical data

Mercury

Venus

Earth

Mars

Jupiter

Saturn

Uranus

Neptune

Mean distance from Sun (AU)a

0.387

0.723

1.000

1.524

5.203

9.537

19.189

30.069

Min. distance from Sun (AU)a

0.307

0.718

0.983

1.381

4.952

9.021

18.286

29.811

Max. distance from Sun (AU)a

0.467

0.728

1.017

1.666

5.455

10.054

20.096

30.327

Eccentricitya

0.206

0.007

0.017

0.093

0.048

0.054

0.047

0.009

Inclination to ecliptic (°)a

7.00

3.39

0.00

1.85

1.31

2.48

0.8

1.77

Sidereal period

87.969d

224.701d

365.256d

686.980d

11.863y

29.447y

84.02y

164.79y

Mean synodic period (d)

115.88

583.92

--

779.94

398.88

378.09

369.66

367.49

Axial rotation (sidereal)b

58.646d

243.019d

23.934h

24.623h

9.842h

10.233h

17.240h

16.110h

Inclination of equator to orbit (°)

0.01

177.36

23.44

25.19

3.13

26.73

97.77

28.32

Equatorial diameter (km)c

4879

12 104

12 756

6792

142 984

120 536

51 118

49 528

Oblateness

0

0

0.0034

0.0059

0.065

0.098

0.023

0.017

Mass (Earth = 1)

0.06

0.82

1.00

0.11

317.83

95.16

14.5

17.15

Volume (Earth = 1)

0.06

0.86

1.00

0.15

1321

764

63

58

Mean density

5.43

5.24

5.52

3.94

1.33

0.69

1.27

1.64

Geometrical albedo

0.11

0.65

0.37

0.15

0.52

0.47

0.51

0.41

Mean visual magnituded

0.0

−4.4

---

2.0

−2.7

+0.7e

+5.5

+7.8

a Keplerian elements for epoch 2000.0.

b Venus and Uranus are retrograde. The rotation period for Jupiter is at its equator (System I). The rotation periods for Uranus and Neptune are those of their magnetic fields.

c At the 1-bar level in the atmosphere for Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.

d Greatest elongation for Mercury and Venus, mean opposition distance for Mars to Neptune.

e With rings closed; −0.3 with rings open.