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Indicator tables

Source:
A Guide to Countries of the World

Indicator tables

Notes on indicator tables

These tables summarize economic and social data produced by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Full tables are available in the annual UNDP Human Development Report. An entry of ‘..’ indicates that data are unavailable or inappropriate for that country.

Table 1. Income and poverty

GDP $PPP—Gross domestic product per capita at purchasing power parity (PPP). For an explanation of GDP and PPP see pages ix–x. While this gives some indication of the relative wealth of countries, it does not take into account the distribution of income: many Indians, for example, earn more than many Americans. Nor does it necessarily offer guidance to quality of life: people in Cuba, for example, may have a low income but good health services. Dissatisfaction with GDP as an indicator led to the creation of the UNDP human development index.

HDI ranking—This is the human development index ranking, based on a composite of indicators for income, health, and educational attainment. In 2009, the ranking included 182 countries. This list is not exhaustive because it excludes non-UN member countries, such as dependencies, and also those countries for which there were insufficient data. Although this ranking was produced in 2009 it is based on data for earlier years.

Poverty—The proportion of people living on less than the international poverty line of less than $1.25 per day. These data are largely for developing countries. In industrialized countries the poverty line is usually set relative to average incomes, so is not comparable. See the note on poverty on page x. The data are for the latest available years.

GDP annual growth—For an explanation of GDP, see page ix. The average growth rate over the period is calculated from total GDP expressed in the national currency.

Distribution of income—The ratio of proportion of national income going to the highest and to the lowest 10% of income earners. Note that this refers to income; not to wealth or total assets. Contrasts in wealth can be much more marked, but more difficult to measure. The data are for the latest available years.

Gini-index—This is another measure of income distribution. It takes a value between 0 (absolute equality) and 100 (one person owns everything). Data are for the latest available years. The figure tends to be higher in developing countries, though there can be significant differences even between these countries: those in Latin America, for example, tend to be more unequal than those in Asia.

Inflation—The average percentage change in the consumer price index. It should be noted, however, that different groups in the same country can experience different inflation rates. The poor are particularly sensitive to the price of food.

Table 1. Indicators for income and poverty

GDP $PPP

HDI ranking

Poverty

GDP annual

Income distribution

Gini-index

Inflation

per capita

out of 182

% < $1.25

growth, %

Ratio of richest 10%

%

2006

2007

2000–2007

1990–2007

to poorest 10%

2006–2007

Afghanistan

1,054

181

..

..

..

..

17.0

Albania

7,041

70

<2

5.2

8.0

33.0

2.9

Algeria

7,740

104

6.8

1.4

9.6

35.3

3.5

Andorra

41,235

28

..

..

..

..

..

Angola

5,385

143

54.3

2.9

74.6

58.6

12.2

Antigua and Barbuda

18,691

47

..

1.8

..

..

..

Argentina

13,238

49

4.5

1.5

31.6

50.0

8.8

Armenia

5,693

84

10.6

5.8

7.9

33.8

4.4

Australia

34,923

2

..

2.4

12.5

35.2

2.3

Austria

37,370

14

..

1.8

6.9

29.1

2.2

Azerbaijan

7,851

86

<2

2.9

2.9

36.5

16.7

Bahamas

20,253

52

..

..

..

..

2.5

Bahrain

29,723

39

..

2.4

..

..

−5.5

Bangladesh

1,241

146

49.6

3.1

6.2

31.0

9.1

Barbados

17,956

37

..

..

..

..

4.0

Belarus

10,841

68

<2

3.4

6.1

27.9

8.4

Belgium

34,935

17

..

1.8

8.2

33.0

1.8

Belize

6,734

93

..

2.3

..

..

2.3

Benin

1,312

161

47.3

1.3

10.8

38.6

1.3

Bhutan

4,837

132

26.2

5.2

16.3

46.8

5.2

Bolivia

4,206

113

19.6

1.3

93.9

58.2

8.7

Bosnia and Herzegovina

7,764

76

<2

11.2

9.9

35.8

..

Botswana

13,604

125

31.2

4.3

40.0

61.0

7.1

Brazil

9,567

75

5.2

1.2

40.6

55.0

3.6

Brunei Darussalam

50,200

30

..

−0.3

..

..

0.1

Bulgaria

11,222

61

<2

2.3

6.9

29.2

8.4

Burkina Faso

1,124

177

56.5

2.5

10.8

39.6

−0.2

Burma (Myanmar)

904

138

..

6.8

..

..

35.0

Burundi

341

174

81.3

−2.7

6.8

33.3

8.3

Cambodia

1,802

137

40.2

6.2

11.5

40.7

5.9

Cameroon

2,128

153

32.8

0.6

15.0

44.6

0.9

Canada

35,812

4

..

2.2

9.4

32.6

2.1

Cape Verde

3,041

121

20.6

3.3

21.6

50.5

4.4

Central African Republic

713

179

62.4

−0.8

15.7

43.6

..

Chad

1,477

175

61.9

2.4

11.8

39.8

−9.0

Chile

13,880

44

<2

3.7

26.2

52.0

4.4

China

5,383

92

15.9

8.9

13.2

41.5

4.8

Colombia

8,587

77

16.0

1.2

60.4

58.5

5.4

Comoros

1,143

139

46.1

−0.4

60.6

64.3

..

Congo

3,511

136

54.1

−0.2

17.8

47.3

2.7

Congo Dem. Rep.

298

176

59.2

−4.3

15.1

44.4

16.9

Costa Rica

10,842

54

2.4

2.6

23.4

47.2

9.4

Côte d'Ivoire

1,690

163

23.3

−0.7

20.2

48.4

1.9

Croatia

16,027

45

<2

3.0

6.4

29.0

2.9

Cuba

6,876

51

..

..

..

..

..

Cyprus

24,789

32

..

2.5

..

..

2.4

Czech Republic

24,144

36

<2

2.4

5.3

25.8

2.9

Denmark

36,130

16

..

1.9

8.1

24.7

1.7

Djibouti

2,061

155

18.8

−2.1

12.8

40.0

..

Dominica

7,893

73

..

1.4

..

..

3.1

Dominican Republic

6,706

90

5.0

3.8

25.3

50.0

6.1

Ecuador

7,449

80

4.7

1.2

35.2

54.4

2.3

Egypt

5,349

123

<2

2.5

7.2

32.1

9.3

El Salvador

5,804

106

11.0

1.8

38.6

49.7

4.6

Equatorial Guinea

30,627

118

..

21.1

..

..

..

Eritrea

626

165

..

−0.7

..

..

..

Estonia

20,361

40

<2

5.3

10.4

36.0

6.6

Ethiopia

779

171

39.0

1.9

6.3

29.8

17.2

Fiji

4,304

108

..

1.6

..

..

4.8

Finland

34,526

12

..

2.8

5.6

26.9

2.5

France

33,674

8

..

1.6

9.1

32.7

1.5

Gabon

15,167

103

4.8

−0.7

13.3

41.5

5.0

Gambia

1,225

168

34.3

0.3

18.9

47.3

2.1

Georgia

4,662

89

13.4

1.8

15.9

40.8

9.2

Germany

34,401

22

..

1.4

6.9

28.3

2.1

Ghana

1,334

152

30.0

2.1

16.1

42.8

10.7

Greece

28,517

25

..

2.7

10.2

34.3

2.9

Grenada

7,344

74

..

2.4

..

..

4.2

Guatemala

4,562

122

11.7

1.4

33.9

53.7

6.5

Guinea

1,140

170

70.1

1.3

14.4

43.3

..

Guinea-Bissau

477

173

48.8

−2.6

9.5

35.5

4.6

Guyana

2,782

114

7.7

2.9

25.5

44.6

12.3

Haiti

1,155

149

54.9

−2.1

54.4

59.5

8.5

Honduras

3,796

112

18.2

1.5

59.4

55.3

6.9

Hungary

18,755

43

<2

3.3

6.8

30.0

7.9

Iceland

35,742

3

..

2.5

..

..

5.1

India

2,753

134

41.6

4.5

8.6

36.8

6.4

Indonesia

3,712

111

..

2.3

10.8

39.4

6.4

Iran

10,955

88

<2

2.5

11.6

38.3

17.2

Ireland

44,613

5

..

5.8

9.4

34.3

4.9

Israel

26,315

27

..

1.7

13.4

39.2

0.5

Italy

30,353

18

..

1.2

11.6

36.0

1.8

Jamaica

6,079

100

<2

0.6

17.0

45.5

9.3

Japan

33,632

10

..

1.0

4.5

24.9

0.1

Jordan

4,901

96

<2

2.0

10.2

37.7

5.4

Kazakhstan

10,863

82

3.1

3.2

8.5

33.9

10.8

Kenya

1,542

147

19.7

0.0

21.3

47.7

9.8

Korea, South

24,801

26

<2

4.5

7.8

31.6

2.5

Kuwait

47,812

31

..

1.8

..

..

5.5

Kyrgyzstan

2,006

120

21.8

−0.4

7.3

32.9

10.2

Laos

2,165

133

44.0

4.2

7.3

32.6

4.5

Latvia

16,377

48

<2

4.7

10.3

35.7

10.1

Lebanon

10,109

83

..

2.4

..

..

..

Lesotho

1,541

156

43.4

2.4

39.8

52.5

8.0

Liberia

362

169

83.7

1.9

12.8

52.6

..

Libya

14,364

55

..

..

..

..

3.4

Liechtenstein

85,382

19

..

..

..

..

..

Lithuania

17,575

46

<2

3.0

10.3

35.8

5.7

Luxembourg

79,485

11

..

3.3

6.8

30.8

2.3

Macedonia

9,096

72

<2

0.4

12.4

39.0

3.5

Madagascar

932

145

67.8

−0.4

15.9

47.2

10.3

Malawi

761

160

73.9

0.4

10.5

39.0

8.0

Malaysia

13,518

66

<2

3.4

11.0

37.9

2.0

Maldives

5,196

95

..

5.1

..

..

7.4

Mali

1,083

178

51.4

2.2

11.2

39.0

1.4

Malta

23,080

38

..

2.6

..

..

1.3

Mauritania

1,927

154

21.2

0.6

11.6

39.0

7.3

Mauritius

11,296

81

..

3.7

..

..

8.8

Mexico

14,104

53

<2

1.6

21.0

48.1

4.0

Moldova

2,551

117

8.1

−1.3

9.4

35.6

12.4

Mongolia

3,236

115

22.4

2.2

8.6

33.0

9.0

Montenegro

11,699

65

..

3.8

..

..

..

Morocco

4,108

130

2.5

2.0

12.5

40.9

2.0

Mozambique

802

172

74.7

4.2

18.5

47.1

8.2

Namibia

5,155

128

49.1

1.8

106.6

74.3

6.7

Nepal

1,049

144

55.1

1.9

14.8

47.3

6.1

Netherlands

38,694

6

..

2.1

9.2

30.9

1.6

New Zealand

27,336

20

..

2.1

12.5

36.2

2.4

Nicaragua

2,570

124

15.8

1.9

31.0

52.3

11.1

Niger

627

182

65.9

−0.6

15.3

43.9

0.1

Nigeria

1,969

158

64.4

1.1

16.3

42.9

5.4

Norway

53,433

1

..

2.6

6.1

25.8

0.7

Oman

22,816

56

..

2.3

..

..

6.0

Pakistan

2,496

141

22.6

1.6

6.7

31.2

7.6

Palestine

..

110

..

..

..

..

3.5

Panama

11,391

60

9.5

2.6

49.9

54.9

4.2

Papua New Guinea

2,084

148

35.8

−0.6

21.5

50.9

0.9

Paraguay

4,433

101

6.5

−0.3

38.8

53.2

8.1

Peru

7,836

78

7.9

2.7

26.1

49.6

1.8

Philippines

3,406

105

22.6

1.7

14.1

44.0

2.8

Poland

15,987

41

<2

4.4

9.0

34.9

2.4

Portugal

22,765

34

..

1.9

15.0

38.5

2.8

Qatar

74,882

33

..

..

..

..

13.8

Romania

12,369

63

<2

2.3

7.6

31.5

4.8

Russia

14,690

71

<2

1.2

11.0

37.5

9.0

Rwanda

866

167

76.6

1.1

18.1

46.7

9.1

Samoa

4,467

94

..

2.9

..

..

5.6

Sao Tome and Principe

1,638

131

..

..

..

..

..

Saudi Arabia

22,935

59

..

0.3

..

..

4.2

Senegal

1,666

166

33.5

1.1

11.9

39.2

5.9

Serbia

10,248

67

..

0.0

..

..

6.4

Seychelles

16,394

57

..

1.4

..

..

5.3

Sierra Leone

679

180

53.4

−0.3

12.8

42.5

11.7

Singapore

49,704

23

..

3.8

17.7

42.5

2.1

Slovakia

20,076

42

<2

3.4

6.8

25.8

2.8

Slovenia

26,753

29

<2

3.5

7.3

31.2

3.6

Solomon Islands

1,725

135

..

−1.5

..

..

7.7

South Africa

9,757

129

26.2

1.0

35.1

57.8

7.1

Spain

31,560

15

..

2.4

10.3

34.7

2.8

Sri Lanka

4,243

102

14.0

3.9

11.7

41.1

15.8

St Kitts and Nevis

14,481

62

..

2.8

..

..

4.4

St Lucia

9,786

69

20.9

1.3

16.2

42.6

2.5

St Vincent and the Grenadines

7,691

91

..

3.0

..

..

7.0

Sudan

2,086

150

..

3.6

..

..

8.0

Suriname

7,813

97

15.5

1.8

40.4

52.9

6.7

Swaziland

4,789

142

62.9

0.9

22.4

50.7

5.3

Sweden

36,712

7

..

2.3

6.2

25.0

2.2

Switzerland

40,658

9

..

0.8

9.0

33.7

0.7

Syria

4,511

107

..

1.5

..

..

3.9

Tajikistan

1,753

127

21.5

−2.2

8.2

33.6

13.1

Tanzania

1,208

151

88.5

1.8

8.9

34.6

7.0

Thailand

8,135

87

<2

2.9

13.1

42.5

2.2

Timor-Leste

717

162

52.9

..

10.8

39.5

10.3

Togo

788

159

38.7

−0.2

8.3

34.4

1.0

Tonga

3,748

99

..

1.7

..

..

5.9

Trinidad and Tobago

23,507

64

4.2

5.0

14.4

40.3

7.9

Tunisia

7,520

98

2.6

3.4

13.3

40.8

3.1

Turkey

12,955

79

2.7

2.2

17.4

43.2

8.8

Turkmenistan

4,953

109

24.8

..

12.9

40.8

..

Uganda

1,059

157

51.5

3.5

13.2

42.6

6.1

Ukraine

6,914

85

<2

−0.7

6.0

28.2

12.8

United Arab Emirates

54,626

35

..

−0.1

..

..

..

United Kingdom

35,130

21

..

2.4

13.8

36.0

4.3

United States

45,592

13

..

2.0

15.9

40.8

2.9

Uruguay

11,216

50

<2

1.5

20.1

46.2

8.1

Uzbekistan

2,425

119

46.3

1.2

10.3

36.7

..

Vanuatu

3,666

126

..

−0.4

..

..

4.0

Venezuela

12,156

58

3.5

−0.2

18.8

43.4

18.7

Vietnam

2,600

116

21.5

6.0

9.7

37.8

8.9

Yemen

2,335

140

17.5

1.6

10.6

37.7

10.0

Zambia

1,358

164

64.3

0.1

29.5

50.7

10.7

Table 2. Health and population

Life expectancy at birth—How long a newborn child can expect to live, on average. World average life expectancy for 2007 was 68 years. Women have a biological advantage that should enable them to live six or seven years longer than men, so there are normally more women than men. However, where there is severe discrimination against women that affects their health the differences can be far less. In Nepal, for example, the discrimination is so great that, on average, men outlive women.

Population, natural increase—The rate of population growth, excluding the effect of migration. It is thus the birth rate minus the death rate.

Net migration rate—The total number of immigrants to a country minus the number of emigrants over a period, expressed as a percentage of the person-years lived by the population of the receiving country over that period. A negative figure indicates net emigration.

Dependency ratio—The population aged 65 years and above expressed as a percentage of the population of working age (15–64 years). A high ratio makes it more difficult to pay adequate pensions.

Safe water—The proportion of the population with reasonable access to safe drinking water, either treated surface water, or uncontaminated water from other sources such as springs or wells.

Malnutrition—The proportion of children under five years old who weigh less than they should for their age. Another indicator of malnutrition is stunting, which refers to low height for age. Children can also suffer from deficiencies in important ‘micronutrients’ such as Vitamin A or iodine. Children are most vulnerable to malnutrition in the first two years of life. Opportunities for growth lost during that period cannot be recovered: stunted children grow up as stunted adults.

Table 2. Indicators for health and population

Life expectancy

Population

Migration

Dependency

Safe water

Malnutrition

years, 2007

natural increase, %

net rate

ratio, old age

% access

% children under 5

Female

Male

2005–2010

2005–2010

2010

2006

2007

Afghanistan

43.5

43.6

2.7

0.7

4.3

78

39

Albania

79.8

73.4

0.9

−0.5

14.4

3

8

Algeria

73.6

70.8

1.6

−0.1

6.8

15

4

Andorra

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Angola

48.5

44.6

2.6

0.1

4.7

49

31

Antigua and Barbuda

..

..

..

..

..

9

10

Argentina

79.0

71.5

1.0

0.0

16.6

4

4

Armenia

76.7

70.1

0.7

−0.5

16.1

2

4

Australia

83.7

79.1

0.6

0.5

20.7

..

..

Austria

82.5

77.0

0.0

0.4

25.9

..

..

Azerbaijan

72.3

67.6

1.2

−0.1

9.5

22

7

Bahamas

76.0

70.4

1.1

0.1

10.3

3

..

Bahrain

77.4

74.2

1.6

0.5

3.1

..

9

Bangladesh

66.7

64.7

1.5

−0.1

6.1

20

48

Barbados

79.7

74.0

0.4

−0.1

14.4

..

6

Belarus

75.2

63.1

−0.5

0.0

18.6

0

1

Belgium

82.4

76.5

0.2

0.4

26.4

..

..

Belize

78.0

74.2

2.1

−0.1

6.7

9

7

Benin

62.1

59.8

3.0

0.1

6.1

35

23

Bhutan

67.6

64.0

1.4

0.3

7.5

19

19

Bolivia

67.5

63.3

2.0

−0.2

8.0

14

8

Bosnia and Herzegovina

77.7

72.4

−0.1

−0.1

19.6

1

2

Botswana

53.3

53.2

1.3

0.2

6.1

4

13

Brazil

75.9

68.6

1.0

0.0

10.2

9

6

Brunei Darussalam

79.6

74.9

1.7

0.2

4.9

..

..

Bulgaria

76.7

69.6

−0.5

−0.1

25.5

1

..

Burkina Faso

54.0

51.4

3.5

−0.1

3.9

28

37

Burma (Myanmar)

63.4

59.0

1.1

−0.2

8.1

20

32

Burundi

51.4

48.6

2.1

0.8

4.7

29

39

Cambodia

62.3

58.6

1.6

0.0

5.6

35

36

Cameroon

51.4

50.3

2.3

0.0

6.4

30

19

Canada

82.9

78.2

0.3

0.6

20.3

..

..

Cape Verde

73.5

68.2

1.9

−0.5

6.8

20

14

Central African Republic

48.2

45.1

1.9

0.0

6.9

34

29

Chad

49.9

47.3

2.9

−0.1

5.5

52

37

Chile

81.6

75.5

1.0

0.0

13.5

5

1

China

74.7

71.3

0.7

0.0

11.4

12

7

Colombia

76.5

69.1

1.5

−0.1

8.6

7

7

Comoros

67.2

62.8

2.6

−0.3

5.2

15

25

Congo

54.4

52.5

2.2

−0.3

6.8

29

14

Congo Dem. Rep.

49.2

46.1

2.8

0.0

5.2

54

31

Costa Rica

81.3

76.4

1.3

0.1

9.5

2

5

Côte d'Ivoire

58.3

55.7

2.4

−0.1

7.0

19

20

Croatia

79.4

72.6

−0.2

0.0

25.6

1

1

Cuba

80.6

76.5

0.4

−0.3

17.5

9

4

Cyprus

81.9

77.3

0.4

0.6

19.0

..

..

Czech Republic

79.4

73.2

0.0

0.4

21.6

..

1

Denmark

80.5

75.9

0.1

0.1

25.6

..

..

Djibouti

56.5

53.7

1.8

0.0

5.4

8

29

Dominica

..

..

..

..

..

3

5

Dominican Republic

75.2

69.8

1.7

−0.3

9.8

5

5

Ecuador

78.0

72.1

1.6

−0.5

10.6

5

9

Egypt

71.7

68.2

1.9

−0.1

7.3

2

6

El Salvador

75.9

66.4

1.4

−0.9

12.0

16

10

Equatorial Guinea

51.1

48.7

2.3

0.3

5.1

57

19

Eritrea

61.4

56.8

2.9

0.2

4.5

40

40

Estonia

78.3

67.3

−0.1

0.0

25.2

..

..

Ethiopia

56.2

53.3

2.7

−0.1

6.0

58

38

Fiji

71.0

66.5

1.5

−0.8

7.7

53

8

Finland

82.8

76.0

0.2

0.2

25.9

..

..

France

84.5

77.4

0.4

0.2

26.2

..

..

Gabon

61.5

58.7

1.8

0.1

7.2

13

12

Gambia

57.3

54.1

2.6

0.2

5.2

14

20

Georgia

75.0

68.1

0.0

−1.2

20.7

1

3

Germany

82.3

77.0

−0.2

0.1

30.9

..

..

Ghana

57.4

55.6

2.1

0.0

6.3

20

18

Greece

81.3

76.9

−0.1

0.3

27.2

..

..

Grenada

76.7

73.7

1.3

−1.0

10.6

6

..

Guatemala

73.7

66.7

2.8

−0.3

8.2

4

23

Guinea

59.3

55.3

2.9

−0.6

6.1

30

26

Guinea-Bissau

49.1

46.0

2.4

−0.2

6.4

43

19

Guyana

69.6

63.7

1.0

−1.0

9.5

7

14

Haiti

62.9

59.1

1.9

−0.3

7.3

42

22

Honduras

74.4

69.6

2.3

−0.3

7.3

16

11

Hungary

77.3

69.2

−0.4

0.1

23.8

..

2

Iceland

83.3

80.2

0.9

1.3

17.4

..

..

India

64.9

62.0

1.4

0.0

7.7

11

46

Indonesia

72.5

68.5

1.2

−0.1

9.0

20

28

Iran

72.5

69.9

1.3

−0.1

6.8

6

11

Ireland

82.0

77.3

0.9

0.9

16.7

..

..

Israel

82.7

78.5

1.5

0.2

16.4

..

..

Italy

84.0

78.1

−0.1

0.6

31.3

..

..

Jamaica

75.1

68.3

1.2

−0.7

12.2

7

4

Japan

86.2

79.0

−0.1

0.0

35.1

..

..

Jordan

74.3

70.7

2.2

0.8

5.9

2

4

Kazakhstan

71.2

59.1

0.9

−0.1

10.0

4

4

Kenya

54.0

53.2

2.7

−0.1

4.8

43

20

Korea, South

82.4

75.8

0.4

0.0

15.2

..

8.0

Kuwait

79.8

76.0

1.6

0.8

3.2

..

10.0

Kyrgyzstan

71.4

63.9

1.5

−0.3

7.7

11

3

Laos

65.9

63.2

2.1

−0.2

6.1

40

40

Latvia

77.1

67.1

−0.4

−0.1

25.4

1

..

Lebanon

74.1

69.8

0.9

−0.1

10.8

0

4

Lesotho

45.5

43.9

1.2

−0.4

8.4

22

20

Liberia

59.3

56.5

2.8

1.3

5.7

36

26

Libya

76.8

71.6

1.9

0.1

6.6

29

5

Liechtenstein

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Lithuania

77.7

65.9

−0.4

−0.6

23.7

..

..

Luxembourg

82.0

76.5

0.3

0.8

20.5

..

..

Macedonia

76.5

71.7

0.2

−0.1

16.9

0

6

Madagascar

61.5

58.3

2.7

0.0

5.6

53

42

Malawi

53.4

51.3

2.8

0.0

6.1

24

19

Malaysia

76.6

71.9

1.6

0.1

7.3

1

8

Maldives

72.7

69.7

1.4

0.0

6.4

17

30

Mali

48.8

47.4

2.7

−0.3

4.3

40

33

Malta

81.3

77.7

0.1

0.2

21.2

..

..

Mauritania

58.5

54.7

2.3

0.1

4.6

40

32

Mauritius

75.7

68.5

0.7

0.0

10.7

0

15

Mexico

78.5

73.6

1.4

−0.5

10.0

5

5

Moldova

72.1

64.5

−0.1

−0.9

15.4

10

4

Mongolia

69.6

63.0

1.2

−0.1

5.8

28

6

Montenegro

76.5

71.6

0.2

−0.2

18.8

2

3

Morocco

73.3

68.8

1.5

−0.3

8.1

17

10

Mozambique

48.7

46.9

2.3

0.0

6.2

58

24

Namibia

61.2

59.3

1.9

0.0

6.1

7

24

Nepal

66.9

65.6

1.9

−0.1

6.8

11

39

Netherlands

81.9

77.6

0.3

0.1

22.9

..

..

New Zealand

82.1

78.1

0.7

0.2

19.4

..

..

Nicaragua

75.9

69.8

2.0

−0.7

7.5

21

10

Niger

51.7

50.0

3.9

0.0

4.1

58

44

Nigeria

48.2

47.2

2.4

0.0

5.8

53

29

Norway

82.7

78.2

0.4

0.6

22.7

..

..

Oman

77.3

74.1

1.9

0.1

4.7

18

18

Pakistan

66.5

65.9

2.3

−0.2

6.9

10

38

Palestine

74.9

71.7

3.2

0.0

5.5

11

3

Panama

78.2

73.0

1.6

0.1

10.4

8

7

Papua New Guinea

63.0

58.7

2.4

0.0

4.3

60

35

Paraguay

73.8

69.6

1.9

−0.1

8.4

23

5

Peru

75.8

70.4

1.6

−0.4

9.3

16

8

Philippines

73.9

69.4

2.0

−0.2

6.9

7

28

Poland

79.7

71.3

0.0

−0.1

18.8

..

..

Portugal

81.8

75.3

0.0

0.4

26.7

..

..

Qatar

76.8

74.8

1.0

9.4

1.3

..

6.0

Romania

76.1

69.0

−0.2

−0.2

21.3

12

3

Russia

72.9

59.9

−0.4

0.0

17.9

3

3

Rwanda

51.4

47.9

2.6

0.0

4.5

35

23

Samoa

74.7

68.4

1.8

−1.8

8.6

12

..

Sao Tome and Principe

67.3

63.5

2.5

−0.9

6.9

14

9

Saudi Arabia

75.1

70.8

2.0

0.1

4.6

10

14

Senegal

56.9

53.9

2.8

−0.2

4.4

23

17

Serbia

76.3

71.6

0.0

0.0

21.1

1

2

Seychelles

..

..

..

..

..

13

6

Sierra Leone

48.5

46.0

2.4

0.2

3.4

47

30

Singapore

82.6

77.8

0.3

2.2

13.8

..

3.0

Slovakia

78.5

70.7

0.0

0.1

16.9

..

..

Slovenia

81.7

74.4

0.0

0.2

23.5

..

..

Solomon Islands

66.7

64.9

2.5

0.0

5.4

30

21

South Africa

53.2

49.8

0.7

0.3

7.1

7

12

Spain

84.0

77.5

0.2

0.8

25.3

..

..

Sri Lanka

77.9

70.3

1.2

−0.3

11.4

18

29

St Kitts and Nevis

..

..

..

..

..

1

..

St Lucia

75.5

71.7

1.1

−0.1

10.1

2

14

St Vincent and the Grenadines

73.6

69.4

1.0

−0.9

10.0

..

..

Sudan

59.4

56.3

2.1

0.1

6.4

30

41

Suriname

72.5

65.3

1.2

−0.2

9.9

8

13

Swaziland

44.8

45.7

1.4

−0.1

5.9

40

10

Sweden

83.0

78.6

0.2

0.3

28.1

..

..

Switzerland

84.1

79.2

0.1

0.3

25.5

..

..

Syria

76.0

72.2

2.5

0.8

5.2

11

10

Tajikistan

69.3

63.7

2.2

−0.6

6.0

33

17

Tanzania

55.8

54.2

3.0

−0.1

6.0

45

22

Thailand

72.1

65.4

0.6

0.1

10.9

2

9

Timor-Leste

61.5

59.8

3.1

0.2

5.8

38

46

Togo

63.9

60.4

2.5

0.0

6.3

41

26

Tonga

74.6

69.0

2.2

−1.7

10.3

0

..

Trinidad and Tobago

72.8

65.6

0.7

−0.3

9.5

6

6

Tunisia

76.0

71.8

1.0

0.0

9.6

6

4

Turkey

74.2

69.4

1.2

0.0

8.8

3

4

Turkmenistan

68.8

60.6

1.4

−0.1

6.2

..

11

Uganda

52.4

51.4

3.3

−0.1

5.2

36

20

Ukraine

73.8

62.7

−0.6

0.0

22.1

3

1

United Arab Emirates

78.7

76.6

1.3

1.6

1.3

..

14

United Kingdom

81.5

77.1

0.2

0.3

25.1

..

..

United States

81.3

76.7

0.6

0.3

19.4

..

..

Uruguay

79.8

72.6

0.6

−0.3

21.8

0

5

Uzbekistan

70.9

64.5

1.4

−0.3

6.6

12

5

Vanuatu

72.0

68.1

2.5

0.0

5.7

41

20

Venezuela

76.7

70.7

1.6

0.0

8.7

10

5

Vietnam

76.1

72.3

1.2

0.0

9.3

8

25

Yemen

64.1

60.9

3.0

−0.1

4.4

34

46

Zambia

45.0

44.0

2.6

−0.1

6.0

42

20

Table 3. Education and gender

Adult literacy rate—The proportion of the population aged 15 and above who can read a short, simple statement on their everyday life. This information is collected either from national censuses or from household surveys. However some countries do not collect this information and instead substitute data on school attendance.

Educational attainment—The distribution of the population according to the highest level of education attained or completed. Developing countries have in the past put most of their efforts into ensuring that children go to primary school. Nowadays many developing countries, having achieved close to universal primary enrolment, and gender parity, and turning their attention to secondary education.

Parliament, percentage of women—The proportion of seats held by women in a lower or single house and, where relevant, in an upper house or senate. Globally, the average is 19%. Some countries have tried to force this ratio up by insisting on quotas either within the parliaments or within the list of candidates from parties. Others, such as Pakistan, have respectable looking ratios, only because the women members are serving as proxies for their husbands.

Income ratio— The ratio of the female non-agricultural wage to the male non-agricultural wage. In some countries women make up close to half the workforce, but they are still less likely to occupy senior position, and they generally earn less than men even for the same work.

Table 3. Indicators for education and gender

Adult literacy rate

Educational attainment, % of population, 2000–2007

Parliament

Income ratio

1999-2007, %

Less than

Upper secondary,

Tertiary

% women

women's to men's

Female

Male

upper secondary

non-tertiary

2009

1996–2007

Afghanistan

12.6

43.1

..

..

..

26

0.24

Albania

98.8

99.3

63.0

29.6

7.4

7

0.54

Algeria

66.4

84.3

92.1

7.6

..

6

0.36

Andorra

..

..

48.0

34.8

16.1

25

..

Angola

54.2

82.9

..

..

..

37

0.64

Antigua and Barbuda

99.4

98.4

..

..

..

17

..

Argentina

97.7

97.6

65.7

23.2

11.1

40

0.51

Armenia

99.3

99.7

18.4

61.2

20.4

8

0.57

Australia

..

..

..

..

..

30

0.70

Austria

..

..

26.2

57.9

15.9

27

0.40

Azerbaijan

99.2

99.8

16.5

70.2

13.3

11

0.44

Bahamas

..

..

28.9

70.2

0.3

25

..

Bahrain

86.4

90.4

50.3

38.4

11.2

14

0.51

Bangladesh

48.0

58.7

82.9

12.9

4.2

6

0.51

Barbados

..

..

75.7

23.1

1.1

14

0.65

Belarus

99.7

99.8

..

..

..

33

0.63

Belgium

..

..

42.3

31.0

26.8

36

0.64

Belize

..

..

74.2

13.6

10.9

11

0.43

Benin

27.9

53.1

85.6

12.2

2.2

11

0.52

Bhutan

38.7

65.0

..

..

..

14

0.39

Bolivia

86.0

96.0

61.6

23.8

14.0

15

0.61

Bosnia and Herzegovina

94.4

99.0

..

..

..

12

0.61

Botswana

82.9

82.8

..

..

..

11

0.58

Brazil

90.2

89.8

70.4

21.2

8.1

9

0.60

Brunei Darussalam

93.1

96.5

..

..

..

..

0.59

Bulgaria

97.9

98.6

40.4

41.3

18.0

22

0.68

Burkina Faso

21.6

36.7

..

..

..

15

0.66

Burma (Myanmar)

86.4

93.9

..

..

..

..

0.61

Burundi

52.2

67.3

..

..

..

32

0.77

Cambodia

67.7

85.8

..

..

..

16

0.68

Cameroon

59.8

77.0

..

..

..

14

0.53

Canada

..

..

23.7

38.1

38.2

25

0.65

Cape Verde

78.8

89.4

..

..

..

18

0.49

Central African Republic

33.5

64.8

..

..

..

10

0.59

Chad

20.8

43.0

..

..

..

5

0.70

Chile

96.5

96.6

..

..

..

13

0.42

China

90.0

96.5

..

..

..

21

0.68

Colombia

92.8

92.4

64.7

25.4

9.7

10

0.71

Comoros

69.8

80.3

..

..

..

3

0.58

Congo

71.8

90.6

..

..

..

9

0.51

Congo Dem. Rep.

54.1

80.9

..

..

..

8

0.46

Costa Rica

96.2

95.7

64.7

18.5

15.0

37

0.46

Côte d'Ivoire

38.6

60.8

..

..

..

9

0.34

Croatia

98.0

99.5

40.2

45.4

13.9

21

0.67

Cuba

99.8

99.8

59.6

31.0

9.4

43

0.49

Cyprus

96.6

99.0

41.3

33.8

24.9

14

0.58

Czech Republic

..

..

14.5

73.0

12.5

16

0.57

Denmark

..

..

25.8

43.7

30.3

38

0.74

Djibouti

..

..

..

..

..

14

0.57

Dominica

..

..

88.8

5.7

5.0

19

..

Dominican Republic

89.5

88.8

..

..

..

17

0.59

Ecuador

89.7

92.3

..

..

..

28

0.51

Egypt

57.8

74.6

..

..

..

4

0.27

El Salvador

79.7

84.9

75.6

13.8

10.6

19

0.46

Equatorial Guinea

80.5

93.4

..

..

..

6

0.36

Eritrea

53.0

76.2

..

..

..

22

0.50

Estonia

99.8

99.8

27.9

42.3

27.5

21

0.65

Ethiopia

22.8

50.0

..

..

..

21

0.67

Fiji

..

..

..

..

..

..

0.38

Finland

..

..

30.9

38.8

30.3

42

0.73

France

..

..

42.6

35.9

19.8

20

0.61

Gabon

82.2

90.2

..

..

..

17

0.59

Gambia

..

..

..

..

..

9

0.63

Georgia

..

..

16.3

57.8

25.8

6

0.38

Germany

..

..

21.5

57.1

21.4

31

0.59

Ghana

58.3

71.7

..

..

..

8

0.74

Greece

96.0

98.2

51.0

25.7

23.3

15

0.51

Grenada

..

..

..

..

..

21

..

Guatemala

68.0

79.0

84.8

11.2

3.7

12

0.42

Guinea

18.1

42.6

..

..

..

..

0.68

Guinea-Bissau

54.4

75.1

..

..

..

10

0.46

Guyana

..

..

..

..

..

30

0.41

Haiti

64.0

60.1

..

..

..

5

0.37

Honduras

83.5

83.7

..

..

..

23

0.34

Hungary

98.8

99.0

36.5

48.9

14.7

11

0.75

Iceland

..

..

37.4

30.3

27.6

33

0.62

India

54.5

76.9

..

..

..

9

0.32

Indonesia

88.8

95.2

..

..

..

12

0.44

Iran

77.2

87.3

..

..

..

3

0.32

Ireland

..

..

40.0

31.2

26.4

15

0.56

Israel

88.7

95.0

23.9

33.1

39.7

18

0.64

Italy

98.6

99.1

59.5

30.4

10.1

20

0.49

Jamaica

91.1

80.5

..

..

..

14

0.58

Japan

..

..

26.1

43.9

30.0

12

0.45

Jordan

87.0

95.2

..

..

..

8

0.19

Kazakhstan

99.5

99.8

29.5

56.1

14.4

12

0.68

Kenya

70.2

77.7

..

..

..

10

0.65

Korea, South

..

..

36.2

40.4

23.4

14

0.52

Kuwait

93.1

95.2

74.4

17.3

8.3

3

0.36

Kyrgyzstan

99.1

99.5

23.0

62.1

14.9

26

0.55

Laos

63.2

82.5

..

..

..

25

0.76

Latvia

99.8

99.8

19.7

60.0

20.3

20

0.67

Lebanon

86.0

93.4

..

..

..

5

0.25

Lesotho

90.3

73.7

..

..

..

26

0.73

Liberia

50.9

60.2

..

..

..

14

0.50

Libya

78.4

94.5

..

..

..

8

0.25

Liechtenstein

..

..

..

..

..

24

..

Lithuania

99.7

99.7

23.5

50.8

25.7

18

0.70

Luxembourg

..

..

39.0

39.7

21.3

23

0.57

Macedonia

95.4

98.6

52.2

35.6

12.2

28

0.49

Madagascar

65.3

76.5

..

..

..

9

0.71

Malawi

64.6

79.2

94.8

4.7

0.5

13

0.74

Malaysia

89.6

94.2

61.3

27.1

8.0

15

0.42

Maldives

97.1

97.0

..

..

..

12

0.54

Mali

18.2

34.9

..

..

..

10

0.44

Malta

93.5

91.2

77.2

12.0

10.8

9

0.45

Mauritania

48.3

63.3

..

..

..

20

0.58

Mauritius

84.7

90.2

79.2

17.7

2.6

17

0.42

Mexico

91.4

94.4

69.7

15.3

14.9

22

0.42

Moldova

98.9

99.6

..

..

..

22

0.73

Mongolia

97.7

96.8

46.6

41.1

12.2

4

0.87

Montenegro

94.1

98.9

22.6

61.4

16.1

11

0.58

Morocco

43.2

68.7

..

..

..

6

0.24

Mozambique

33.0

57.2

..

..

..

35

0.90

Namibia

87.4

88.6

..

..

..

27

0.63

Nepal

43.6

70.3

..

..

..

33

0.61

Netherlands

..

..

34.8

38.6

26.0

39

0.67

New Zealand

..

..

28.7

40.1

25.9

34

0.69

Nicaragua

77.9

78.1

..

..

..

18

0.34

Niger

15.1

42.9

..

..

..

12

0.34

Nigeria

64.1

80.1

..

..

..

7

0.42

Norway

..

..

14.5

53.8

31.7

36

0.77

Oman

77.5

89.4

..

..

..

9

0.23

Pakistan

39.6

67.7

76.7

17.1

6.3

21

0.18

Palestine

90.3

97.2

68.8

12.8

18.4

..

..

Panama

92.8

94.0

66.0

23.1

10.4

17

0.58

Papua New Guinea

53.4

62.1

..

..

..

1

0.74

Paraguay

93.5

95.7

72.6

23.6

3.7

14

0.64

Peru

84.6

94.9

53.7

26.0

16.3

29

0.59

Philippines

93.7

93.1

62.6

26.4

8.4

20

0.58

Poland

99.0

99.6

..

..

..

18

0.59

Portugal

93.3

96.6

77.4

11.4

11.2

28

0.60

Qatar

90.4

93.8

59.0

20.1

20.9

0

0.28

Romania

96.9

98.3

47.3

43.6

9.0

10

0.68

Russia

99.4

99.7

..

..

..

11

0.64

Rwanda

59.8

71.4

..

..

..

51

0.79

Samoa

98.4

98.9

..

..

..

8

0.40

Sao Tome and Principe

82.7

93.4

..

..

..

7

0.47

Saudi Arabia

79.4

89.1

65.8

19.2

14.9

0

0.16

Senegal

33.0

52.3

..

..

..

29

0.55

Serbia

94.1

98.9

..

..

..

22

0.59

Seychelles

92.3

91.4

51.8

36.8

7.4

24

..

Sierra Leone

26.8

50.0

..

..

..

13

0.74

Singapore

91.6

97.3

41.2

39.2

19.6

24

0.53

Slovakia

..

..

19.2

67.6

13.2

19

0.58

Slovenia

99.6

99.7

26.4

55.5

18.1

10

0.61

Solomon Islands

..

..

..

..

..

0

0.51

South Africa

87.2

88.9

73.0

18.1

8.9

34

0.60

Spain

97.3

98.6

58.6

17.8

23.6

34

0.52

Sri Lanka

89.1

92.7

..

..

..

6

0.56

St Kitts and Nevis

..

..

..

..

..

7

..

St Lucia

..

..

..

..

..

17

0.50

St Vincent and the Grenadines

..

..

..

..

..

18

0.51

Sudan

51.8

71.1

..

..

..

17

0.33

Suriname

88.1

92.7

..

..

..

25

0.44

Swaziland

78.3

80.9

..

..

..

22

0.71

Sweden

..

..

20.7

51.1

27.0

47

0.67

Switzerland

..

..

21.4

52.3

26.2

27

0.62

Syria

76.5

89.7

89.6

5.1

5.3

12

0.20

Tajikistan

99.5

99.8

21.0

68.3

10.6

20

0.65

Tanzania

65.9

79.0

98.4

0.7

0.9

30

0.74

Thailand

92.6

95.9

..

..

..

13

0.63

Timor-Leste

..

..

..

..

..

29

0.53

Togo

38.5

68.7

..

..

..

11

0.45

Tonga

99.3

99.2

25.9

66.2

7.9

3

0.57

Trinidad and Tobago

98.3

99.1

..

..

..

33

0.55

Tunisia

69.0

86.4

..

..

..

20

0.28

Turkey

81.3

96.2

76.8

14.7

8.5

9

0.26

Turkmenistan

99.3

99.7

..

..

..

..

0.65

Uganda

65.5

81.8

93.5

1.6

4.8

31

0.69

Ukraine

99.6

99.8

25.6

36.0

38.0

8

0.59

United Arab Emirates

91.5

89.5

..

..

..

23

0.27

United Kingdom

..

..

..

..

..

20

0.67

United States

..

..

14.8

49.0

36.2

17

0.62

Uruguay

98.2

97.4

75.3

15.1

9.6

12

0.55

Uzbekistan

95.8

98.0

..

..

..

16

0.64

Vanuatu

76.1

80.0

..

..

..

4

0.69

Venezuela

94.9

95.4

63.9

21.7

12.8

19

0.48

Vietnam

86.9

93.9

..

..

..

26

0.69

Yemen

40.5

77.0

..

..

..

1

0.25

Zambia

60.7

80.8

..

..

..

15

0.56