Sandwich, John Montagu, 4th earl of - Oxford Reference

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Sandwich, John Montagu, 4th earl of

A Dictionary of British History

John Cannon

Sandwich, John Montagu, 4th earl of 


A politician of considerable achievements and a discerning patron of the arts, particularly music, Lord Sandwich is most frequently recalled as the inventor of the sandwich—popularly supposed to have sustained him during lengthy spells at the gaming table. Sandwich's political ambitions were focused on the Admiralty, where he thrice served as 1st lord (1748–51, 1763, 1771–82), demonstrating administrative ability. He was unjustly blamed for the failings in naval preparedness revealed by the American War of Independence.

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