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# Mathematical Notation

Source:
A Dictionary of Statistics

# Mathematical Notation

Symbol

Reference

infinity

!

see factorial

For a function f, f′(x) is the derivative of f(x) with respect to x

For a set, see complementary event

For a matrix, see matrix

(a, b)

an open interval, i.e. the set of real numbers between a and b: a<x<b

the set of all real numbers

n

the set of all row vectors, or column vectors, with n real elements

union

intersection

approximately equal to

<

less than

less than or equal to

>

greater than

greater than or equal to

tends to, e.g. n → ∞

|x|

absolute value of x

ab

a raised to the power b

a ½

a, the (positive) square root of a

B

beta function, see beta function

y/x

partial derivative of y with respect to x. See Hessian matrix

max {x1, x2,…, xn}

the greatest of {x1, x2,…, xn}

min {x1, x2,…, xn}

the least of {x1, x2,…, xn}

sign(x)

the sign of x, i.e.

X

a matrix

x

a vector

{rj}

the set r1, r2,…

binomial coefficient

Σ

sum of terms

Π

product of terms