Mathematical Notation
Mathematical Notation
Symbol | Reference |
---|---|
∞ | infinity |
! | see factorial |
′ | For a function f, f′(x) is the derivative of f(x) with respect to x |
′ | For a set, see complementary event |
′ | For a matrix, see matrix |
(a, b) | an open interval, i.e. the set of real numbers between a and b: a<x<b |
ℝ | the set of all real numbers |
ℝ^{n} | the set of all row vectors, or column vectors, with n real elements |
∪ | union |
∩ | intersection |
≈ | approximately equal to |
< | less than |
≤ | less than or equal to |
> | greater than |
≥ | greater than or equal to |
→ | tends to, e.g. n → ∞ |
|x| | absolute value of x |
a^{b} | a raised to the power b |
a ^{½} | √a, the (positive) square root of a |
B | beta function, see beta function |
∂y/∂x | partial derivative of y with respect to x. See Hessian matrix |
max {x_{1}, x_{2},…, x_{n}} | the greatest of {x_{1}, x_{2},…, x_{n}} |
min {x_{1}, x_{2},…, x_{n}} | the least of {x_{1}, x_{2},…, x_{n}} |
sign(x) | the sign of x, i.e. |
X | a matrix |
x | a vector |
{r_{j}} | the set r_{1}, r_{2},… |
binomial coefficient | |
Σ | sum of terms |
Π | product of terms |