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date: 24 November 2017

Arteries of the head and neck

Source:
A Dictionary of Dentistry

Arteries of the head and neck

Name

Origin

Distribution / Branches

Alveolar, anterior superior (anterior superior dental)

Infraorbital via maxillary

Maxillary canines and incisors.

Alveolar, inferior (inferior dental)

Maxillary

Mandibular teeth, buccal mucous membrane, floor of mouth.

Alveolar, posterior superior (posterior superior dental)

Maxillary

Mucous membrane of antrum, maxillary molars and premolars.

Angular

Facial

Lacrimal sac, lower eyelid, nose.

Anterior inferior cerebellar

basilar

Superior cerebellum.

Ascending pharyngeal

External carotid

Posterior meningeal, pharyngeal, inferior tympanic aa.

Auricular, posterior

External carotid

Stylomastoid, posterior tympanic, auricular, occipital and parotid branches.

Basilar

Vertebral

Anterior inferior cerebellar, pontine, mesencephalic, superior cerebellar and posterior cerebral a.

Buccal

Maxillary

Buccinator muscle, buccal mucous membrane, skin of cheek.

Carotid, common

Aortic arch (left) and brachiocephalic trunk (right)

Internal and external carotid arteries. Features include carotid sinus, and carotid body.

Carotid, external

Common carotid

Ascending pharyngeal, superior thyroid, lingual, facial, occipital, posterior auricular, maxillary, and superficial temporal branches.

Carotid, internal

Common carotid

Ophthalmic, anterior cerebral, middle cerebral, anterior choroidal, and posterior communicating branches. It has no external branches.

Cerebral, anterior

Internal carotid

Central and cortical branches, motor and somatosensory area for lower limb.

Cerebral, middle

Internal carotid

Lateral cortex including most of the motor and somatosensory areas.

Cerebral, posterior

Vertebral

Posterior cortical branches.

Choroidal, anterior

Internal carotid

Interior of brain, including choroid plexus of lateral ventricle and adjacent parts.

Communicating, anterior

Internal carotid

Suprachiasmatic, median commissural, anteromedial central aa.

Communicating, posterior

Internal carotid

Posteromedial central, chiasmatic, premammillary, hypothalamic, mammillary, and branches to oculomotor n.

Deep lingual

Lingual

Lower surface and tip of tongue.

Dental branches

Inferior alveolar

Dental, inferior see Alveolar, inferior

Dental, posterior superior see Alveolar, posterior superior

Dorsal lingual

Lingual

Mucous membrane of the posterior third of the tongue, the glossopalatine arch, the tonsil, soft palate, and epiglottis.

Facial

External carotid

Ascending palatine, tonsillar, submental, glandular, inferior labial, superior labial, lateral nasal, and angular branches.

Glandular

Facial

Infraorbital

Maxillary

Maxilla, maxillary sinus, upper teeth, lower eyelid, cheek, nose.

Internal thoracic

Subclavian

Thymic, mediastinal, tracheal, sternal, perforating, anterior intercostal, musculophrenic and superior epigastric.

Labial, inferior

Facial

Lower lip.

Labial, superior

Facial

Upper lip.

Lingual, deep

External carotid

Suprahyoid, sublingual, dorsal lingual, deep lingual.

Linguofacial trunk

External carotid

The facial and lingual may arise together as a trunk or separately.

Masseteric

Maxillary

Masseter muscle.

Maxillary

External carotid

Deep auricular, anterior tympanic, superior tympanic, inferior alveolar, middle meningeal, masseteric, deep temporal, pterygomeningeal, buccal, posterior superior alveolar, infraorbital, artery of pterygoid canal, descending palatine, sphenopalatine.

Maxillary, external see Facial

Meningeal, middle

Maxillary

Named branches over meninges and superior tympanic.

Mental

Inferior alveolar

Chin.

Nasal, lateral

Facial

Ala and dorsum of nose.

Nasopalatine see Sphenopalatine

Occipital

External carotid

Mastoid, auricular, sternocleidomastoid, occipital, meningeal and descending.

Ophthalmic

Internal carotid

Eye, orbit, adjacent facial structures.

Palatine, ascending

Facial

Soft palate, wall of pharynx, tonsil, auditory tube.

Palatine, descending

Maxillary

Greater and lesser palatine a.

Palatine, greater

Descending palatine

Hard palate.

Palatine, lesser

Descending palatine

Soft palate, tonsil.

Posterior inferior cerebellar

Vertebral

Inferior cerebellum and medulla.

Pterygoid, lateral

Posterior deep temporal

Pterygoid muscles.

Pterygoid, medial

Posterior deep temporal

Pterygoid muscles.

Sphenopalatine

Maxillary

Structures adjoining nasal cavity, nasopharynx.

Spinal, anterior

Vertebral

Ventral spinal cord.

Spinal, posterior

Posterior inferior cerebellar or vertebral

Dorsal spinal cord.

Subclavian

Aortic arch (left) and brachiocephalic trunk (right)

Vertebral, basilar, internal thoracic, thyrocervical trunk, costocervical trunk.

Sublingual

Lingual

Sublingual gland.

Submental

Facial

Tissues under chin.

Superior cerebellar

Basilar

Superior cerebellum.

Suprahyoid

Lingual

Muscles attached to the hyoid bone.

Supraorbital

Ophthalmic

Forehead, upper muscles of orbit, upper eyelid, frontal sinus.

Supratrochlear

Ophthalmic

Forehead medial to supraorbital.

Temporal, anterior deep

Maxillary

Zygomatic bone, greater wing of sphenoid, temporal muscles.

Temporal, posterior deep

Maxillary

Temporal muscles, pterygoid muscles.

Temporal, superficial

External carotid

Parotid, transverse facial, anterior auricular, zygomatico-orbital, middle temporal, frontal, and parietal branches.

Thyrocervical trunk

Subclavian

Inferior thyroid, ascending cervical, suprascapular, and transverse cervical.

Thyroid ima

Brachiocephalic trunk

Thyroid gland (occasionally present).

Thyroid, inferior

Trifurcation of the thyrocervical trunk, first part of the subclavian a

Inferior laryngeal, glandular, pharyngeal, oesophageal, and tracheal branches.

Thyroid, superior

External carotid

Infrahyoid, sternocleidomastoid, superior laryngeal, cricothyroid, anterior, posterior and lateral glandular.

Tonsillar

Facial

Base of tongue, fauces, and tonsil.

Vertebral

Subclavian

Prevertebral, cervical, atlantic and intercranial parts.

Willis, cerebral arterial circle of

Internal carotid

Anterior cerebral, anterior communicating, middle cerebral, posterior communicating.

Basilar

Posterior cerebral.

Arteries of the head and neckClick to view larger

Main arteries of the head and neck.

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