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# Table of symbols

Source:
The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Mathematics

# Appendix 11. Table of symbols

Symbol

Reference

negation

conjunction

disjunction

⇒, ⇔

implication

equivalence relation

∃, ∀

quantifier

∈, ∉

belongs to, does not belong to

⊆, ⊇

subset

⊂, ⊃

proper subset

∪, ⋃

union

∩, ⋂

intersection

A′, Ā

complement

empty set

A×B

Cartesian product

A \ B, AB

difference set

A+B, A Δ B

symmetric difference

n(A), # (A), |A|

cardinality

℘(A)

power set

n!

factorial

[a, b]

closed interval, least common multiple

(a, b)

open interval, greatest common divisor

[a, b), (a, b]

interval, open at one end

binomial coefficient

[x]

integer part

{x}

fractional part

|x|

absolute value

|z|

modulus

conjugate

z, Re z

real part

z, Im z

imaginary part

directed line-segment

length

P

norm

square root

≠, <, ≤, >, ≥

inequality

approximation

congruence

proportion

summation notation

product notation

π

pi

f: xy

function, mapping

ƒ: ST

function, mapping

limit

↗, ↘

limit from the left and right

ƒ ◯ g

composition

ƒ−1

inverse function, inverse mapping

derivative, derived function

higher derivative

higher derivative

partial derivative

ƒxx, ƒxy,…, ƒ11, ƒ12,…

higher-order partial derivative

higher-order partial derivative

,

rate of change

integral, antiderivative

a.b

scalar product

a×b, a ∧ b

vector product

a.(b×c), [a, b, c]

scalar triple product

a×(b×c)

vector triple product

AT, At, A

transpose

A−1

inverse matrix

|A|

determinant

G, ◯〉

group

R,+,×〉

ring

E(X)

expected value

Var(X)

variance

Cov(X, Y)

covariance

Pr(A)

probability

Pr(A|B)

conditional probability