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date: 18 November 2017

Dialect and Obsolete Words

Source:
The Oxford Companion to the Brontës

Dialect and Obsolete Words

In the Brontës’ day most of the inhabitants of Haworth were Yorkshire dialect speakers; and since Charlotte Brontë complained that there was not a single ‘educated’ family in the place, it is likely that the ‘maisters’—the mill owners, gentlemen farmers, and independent craftsmen—used at least some dialect forms as well as broad northern vowels, especially when speaking to their employees. The well-educated and well-travelled Mr Yorke in Shirley, like his prototype, the Gomersal mill owner Joshua Taylor, is portrayed as equally fluent and forcible in dialect, ‘standard’ English, and French, but he was probably unusual in keeping the two English forms distinct. Within Haworth Parsonage, the dialect of the faithful servant Tabitha Aykroyd, born and brought up in Yorkshire, was familiar to the Brontës from an early age, and it was faithfully recorded in the speech of Hannah in Jane Eyre, the servant Martha in Shirley, and perhaps also Nancy Brown in Agnes Grey. Branwell Brontë probably heard more freely spoken dialect than any of his sisters. He and Charlotte used vigorous, fluent, dialect speech to characterize the servants and cronies of their Angrian ‘great men’. The ‘strong twang’ of General Thornton is used both for comic purposes and to indicate his honesty. The Brontës would be alert to the pronunciation and nuances of the local dialect partly because their own speech, influenced by their Irish father, Cornish mother and aunt, and the various teachers in their schools, was different: Mary Taylor recorded that when Charlotte first arrived at Roe Head school she ‘spoke with a strong Irish accent’. Emily was intrigued by Tabby's Yorkshire version of ‘Peel a potato’, and sought to write it down phonetically, ‘pillapatate’. She would later represent with a high degree of phonetic accuracy the dialect speakers in Wuthering Heights. Yorkshire people would consider that the Brontë sisters spoke ‘less gruff than we talk here, and softer’, as Ellen Dean remarked of Edgar Linton in Wuthering Heights, a novel in which speech differences have a strong influence on personal relationships. The surly, ‘gruff’ servant Joseph, a broad dialect speaker, resents the refined speech of the Lintons, and affects not to understand Isabella's request to accompany her into the house: ‘Mim! mim! mim! Did iver Christian body hear owt like it? Minching un’ munching! Hah can Aw tell whet ye say?’ In Jane Eyre too, Jane and the ‘coarsely-clad little peasants’ who are her scholars at Morton at first ‘have a difficulty in understanding each other's language’.

Thus in the Brontës’ novels dialect reinforces character, helps to mark the class divide, and enhances the impression of real locality. It is never a mere ornament, a conventional device to provide local colour, or a stock source of comedy, as it often was in stage dramas. The Brontës used dialect in the way Sir Walter Scott, James Hogg, and Maria Edgeworth used it, as an integral part of their novels. For Scott, dialect speakers exemplified one aspect of the ancient traditions and ‘manners belonging to an early period of society’ hardly known to English readers. Dandy Dinmont in Guy Mannering brings to life the speech and habits of farmers in a ‘wild country, at a time when it was totally inaccessible’ except to a traveller on foot or horseback. The dialect-speaking farm-servants of Wuthering Heights, inhabiting a similar wild isolation, proved to be equally strange to English urban readers and reviewers.

The Brontës also knew and admired the writings of James Hogg. The vigorous dialect of the servants, the gaoler, and others in Hogg's The Private Memoirs and Confessions of a Justified Sinner, and its function as part of a choric commentary on the tense drama of the main events, would encourage the Brontës to follow suit. They would recognize the close kinship of Scottish and Yorkshire dialect, in for example the maid's testimony at Bell Calvert's trial: ‘Na, na, I wadna swear to ony siller spoons that ever war made … lay them by, lay them by, an' gie the poor woman her spoons again.’ Charlotte Brontë also loved and often quoted Scottish ballads, and songs by Burns.

Some echoes of Irish speech may be detected. Mr Brontë had used an approximation to Irish pronunciation for some words spoken by Nanny in The Maid of Killarney, and the Brontës probably knew Maria Edgeworth's Castle Rackrent (1800) with its gossiping newsmonger and dialect-speaker Judy M'Quirk, and the narrator Thady, whose garrulous narrative is interspersed with dialect words which, as Edgeworth notes, were characteristic of ‘many of Thady's rank’. Like Charlotte Brontë, and unlike Emily, Edgeworth glosses some of the dialect words and customs, noting that ‘childer’ was used for ‘children’ (as it was in Yorkshire), ‘gossoon’ for a little boy, ‘fairy-mounts’ for barrows, and ‘Banshee’ for ‘a species of aristocratic fairy’ whose singing warned of imminent death. Charlotte was to use the ‘Banshee’ hauntingly in Villette.

The following notes on Yorkshire dialect are intended as a brief guide to the list of dialect words used in the Brontës’ works. They are based in part on K. M. Petyt's article ‘The Dialect Speech in Wuthering Heights’, in Wuthering Heights (Clarendon edn.), app. 7, pp. 500–13.

Pronunciation

The standard English pronunciation of the vowel in ‘round’ is a diphthong, but in Yorkshire dialect it is a monophthong, ‘ah’. See ‘ahr’, ‘bahn’, ‘daht’, in the Table. The ‘u’ of ‘come’, ‘up’, ‘sup’ is broad, approximating to ‘coom’, ‘oop’, ‘soop’. The Brontës note some diphthongal vowels where standard English has long single sounds: ‘fooil’ for ‘fool’, ‘gooid’ for ‘good’, ‘Looard’ for ‘Lord’. Generally speaking, Yorkshire vowels tend to be fuller, more open, and made further back in the mouth than in standard English. Thus Emily writes ‘fowk’ for ‘folk’, ‘owld’ for ‘old’, ‘noa’ (approximating to ‘naw’) for ‘no’, ‘yoak’ (‘yawk’) for ‘yoke’. Initial ‘h’ is often dropped by dialect speakers, but the Brontës do not usually indicate this.

Morphology

Dialect plural forms such as ‘een’ for ‘eyes’, ‘shoon’ for ‘shoes’, ‘childer’ for ‘children’ may be used. Personal pronouns are ‘Aw’ or ‘Ee’ for ‘I’; ‘thah’, ‘tuh’, or ‘thee’ for the second-person singular (used in speaking to children, intimate friends, and by servants to their equals in rank, but not to the ‘gentry’); ‘shoo’ for ‘she’, ‘ye’ or ‘yah’ for ‘you’, ‘em’ for ‘them’. Possessive pronouns include ‘maw’, ‘thy’, ‘ahr’, or ‘wer’ (our). The reflexive ‘himself’ becomes ‘hisseln’, ‘ourselves’ becomes ‘werseln’, pronounced ‘[h]issen’, ‘wersen’, with a strong stress on the second syllable. ‘Shall’ and ‘should’ become ‘sall’, ‘sud’, or simply ‘s’ alone: ‘we's hear hah it's tuh be’ = ‘we shall hear how it is to be’. Other words may be shortened or run together: ‘the’ becomes ‘t’, ‘of the’ becomes ‘ut’ or ‘ot’; ‘with’ becomes ‘wi’ ’, ‘and’ becomes ‘an’ or ‘un’; ‘over’ may be ‘o'er’, ‘always’ ‘allus’, and ‘do not’ ‘dunnut’. ‘Nobbut’, meaning ‘only’, is probably an elided ‘nothing but’ or ‘nowt but’. ‘Have’ may be omitted from perfect tenses, as in ‘yah been’ for ‘you have been’.

Semantics

Some words which look familiar may have a different meaning in dialect from that in standard English: to starve can mean ‘to be very cold’, a hole or hoile may be a room, and gate or gait may mean either ‘way’ or ‘road’. ‘Road’ can also mean ‘way’ in the abstract sense of ‘manner’, as in ‘goa on i' that road’. ‘Nor’ or ‘nur’ may mean either ‘than’ or ‘nor’ as in standard English: ‘Aw sud uh taen tent uh t'maister better nur him’ means ‘I should have taken care of the master better than he [did]’. The word ‘like’ has its standard meanings, but is also used quasi-adverbially before or after a word, adding to it the suggestion of ‘as it were’, ‘so to speak’, or giving a vague emphasis, as in ‘St. John is like his kirstened [christened] name’ in Jane Eyre (ch. 29). Words which survive only in dialect may have to be given a conjectural or approximate meaning from their context, since there may be no exact equivalents in standard English. As K. M. Petyt points out, other words in the Brontës’ works may or may not be authentic dialect: ‘Unfortunately, Joseph Wright's great English Dialect Dictionary is not reliable here: written evidence was insisted on as necessary and sufficient for a usage to be included, so if a form occurred in Wuthering Heights it was entered without query’ (Wuthering Heights (Clarendon edn.), p. 512). One might add that the absence of holograph manuscripts for Emily's and Anne's novels and the notorious inaccuracy of Newby's printing add to the difficulty of authenticating and interpreting obscure expressions like ‘pale t' guilp off’ in Wuthering Heights (ch. 13).

The principal dialect speakers in the Brontës’ novels are Nancy Brown in Agnes Grey, Hannah in Jane Eyre, Moses Barraclough, Joe Scott, and Mr Yorke in Shirley, and Hareton Earnshaw and Joseph in Wuthering Heights. In the juvenilia Sdeath always uses dialect; Thornton, Edward Percy, and others sometimes do so. The Table includes dialect words in the major novels, and some of those used in Emily's poems, in Charlotte's early writings and letters, and in Branwell's works. The chapter or volume and page-references are given to indicate typical usage and context, not to provide a complete list of examples.

Table: The Brontës' Use of Dialect

adj.

adjective

AG

Agnes Grey

BB Works

The Works of Branwell Brontë, ed. Victor A. Neufeldt, 3 vols. (1997, 1998, 1999)

EBP

The Poems of Emily Brontë, ed. Derek Roper, with Edward Chitham (1995)

EEW

An Edition of the Early Writings of Charlotte Brontë, ed. Christine Alexander, vol. 1 (1987), vol. 2(1–2) (1991)

JE

Jane Eyre

Letters

The Letters of Charlotte Brontë, ed. Margaret Smith, vol. 1 (1995), vol. 2 (2000)

P

The Professor

S

Shirley

sb.

substantive

Sc.

Scottish

T

Tenant

vb.

verb

WH

Wuthering Heights

References to the novels are to chapter and page of the Clarendon edition; references to other works are by volume and page. A semicolon separates references from different works; a comma separates references from the same work.

Dialect word

Meaning

Work

Reference

ch./vol.

pp.

aat

out

BB Works

3

267

abaat

about

BB Works

3

146, 148

aboon

above

BB Works

3

441

agate/agait

on hand, afoot

JE; WH

28; 2

428; 21

ahint

behind

BB Works

2

121

ahr

our

WH

10

128

allas

= allus

allus

always

WH

13

176

alow

ablaze

S

19

382

an

if

BB Works; WH

1; 2

4; 12

anent

opposite, against

AG

11

97, 100

another guess

a different

AG; EEW

11; 2(2)

101; 102

as what

whatever

AG

4

44

as where

wherever

WH

5

50

ask (Sc.)

lizard

S

7

118

atin

eating

BB Works

1

23

at nothing

for anything

AG

4

45

at onst

at once

WH

13

174

aught

anything

AG

11

93

aw

I (1st person pronoun)

BB Works; WH

2; 9

117; 104, 107

awn

own

BB Works

3

420

aye

yes

BB Works

1

277, 373

ayont (Sc.)

beyond, after

S

13

290

bahn (to do)

bound to do, going to do

WH

24

307

baht

without

WH

13, 33

174, 388

bamming

playing a trick on

BB Works

3

172

ban

curse

WH

10

128

band

rope, string

S

3

49

barn

bairn, child

EEW; T; WH

2(1); 43; 11

46; 390; 134

beaten

exhausted

WH

4

44

beck

small brook, stream

JE; S; WH

9; 2; 10, 13

88; 38; 116, 164

ben

within, right inside

EEW

2(2)

310

bicker

flicker

BB Works

2

25

bide

live, dwell

WH

32

370

biggin’

building

S

30

613

bits of

small, of little value

S

3

49

boddle (Sc.)

= bodle

bodle (Sc.)

Scottish coin of little value: see ‘plack’

EEW

2(2)

106, 231

bogard

ghost

BB Works; S

2; 5

636; 68

bogle (Sc.)

goblin

EEW

2(2)

125

boit

boot

BB Works

2

527

bout

time, occasion

S

3

49

bow (vb.; Sc.)

bay, bark

S

7

118

brae (Sc.)

slope above a river-bank, hill-slope

EBP

148

EEW; S

2(2); 24

330; 485

braid (Sc.)

broad

EEW

2(2)

322

braw (Sc.)

fine, brave, handsome

BB Works; V

2; 37

121; 629

brust (vb.)

burst, break

WH

33

388

bucking-basket

laundry-basket

S

36

714

bullister (Sc.)

sloe, wild plum

S

7

118

call

abuse, find fault

AG

11

93, 99

callant (Sc.)

lad, youth

V

26

431

cannie (Sc.)

lucky, safe to meddle with

V

25

402

cant

brisk, cheerful

S; WH

9; 7

160; 69

cantrip (Sc.)

witch's trick, or any mischievous conduct

EEW

2(1)

257

canty

brisk, cheerful

AG; WH

6; 22

54; 281

cheap (to be cheap of)

to get off lightly with

P

25

266

childer

children

JE; S

28; 8

426; 149

chitty-faced

having a small or babyish face

S

33

657

clatter (vb.)

to beat, strike

S

32

652

clatter (sb. & vb.)

chatter, gossip

Letters

i

194

clishma-claver (Sc.)

foolish talk

EEW

2(2)

231

clomp

walk heavily

AG

2

17

crack

brisk talk, gossip

EEW; S; T; V

2(1); 23; 4; 27

130; 463; 34; 450

crack

lively lad, a wag

EEW

2(2)

262

cranky

shaky, crazy

WH

13

173

crock

smut, smudge

JE

18

240

croft

enclosed ground used for tillage or pasture

S

22

435

cushat

wood-pigeon or ring-dove

S

24

487

custen dahn

cast down

S

5

67

dahn

down

S

5

67

daht

doubt, be afraid

WH

13

172

dead-thraw

death-throe

S

37

725

dean

dingle, deep hollow

BB Works

3

187

deave aht

knock out

WH

13

172

den

dingle; deep hollow between hills

S

2

38

dip-tail

pied wagtail

EEW

I

197

doit

small coin; bit; jot

EEW

2(1)

53

donned, donning

dressed, dressing

WH

19, 7

247, 69

down-draughts

down-dragging or depressing influences

S

22

431

down of

distrustful of

T

43

389

dree (adj.)

cheerless, dreary

WH

14

188

dree one's weird

suffer one's destiny

EEW

2(2)

158

E/Ee

I (1st-person pronoun)

WH

33, 32

384, 371

eea, eees

yes

WH; BB Works

32; 2

371; 166

elf-bolt

fairy arrowhead

T

12

150

enah

presently, soon

WH

10

128

end, better

better kind or class

JE

14

166

erne

eagle

EEW

2(2)

340

ever (seldom or)

never (seldom or)

Letters

1

218, 408

ew-platter

plate made of yew-wood

EEW

2(1)

32

faal

= fahl

fahl

foul, evil, ugly

JE; WH

38; 9

575; 103, 107

fain of

glad about

WH

30

356

fairish (sb.)

fairy

EEW; S; WH

2(1); 37; 18

46; 740; 239

faishion (vb.)

= fashion

fand (vb., pret.)

found

JE; S

28; 3

426; 48

fashion (vb.)

bring oneself

AG; WH

11; 2

96; 18

feck (sb.)

part, portion

S

3

52

felly

fellow, admirer

WH

32

374

fettle off

kill

AG

5

48

fettle up

tidy up

AG

11

96

fey

fated to die

EEW

2(2)

105

flay/fley

frighten

S

5, 37

68, 740

flaysome

fearful, awful

WH

2

12

fley

= flay

flighted

?frightened

WH

4

44

flit, flitting

move, removal

WH; P

4; 22

41; 19

fornent

opposite

BB Works

2

637

fra

from

BB Works

1

344

frame (vb.)

(1) go

WH

5, 13

53, 167

(2) invent

WH

11, 24

142, 300

fresh

partly intoxicated

S

3

49

fry

state of worry or perplexity

S

1

10

gaberlunzie (Sc.)

beggar

EEW

2(2)

231

gait, gate

way

BB Works; WH

2; 32

637; 379

gang (vb.)

go

WH

13

167

gaumless

stupid

WH

21

267

gawking

staring, gaping

BB Works

1

120

gein/gien

given

BB Works

3

177, 421

get agate

get started, begin

S

18

366

get owered

pass over, finish (intr.)

AG

12

106

getten (participle) to

got to, reached

BB Works

2; 3

223; 216, 422

gird (sb.)

fit, spasm of pain

S

3

51

girn

grin

S, WH

30; 10

603; 128

girn

grin, snarl, show the teeth

WH

17, 34

217, 411

girt (adj.)

great

WH

9

102

gleg

sharp, keen

S

18

364

gnarl

snarl

WH

1

8

gooid

good

BB Works

2

117

grat (Sc.)

wept

WH

9

95

grave (vb., Sc.)

bury

S

7

119

greasehorn

flatterer

P

5

42

guess, another

a different

AG; EEW

11; 2(2)

101; 102

hahs/hahse

house

WH

9, 13

108, 175

hahsiver

howsoever, anyway

WH

32

372

happed

stacked, heaped up

P

4

33

happen

perhaps

AG; BB Works; S; WH; JE

1; 2; 3, 30; 11, 29, 38

15; 122; 51; 358; 113, 436, 575

hard-handed

stingy, close-fisted

S

7

126

harry

carry

WH

34

411

haulf, by the

‘by the half’ = much

WH

32

372

hazing

a thrashing

BB Works

3

254

hisseln/hissen

himself

WH

30

354

hit (vb.)

reach

S

3

48

hoile/hoyle

hole/room/corner/place/opening

BB Works; S

2; 3; 23

60, 108; 153; 464

WH

13, 32

175, 383

holly-oaks

hollyhocks

S

23

461

holm

meadow, esp. near a river

JE

9

88

hoody

piebald grey & black crow

EEW

1

288

hor

her (poss. adj.)

WH

9

107

hotch

heave

EEW

2(1)

32

house

main communal room

WH

21

259

howe of night

middle of the night

S

32

639

howsiver/howsomdever

however

BB Works

1, 2

285, 370

ing

meadow, esp. near a river

JE

9

88

intull

into

BB Works

2

167

jocks

?provisions

WH

32

374

just i' now/just e' now

by and by, ere long

S

18

372

kail (Sc.)

cabbage

Letters

1

214

keck, give a

to make a sound as if about to vomit

EEW

1

141

kedge

brisk, lively

EEW

1

84

ken (Sc.)

know

BB Works

1

326

kittle

fickle, unstable

S

18

370

lace (vb.)

beat, thrash

WH

3

26

lady-clock

ladybird

EEW; JE

1; 23

197; 314

laik

play a game

WH

3

26

laith

barn

WH

2

12

lake-lasses

playmates, companions

S

37

740

Lallans(Sc.)

Lowland Scottish dialect

EEW

2(2)

322

lameter

cripple

JE; S

37; 26

556; 523

larum

uproar, hubbub

EEW

2(2)

167

lift

rear up

EEW

2(2)

117

lig dahn

lie down

S; WH

3; 13

48; 175

lig hold of

lay hold of

S

5

68

light of (vb.)

chance upon

S

4

65

like, loike (adv.)

so to speak, as it were

BB Works; JE; WH

1; 29; 13

345; 436; 172

likely

desirable, fitting

JE; T

9, 28; 24

93, 427; 215

likker

more likely

WH

9

104

linn (Sc.)

waterfall

EEW

1

283

loike

= like

loundering

severe, resounding

S

30

606

low (sb.)

flame

S

4

65

luddend

?

BB Works

1

400

lugs

ears

WH

3

26

madling

fool, flighty creature

WH

13

175

mak' (sb.)

make, sort, species

S

3

52

marred

spoilt

WH

8, 13

89, 175

mask

face, head, manifestation

JE

12

136

maun (Sc., vb.)

must (cf. mun)

S

7

119

mavis

song-thrush

EEW

2(2)

61

maw

my

WH

9

104

measter

master

BB Works

2

108

meeterly

tolerably

WH

13

173

mell

meddle, interfere

BB Works; WH

3; 13

421; 174

mensful

decent

WH

32

370, 383

messter

Mister

BB Works

2

109

mich

much

BB Works

1

345

middle-night(Sc.)

midnight

EBP

73

mim

prim, affected

S; T; WH

8; 32; 13

144; 290; 168

minching

mincing (speech)

WH

13

168

mools (Sc.)

mould, earth

WH

9

95

much made of

made much of, treated as a favourite

V

1

6

mud (vb., pret.)

might, must

BB Works; WH

2; 13

636; 172

muh (vb.)

may

WH

33

387

mun (vb.)

must

BB Works; WH

2; 33

117, 157; 387

nab

prominent hill

WH

21

262

nabbut/nobbut

only

BB Works; WH

2; 2

121, 167; 12

nave

fist

WH

13

172

nicher

snicker, cackle, neigh

EEW; JE

2(2); 19

123; 246

noan

(1)not

BB Works; JE; WH

2; 11; 9

121; 114; 106

(2)none

BB Works; WH

2; 10

570; 128

nor

than

BB Works; JE

1; 38

443; 575

norther/nother

neither

BB Works; WH

2; 19

108, 109; 249

nothing, at

for anything

AG

4

45

nowt

nothing, worthless thing

WH

2, 32

18, 370

o'ered/owered

over, finished

AG; WH

12; 3

106; 26

offald/offalld

worthless, wicked

WH

9; 18

104, 241

oftens

often

AG

11

95

on

of

BB Works; WH

1; 10, 34

345; 128, 412

onding on

heavy with (snow)

JE

4

41

'only

lonely

JE

37

553

onst

once

WH

13

174

orderations

arrangements, management

S

8

154

owered

= o'ered

owt

anything

AG

11

101

pabble (vb.)

bubble

EEW

2(1)

32

pale t'guilp off

?knock the pan off

WH

13

172

pared

changed for the worse

S

9

160

pawky

shrewd, knowing

S

8

143

pawsed

?kicked or pushed

WH

3

26

penny-fee

wages, money

P

18

146

piecen

join broken threads in spinning

JE (MS)

13

145 n.

pike

turnpike gate

WH

10

128

pine

starve

S; WH

8; 13

153; 175

plack

small copper coin

EEW

2(2)

106

plack and bodle

to the last farthing

EEW

2(2)

231

play up

scold

S

23

464

plisky

rage, tantrum

WH

13

175

plisky (Sc.)

trick

BB Works

1

267

plotter (vb.)

blunder, flounder

WH

9

104

poortith

poverty

EEW

1

321

pooty

small, young

S

15

314

praise/prease

object of praise

EEW

2(1)

282

put about

vex, harass

S

24

496

quaigh (Sc.)

drinking-cup, sometimes made of wood

Letters

1

227

quean

saucy girl

WH

33

388

raised

highly excited

V

23

368

ranny

sharp, shrewish

EBP

35

raton/rotten/ratton

rat

EEW

1; 2(2)

25; 233, 263

ratton

rat

BB Works; S

2; 4

526; 58

re-piecen

rejoin threads

EEW

2(2)

249

reaming

foaming, brimful

Villette; WH

25; 32

402; 374

redd up

tidied up

JE

37

561

red-wud (Sc.)

completely mad

EEW

2(2)

233

reek (Sc.)

thick smoke

Letters

1

214

reeve (vb.)

to twist (?)

EEW

2(2)

117

rig (sb.)

?ridge

WH

9

104

rive (vb.)

pull with force, tear off

EEW

2(2)

132

road, that

in that way

WH

30

358

roup (vb.)

cry, shout, roar

EEW

2(2)

106

rum (adj.)

fine, good, valuable

EEW

2(1)

148

rusty

(of meat) rancid

JE

5

57

sackless

?dispirited

WH

22

280

sair (Sc.)

sore, sad

Letters

i

441

scorney

scornful, contemptuous

EEW

2(1)

271

scrawk (sb.)

scratch or mark with a pen

EEW

2(2)

95

scroop

back, spine

WH

3

26

scrunty (Sc.)

stunted

S

7

119

sheepshanks, na (Sc.)

a person of no small importance

EEW

I

287

shoo

she

WH

33

388

shoon

shoes

EEW

2(1)

281

side (vb.)

move aside, tidy away

AG; WH

11; 32

96; 379, 383

sin

since

BB Works; JE

3; 28

267; 426

skelp (vb., Sc.)

bound along, move briskly

BB Works

1

93

skift (vb.)

shift, skip

WH

24

305

smoor

smother

S

7

119

snook

poke one's nose in

T

7

56

snoozled

nuzzled

WH

3

37

snow, wreath of

snowdrift

EBP

49

snow-wreath

snowdrift

AG; S; T

11; 24; 42

91; 476; 384

somut

something

BB Works

1

344

sort

deal effectively with

Letters

2

566

sough

ditch, boggy stream

WH

10

116

sough/sugh

soft murmur (of water)

JE

12

135

spang (vb.)

spring, leap

EEW

2(1)

24

stalled of

bored with, weary of

S; WH

18; 30, 31

364; 359, 363

stark

rigid, stiff in death

WH

34

411

starved

very cold, frozen

JE; WH

7, 34; 30

69, 504; 358

starving

freezing

WH

9

107

stoup

drinking vessel

BB Works; EEW

1; 2(2)

281; 106

sugh

= sough

sumph

simpleton, blockhead

EEW

2(2)

372

sumphishness

stupidity

Letters

1

509

sup, a good

a fair amount

AG

1

15

syne (Sc.)

later

V

24

382

tached

taught

S

9

160

taed (Sc.)

toad

S

7

118

tak' tent/take tent

take care, beware

S; WH

23; 17

464; 230

taking (sb.)

(1) plight

WH

14

188

(2) state of anger

WH

30

359

teed

tied

S

3

49

tent, take

see tak' tent

tha/thaw

thou, you

BB Works

1, 2

401, 117

thereanent

about that matter

V

20

307

thible

wooden stirring stick or spoon

EEW; WH

2(2); 13

113; 172

thrang/throng

(1) busy

WH

30

353

(2) dense, close, thick

EEW

2(2)

107

thrapple/trapple (Sc.)

windpipe, throat

EEW

2(2)

233

threap (vb.)

(1) quarrel

AG; JE

11; 29

100; 438

(2) rebuke, assert vehemently

BB Works

2

167

tinkler

tinker, gipsy, outlaw

JE

18

241

tint (participle)

lost. Cf. ‘tyne’.

BB Works

2

643

tit

small horse, nag

BB Works

3

189

to-night

last night (perhaps only said in the morning)

S

20

400

toppin

head

EEW

2(1)

28

trade

course of action, conduct

S

8

150

trapple

= thrapple

tuh

you (2nd person singular)

WH

13

167

tull

to

BB Works

2

504

twal' (Sc.)

twelve

S

13

290

tyne (Sc.)

lose

JE

24

341

unlikely

unsuitable, inconvenient

JE; Letters; WH

34; 1; 19

503; 432; 247

up uh

set on, determined on

WH

10

128

used coming

used to come

AG

11

94

uses burning

is in the habit of burning

S

19

379

usquebaugh (Sc.)

whisky

Letters

1

227

varmint/vermin

rascal (applied playfully to an animal or child)

Letters

1; 2

361, 598

war

worse

S; WH

20; 2, 9

399; 18, 104

wark (sb.)

work, trouble

WH

13

174

waur (Sc.)

worse

S

7

118

wearifu' (Sc.)

causing trouble or weariness

S

6

92

weird

destiny

EEW

2(2)

158

wer

our

S; WH

5; 32

68; 373

whamled

rolled

BB Works

2

170

while + time

until

AG

12

107

whudder (Sc.)

blow wildly, stormily (cf. wuther)

S

7

119

wick (adj.)

alive, lively

BB Works; WH

3; 5

421; 51

wick (sb.)

week, weeks

WH

32

369

wisht/whisht

hush

BB Works; WH

1; 9, 18

362; 92, 240

wollsome

wholesome

WH

13

173

wor, war

were, was

BB Works

2; 3

108; 148

work (sb.)

fuss, disturbance

S

1

15

worky-day

workaday

AG; P

22; 12

189; 101

wuther (vb. & sb.)

blow wildly, storm

S; V; WH

33; 16; 1

661; 240; 4

wynd

lane, alley

EEW

2(2)

265

yamp (Sc.)

hungry, peckish

BB Works

3

142

yate

gate

WH

9

104

yaw

you

BB Works

2

108, 109, 157

yellow-wymed (Sc.)

yellow-bellied

S

7

118

yourn

yours

Letters

1

317, 327

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