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Chronology

Source:
Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Chronology

Date

Africa South of the Sahara

Britain and Ireland

Europe

The Middle East, North Africa, and Central Asia

South Asia

Southeast Asia

East Asia

Australia, New Zealand, Oceania, and the Polar Regions

The United States and Canada

Latin America and the Caribbean

Date

1750

Maravi state system begins to decline (Malawi)

Pombal reforms begin in Portugal

Franciscans reach Gondar (Ethiopia) but are forced to return to Europe

Pombal reforms begin in Portuguese empire

Treaty of Madrid about missions

1750

1751

Anglicans evangelize among the Fante

Beginning of publication of the Encyclopédie

Britain signs treaty with Tunis

Clive captures Arcot for British control of southern India

Qing China invades and conquers Tibet

1751

1752

Mozambique's administration separated from that of Gao

Britain adopts Gregorian calendar

Afghans invade India

Civil war in Burma (Myanmar)

Ben Franklin invents the lighting conductor

1752

1753

British Museum founded

Albany Convention

1753

1754

First recorded resistance to Boers

End of the second Carnatic War

French and Indian War (1754–1763)

1754

1755

Smallpox epidemic in Cape Town

Samuel Johnson's Dictionary

Earthquake at Lisbon

Huge fire in Istanbul

Non-Christian Chinese expelled from Philippines

Battle at the Monongahela

1755

1756

Seven Years' War (1756–1763)

Third Carnatic War (1756–1763)

Afghans occupy Delhi

1756

1757

John Campbell invents sextant

Attack by Bedouins on the annual Damascus pilgrimage caravan to Mecca

British win battle of Plassey in Bengal

Konbaung dynasty indisputably rules Burma (1757–1885)

Qing China makes Guangzhou the only port open to European trade

1757

1758

Canal between Liverpool and Leeds begun (finished 1761)

Shogun punishes Takenouchi Shikibu, a scholar favoring imperial restoration

1758

1759

Rioting in Dublin over possibility of union

Expulsion of Jesuits from Portugal

Qing China conquers Turkestan

Quebec surrenders to the British after battle of the Plains of Abraham

Expulsion of Jesuits from Portuguese territories

1759

1760

Expulsion of Jesuits from Angola and Mozambique

Battle of Wandiwash (Vandavasi) between British and French

Montreal surrenders; all Canada now in Britain's control

Akan slaves revolt (Jamaica)

1760

1761

Harrison's chronometer accurately measures longitude

Battle of Panipat between Marathas and Afghans

British capture Pondicherry from French

1761

1762

Catherine II the Great of Russia begins rule (1762–1796)

Rousseau's Contrat social

Muhammad Abu Likaylik establishes the Hamadj dynasty, keeping Funj royals as puppets

British capture Manila

France cedes land west of Mississippi to Spain

French West Indies islands surrender to the British

1762

1763

Catholic mission begins at Gorée (Senegal)

British seize Senegambia

Treaty of Paris

English East India Company establishes base in Iran

Sanyasi rebellion against British (Bengal)

Pontiac Rebellion

Proclamation of 1763

Treaty of Paris over various territories

Treaty of Paris over various territories

1763

1764

Hargreaves invents the spinning jenny

Expulsion of Jesuits from France

English East India Company gains control of Bengal and Bihar after battle at Buxar

War between Burma and Thailand (1764–1769)

French settle on East Falkland (Isla Soledad); soon forced to leave by Spanish

Expulsion of Jesuits from French territories

1764

1765

Stril War in Norway

Shah Alam II grants English East India Company revenue-collecting power in Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa

Protests against the Stamp Act

British settle at Port Egmont, West Falkland (Gran Malvina)

1765

1766

Rioting in Ireland over food shortages

Esquilache Riots in Spain

Famine in Bengal

Burma repels three attacks by Chinese (1766–1769)

Bougainville circumnavigates the globe (1766–1769)

Repeal of the Stamp Act

1766

1767

Segu rebuilt by Ngolo Jara

Expulsion of Jesuits from Spain

Burma conquers Ayutthaya (Thailand)

Wallis is first European to see Tahiti

Townshend Acts tax imports

Expulsion of Jesuits from Spanish territories

1767

1768

Royal Academy founded

Beginning of publication of Encyclopædia Britannica

Ottoman-Russian War (1768–1774)

Bruce explores East Africa (1768–1773)

French-Tunisian War (1768–1770)

Ottoman-Russian War (1768–1774)

Thailand invades Cambodia

Famine in Vietnam

Cook's first voyage (1768–1771)

Bougainville travels through Pacific

British troops refused quarters in Boston

1768

1769

Watt patents the steam engine

Famine in India

War between Thailand and Vietnam (1769–1773)

Cook witnesses the transit of Venus (Tahiti)

1769

1770

Much resistance by Khoisan to Trekboers

Ansante seize Gomba

Taksin reconstitutes some areas of Ayutthaya (Thailand)

First Bengal opium arrives in China

Cook declares possession of eastern Australia (New South Wales)

Boston Massacre

Gaspée Affair in Narragansett Bay

1770

1771

Maupéou Coup (France)

Tay Son Rebellion (Vietnam, 1771–1802)

1771

1772

James Bruce traces the Blue Nile

Slavery abolished in Britain

Ann Lee heads Shakers; moves to America in 1774

First Partition of Poland

Sikhs attack Delhi

Direct administration by the English East India Company in Bengal

Thai burn down Phnom Penh

Cook's second voyage (1772–1775)

Boston Assembly threatens secession

1772

1773

Harrison gets the longitude prize

Regulating Act creates office of governor-general of India

Boston Tea Party

1773

1774

Donaldson v. Becket case confirms public domain

Spain skirmishes with Morocco about supposed pirates (1774–1775)

Wang Lun uprising (China)

Quebec Act Various “Coercive Acts” passed

First Continental Congress meets, draws up Declaration of Rights and Grievances

British leave Port Egmont

1774

1775

Succession disputes following the death of the Xhosa ruler (1775–1782)

Watt's steam engine introduced

First Anglo-Maratha War (1775–1782)

War between Burma and Thailand (1775–1776)

Battles of Lexington and Concord, Ticonderoga, Bunker Hill

Second Continental Congress meets

Continental Army, led by Washington, created

1775

1776

Yoruba introduce Islam into Dahomey

First contacts between Dutch and Xhosa

Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations

Occupation of Basra by Iran

Cook's third voyage (1776–1779)

Paine's Common Sense

Declaration of Independence

Battles of Long Island, Trenton

Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata created

1776

1777

Dominicans expelled from Mozambique

Battles of Princeton, Brandywine, Saratoga

Republic of Vermont exists (1777–1791)

Treaty of San Idelfonso (Brazil)

1777

1778

War of the Bavarian Succession (1778–1779)

Sikhs attack Delhi

Thailand invades Cambodia

France allies with the colonies

1778

1779

Fighting between Xhosa and Europeans (nine wars, 1779–1879)

Treaty of Teschen

Cook killed in Hawai‘i

Spain allies with the colonies

Portugal cedes Fernando Póo and Annobón to Spain

1779

1780

Fourth Anglo-Dutch War (1780–1784)

Gordon Riots

Fourth Anglo-Dutch War (1780–1784)

Second Anglo-Mysore War (1780–1784)

British siege of Charleston

Túpac Amaru rebellion (Peru, 1780–1782)

1780

1781

Clarendon Press, Oxford, created

Edict of Tolerance in Habsburg Monarchy

Kant's Critique of Pure Reason

Construction of Siberian highway begun

Charter Act

Siege of Yorktown; Cornwallis surrenders

Articles of Confederation ratified

1781

1782

Spanish capture Minorca from British

Ratanakosin kingdom, with Jakri (or Bangkok) dynasty, rules Thailand

Temmei famine in Japan (1782–1787)

1782

1783

Russia annexes the Crimea from the Ottomans

League of Princes

Sikhs attack Delhi

Mount Asama erupts (Japan)

Britain recognizes independence of the United States

1783

1784

Pitt's India Act gives Crown more rule in India

Burma conquers Arakan

United States enters the Guangzhou trade

Economic depression in United States

1784

1785

S. M. X. Golberry explores West Africa (1785–1787)

Railroad tie invented

League of the German Princes among Prussia, Electoral Saxony, and Hanover

War between Burma and Thailand (1785–1792)

Catholicism banned (Korea)

University of Georgia chartered; first state-sponsored university

1785

1786

Treaty between Morocco and United States

Reassertion of Ottoman control over Egypt

Cornwallis becomes governor-general of India

Qing China suppresses a rebellion in Taiwan

1786

1787

Britain resettles former slaves in Sierra Leone

War between Ottomans and Russia

Rice riots in Edo

First transport leaves Britain for Botany Bay

Constitutional Convention meets

1787

1788

African Association founded in London

Austria joins Ottoman-Russian war

Louis XVI asks Estates-General to pass taxes

War between Sweden and Russia

Tay Son dynasty rules Vietnam (1788–1802)

Transport arrives in Botany Bay; Sydney (Port Jackson) founded

U.S. Constitution ratified

1788

1789

Catholicism introduced at Warri (Nigeria)

Regency Bill passes, but George III recovers from his madness

Tennis Court Oath

Storming of the Bastille

Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen passed

Act of Unity and Security in Sweden

Mutiny on HMS Bounty, bound for Tahiti

Malaspina circumnavigates the globe (1789–1794)

Washington inaugurated as president

1789

1790

Civil Constitution of the Clergy (France)

Third Anglo-Mysore War (1790–1792)

1790

1791

Boswell's Life of Johnson

Louis XVI ratifies French Constitution

Mozart dies, age thirty-five

Famine in India

Publication of The Story of the Stone (The Dream of the Red Chamber) by Cao Xueqin

Bill of Rights comes into effect

Canada Act passed

Whiskey Rebellion

Haitian Revolution (1791–1804)

1791

1792

Denmark abolishes slave trade

Wollstonecraft's Vindication of the Rights of Woman

First Republic rules France (September 1792–October 1795)

French defeat Prussians at Battle of Valmy

Treaty of Jassy

Gustavus III of Sweden murdered

War of the First Coalition (1792–1797)

Japan refuses Russian requests for trade

Qing China invades Nepal from Tibet

Vancouver circumnavigates Vancouver Island

1792

1793

Alien Act removes Irish to Ireland

Second Partition of Poland

Louis XVI guillotined

France declares war on Britain, Holland, and Spain

Reign of Terror (1793–1794)

Levée en Masse

al-Nuhayyan family, rulers of Al Bu Falah tribe, move to Abu Dhabi

Permanent settlement of Bengal agreement between East India Company and Bengali landlords

Macartney mission fails to establish trade relations with China

First free settlers arrive in Australia

Mackenzie reaches Pacific coast overland

Whitney invents the cotton gin

Town of York (Toronto) founded

1793

1794

Freedom for all slaves in French colonies

Glorious First of June battle at sea

National uprising in Poland

Belgium incorporated into France

Hawai‘i under protection of British Crown

Jay's Treaty

Neutrality Act

First labor organization, the Federal Society of Journeymen Cordwainers, founded

Freedom for all slaves in French colonies

1794

1795

British gain control of Cape Town

London Missionary Society founded

Third Partition of Poland

Treaty of Basel between France and Prussia

Directory rules France (1795–1799)

Adoption of metric system in France

Batavian Revolution

United States signs treaty with Algiers

British hold Malacca for the Dutch

Revolt by Hmong suppressed by China (1795–1797)

Treaty of San Lorenzo, or Pinckney's treaty

War between Maroons and British (Jamaica)

Slave revolt on Grenada

1795

1796

Mungo Park reaches the Niger

Wesleyan missionaries work in Sierra Leone

Edward Jenner discovers that smallpox can be prevented with vaccination

Napoleon's Italian campaign (1796–1797)

Dutch cede Ceylon (Sri Lanka) to Britain

White Lotus Rebellion (1796–1804)

British capture the Dutch colonies Essequibo, Demerara, and Berbice

Slave revolt on Saint Vincent

1796

1797

Nore and Spithead mutinies

Battle off Cape Saint Vincent

Genoa forms its own republic

London Missionary Society sets up station in Tahiti

XYZ Affair

Mutiny on HMS Hermione

1797

1798

United Irishmen uprising

Wordsworth and Coleridge's Lyrical Ballads

Jourdan Law in France

Battle of the Pyramids; French occupy Egypt

Battle of the Nile

Britain and Oman sign treaty of friendship

Fourth Anglo-Mysore War (1798–1799)

Subsidiary Treaty between British and Indian princes

Quasi-War between United States and France (1798–1800)

Alien and Sedition Acts

1798

1799

First London Missionary Society station in South Africa

Khoi revolt

Combination Acts (1799, 1800)

Income tax introduced

Constitution of the Year VIII in effect; Napoleon consul

War of the Second Coalition (1799–1802)

French defeat Ottomans at Abukir

United States signs treaty with Tunis

1799

1800

British blockade of Brest

Government rather than VOC rules Netherlands East Indies (Indonesia)

Qing imperial prohibition of opium

Gabriel Prosser leads failed slave attack on Richmond, Va.

1800

1801

Act of Union, creating the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, takes effect

First census

Concordat between pope and Napoleon

Battle of Copenhagen

French leave Egypt

War between Libya and United States (1801–1805)

First Barbary War with United States (1801–1805)

Flinders circumnavigates Australia (1801–1803)

Pork trade begins between Tahiti and New South Wales

1801

1802

Kingdom of Sardinia annexed to France

Treaty of Amiens

Nguyen rule Vietnam (1802–1945)

British restore Malacca to the Dutch

Trinidad goes to Spain in Treaty of Amiens

1802

1803

Cape Town returned to Dutch

Robert Emmet proclaims Irish government and is executed

Royal Jennerian Society for vaccines founded

Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815)

British take over Delhi

Second Anglo-Maratha War (1803–1805)

British colonize Van Diemen's Land as a penal colony

Louisiana Purchase

1803

1804

Usman dan Fodio begins jihad in West Africa (Fulani War)

Trevithick introduces the first locomotive

Napoleon proclaimed emperor (1804–1815)

First Serbian Uprising against Ottomans

Japan refuses Russian requests for trade

Hamilton killed by Burr in duel

Consolidación de Vales Reales by Spanish crown regulates church property in empire

Haiti becomes independent

1804

1805

Fulani nomads launch a jihad in Borno

Battle of Trafalgar

Battle of Austerlitz

War of the Third Coalition

Janissaries rule Aleppo until 1813

Muhammad ῾Ali Pasha becomes viceroy of Egypt

New law code (Thailand)

China prohibits Christian literature

1805

1806

British retake control of Cape Town

Continental System established

Confederation of the Rhine created

War of the Fourth Coalition (1806–1807)

Francis II abdicates, ending Holy Roman Empire

Clashes between Russian explorers and northern Japanese

British unsuccessfully attack Buenos Aires

1806

1807

Britain abolishes slave trade

Second Battle of Copenhagen

Peninsular War (1807–1814)

Gunboat War (1807–1814)

Hesse and Bavaria make vaccination for smallpox mandatory

British occupy Alexandria

Ottomans invade Mani, Greece

Civil service examination revived (Vietnam)

Embargo Act

Fulton's steamboat goes up the Hudson to Albany

Portuguese family flees to Brazil

British unsuccessfully attack Buenos Aires

Britain abolishes slave trade

1807

1808

Napoleon makes brother Joseph king of Spain

Peninsular War (1808–1813)

Finnish war between Sweden and Russia (1808–1809)

Rum Rebellion

Slave trade made illegal

1808

1809

Duke of Wellington wins battle of Salamanca

Annexation of Finland by Russia

War of the Fifth Coalition

Rome declared a free imperial city

Peace treaty of the Dardanelles between Britain and Ottomans

Treaty of friendship between Afghans and British

Repeal of the Embargo Act

Creoles in Quito strive for independence (1809–1810)

1809

1810

Seku Ahmadu begins jihad in West Africa

Hawaiian Islands unified

Erie Canal proposed

Mexican independence from Spain declared

May Revolution (Argentina)

Bolivian independence movement begins

1810

1811

Ashanti campaign against the Fante fails

Future George IV serves as prince regent (1811–1820)

Massacre of Mamluk leaders

Turkish army revolts in Tunisia

Cambodian rebellion (1811–1812)

British occupy Netherlands East Indies (1811–1816)

Clashes between Russian explorers and northern Japanese

Battle of Tippecanoe

Grid plan accepted for New York City

Venezuela becomes independent

Paraguay becomes independent

Spain defeats Mexican revolutionaries at bridge of Calderón

1811

1812

Usman dan Fodio establishes the Sokoto caliphate

Constitution in Spain

War of the Sixth Coalition (1812–1814)

French invade Russia

Battles of Smolensk, Borodino

Hong Kyǒng-nae Rebellion (Korea)

United States declares war on Britain

1812

1813

Sectarian riots in Belfast

United Grand Lodge of England founded

Battle of the Nations (Leipzig)

Wellington wins Battle of Vitoria

Joseph Bonaparte abdicates

Charter Act opens India to free trade, ending East India Company's monopoly

The Tianli sect rebels and is suppressed

Qing imperial prohibition of opium

Battle of Lake Erie

Creek War (1813–1814)

1813

1814

Creation of Kingdom of Hanover

Pope restored to power in Rome

Napoleon abdicates

Treaty of Kiel; Sweden gets Norway

Gurkha War between Britain and Nepal (1814–1816)

Church Missionary Society sets up a station in New Zealand

Battle of Horseshoe Bend

America's first fully mechanized mill opens, at Waltham, Mass. (Waltham-Lowell system)

Dutch colonies Essequibo, Demerara, and Berbice ceded to the British

1814

1815

France abolishes the slave trade

Napoleon's hundred-day return

Battle of Waterloo

Congress of Vienna

Holy Alliance forms

Second Barbary War

Mount Tambora erupts (Indonesia)

Battle of New Orleans

Portuguese king returns to Portugal, leaving Prince Pedro as Brazil's regent

1815

1816

Elgin Marbles on display at the British Museum

Rossini's Il barbiere di Siviglia

Sweden introduces universal vaccination against smallpox

British bombard Algiers

American Bible Society founded

Argentina formally becomes independent

1816

1817

Ricardo's On the Principles of Political Economy and Taxation

Third Anglo-Maratha War (1817–1818)

1817

1818

British completely conquer Marathas

Bhil uprisings against British (1818–1831)

John Ross makes scientific voyage in the Arctic

Chile declares independence

1818

1819

Peterloo Massacre

Lord Byron's Don Juan (1819–1824)

Carlsbad Decrees

British attack Ras al-Khaimah (now part of United Arab Emirates)

British trading settlement opens in Singapore

Burma conquers Assam

1819

1820

Quinine discovered to be a malarial prophylaxis

Revolution in Naples and Piedmont

Liberal Triennium (Spain)

Britain signs peace treaty with sheikhs (Trucial States, now United Arab Emirates)

First coal mines open

Nguyen Du, author of the epic poem Truyen Kieu, dies (Vietnam)

Quinine discovered to be a malarial prophylaxis

Missouri Compromise

Guayaquil Creoles strive for independence

Argentina claims Falklands

1820

1821

Oudney, Denham, and Clapperton explore Lake Chad and the Niger (1821–1825)

Greece declares independence; war 1821–1829

Egyptians rule Sudan

Illicit trade in opium transferred to Lintin Island, Guangzhou

North West and Hudson's Bay companies merge

Spain recognizes Mexico's independence

Peru and Guatemala declare independence

1821

1822

Liberia established

Revolts in Sardinia

Muhammad ῾Ali introduces military conscription

Burma invades Manipur

Denmark Vesey leads slave revolt in Charleston, S.C.

Prince Pedro proclaims Empire of Brazil (1822–1889)

Ecuador part of Gran Colombia (1822–1830)

1822

1823

First Ashanti war against the British (1823–1831)

Supreme court and parliamentary system established in New South Wales

Monroe Doctrine

1823

1824

Britain grants right to form trade unions (Combination Acts repealed)

Beethoven's Symphony No. 9

British East India Company rules India

Kittur uprising against British

First Anglo-Burmese War (1824–1826)

Nederlandsche Handel-Maatschappij created

New penal colony established at Moreton Bay

Spanish defeated at Battle of Ayacucho (Peru)

1824

1825

Stockton-Darlington railway opens

Decembrist revolt in Russia

British Levant Company ends

Nguyen emperor outlaws Christian proselytism (Vietnam)

Java War (1825–1830)

Van Diemen's Land is made independent of New South Wales

Erie Canal completed

Bolivia declares independence

Brazil and Argentina fight over Uruguay (1825–1828)

1825

1826

Laing becomes first Westerner to reach Timbuktu, but is killed on return

British sign treaty with Siam

Bolívar convenes the Congress of Panama

1826

1827

Egyptian navy sunk by Europeans

Lao king leads an unsuccessful revolt against his Siamese overlord

Hicksite Separation within Quakerism (1827–1828)

1827

1828

Shaka Zulu murdered

Caillié reaches Timbuktu

Li Ruzhen's Flowers in the Mirror

Dutch annex western half of New Guinea

Noah Webster's unabridged dictionary

Nullification Crisis

Uruguay becomes independent

1828

1829

Metropolitan Police Act

Test Act repealed, allowing Catholics to hold office

British outlaw sati

Khasi resistance in Sylhet against British

Free colony established at Swan River

Britain claims continent of Australia

1829

1830

Lander brothers follow the Niger to its terminus

Locomotive line begins to be developed between Leeds and Manchester

July Revolution in Paris, resulting in the July Monarchy (1830–1848)

Belgium becomes independent

November insurrection in Poland

Uprisings in Modena, Parma, and Papal States

French seize Algeria from the Ottomans

Brahmo-Somaj sect founded

Campaign of persecution against Catholics (Vietnam)

Cultivation system introduced (Dutch East Indies)

Goodyear improves usability of rubber

First Latter Day Saint (Mormon) church formed

Gran Colombia dissolves into Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador

1830

1831

Royal Geographical Society created

Kol rebellion against British (1831–1832)

War between Thailand and Cambodia (1831–1834)

James Clark Ross reaches North Magnetic Pole

Garrison's Liberator newspaper begins

Nat Turner leads slave revolt in Southampton, Va.

Former Dutch colonies Essequibo, Demerara, and Berbice become British Guiana

1831

1832

First merchant expedition to the Niger

Reform Act passed

Egyptians capture Acre

1832

1833

Britain abolishes slavery

Church Temporalities (Ireland) Act

Oxford Movement begins

First Carlist War (1833–1840)

Charter Act ends English East India Company's monopoly in China

American Anti-Slavery Society founded

Chicago incorporated

Britain abolishes slavery

Britain evicts Argentineans from Falklands

1833

1834

Poor Law Amendment Act

Zollverein of eighteen contiguous states goes into effect (Germany)

The few remaining Aborigines in Tasmania are moved to Flinders Island

1834

1835

Baden joins the Zollverein

Macaulay's Minute on Education

Muslim slave rebellion (Brazil)

1835

1836

University of London founded (England's third university)

Qing emperor ends the opium trade

Free colony of South Australia established

Battle of the Alamo

Texas gains independence from Mexico

Constitution of Peru-Bolivian Confederation

1836

1837

Queen Victoria begins rule (1837–1901)

General Register Office opens

Indian indenture system legalized and regulated

Ōshio Heihachirō instigates Osaka rebellion

British House of Commons recommends protection of Aborigines

Rebellions in Quebec (1837–1838)

1837

1838

The Charter is prepared and published

First U.S. police force established, in Boston

1838

1839

Slaves aboard Amistad rebel

Chartist petition is presented to the Commons and fails; protests ensue

Dutch lose Belgium

First Anglo-Afghan War (1839–1842)

British seize Aden

Rebellion of Surendra Sai against British (1839–1862)

James Clark Ross makes Antarctic expedition (1839–1843)

Durham report (Canada)

Amistad, taken over by slaves, is captured by the U.S. Navy

Dissolution of Peru-Bolivian Confederation after Chilean attack

1839

1840

Omani Said bin Sultan moves his capital to Zanzibar

National Charter Association founded

Muhammad ῾Ali granted hereditary rule over Egypt

British bombard Acre

Damascus blood libel

First Opium War (1840–1842)

Transportation of British convicts to New South Wales ends

Guano boom, especially in Peru (through 1870s)

1840

1841

War between Thailand and Vietnam (1841–1845)

British Brooke family rule Sarawak

Act of Union creates Province of Canada (1841–1867)

Brook Farm commune formed (Mass.)

1841

1842

Portugal bans slave trade from Mozambique

Another Chartist petition fails, and protests again ensue

Treaty of Nanjing opens five treaty ports to West

Britain gains control of New Zealand (1842–1845)

Means-End Doctrine passed

1842

1843

Natal annexed as British colony

Dickens's A Christmas Carol

Disruption (Church of Scotland)

Sind incorporated into English East India Company empire

Potato blight begins in United States, spreads

1843

1844

British make Said bin Sultan end slave trade to Arabia

Treaty of Wangxia between China and United States

Washington, D.C., meridian becomes official for U.S. maps

1844

1845

Potato blight begins; famine results (1845–1849)

Ill-fated Franklin Arctic expedition (1845–1848)

Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass

New York City police established

1845

1846

Saifawa dynasty in Chad ends; longest-ruling family in history (began 1068)

Repeal of the Corn Laws

Corn is sold in Ireland

Evangelical Alliance founded

Second Carlist War (1846–1849)

Insurrection in Austrian Poland

Khond insurrection against British

Trade refused to U.S. ship (Edo Bay, Japan)

Mexican-American War (1846–1848)

Oregon Treaty

Mexican-American War (1846–1848)

Treaty of New Granada between Colombia and United States

1846

1847

Liberia becomes independent

Ten Hours Act passed

First publicly funded park, Birkenhead, opens (Liverpool)

The Liberator, Daniel O'Connell, dies

British Relief Organization founded

Forty-seven remaining Aborigines moved to Oyster Cove (Tasmania)

Douglass's North Star newspaper founded

Gold discoveries in California

Caste War of the Yucatán (1847–1901)

1847

1848

Al-hajj Umar Tal establishes an Islamic state in West Africa

Another Chartist petition fails, and protests again ensue

Failed rebellion by Young Ireland

Marx and Engel's Communist Manifesto

Revolutions throughout Europe

Second Republic rules France (1848–1852)

Universal manhood suffrage in France

Statuto Albertino in Sardinia

Insurrection in Prussian Poland

First Schleswig War (1848–1851)

Seneca Falls Convention

“Praieira” Revolt (Brazil, 1848–1852)

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

1848

1849

Livingstone crosses the Kalahari

Navigation Acts repealed

Punjab falls to English East India Company rule

Famine in Central Java (1849–1850)

U.S. castaways at Nagasaki liberated

California gold rush

Stagecoach line established across the Isthmus of Panama

1849

1850

Expansion of Vienna (1850–1857)

Taiping Rebellion (1850–1864)

Convicts start arriving at Swan River colony

Fugitive Slave Act

French Guiana becomes destination for French convicts

1850

1851

Britain bombards Lagos

Great Exhibition (Crystal Palace, London)

Hanover joins the Zollverein

Constitution in Prussia (lasts until 1918)

Coup by Louis-Napoleon (Napoleon III)

First cotton mill opened in Bombay

New colony of Victoria established (Australia)

Gold discovered in New South Wales

Melville's Moby-Dick

1851

1852

Patent law

Second French Empire of Napoleon III rules France (1852–1870)

Second Anglo-Burmese War (1852–1853)

British authorities invite colonial legislatures to write draft constitutions

Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin

Massachusetts passes first law making school compulsory

National uprising in Argentina: Overthrow of Rosas dictatorship

1852

1853

Livingstone crosses the continent and discovers Victoria Falls (1853–1856)

Crimean War (1853–1856)

Barth reaches Timbuktu

Nian rebellion in north China (1853–1868)

American Commodore Matthew Perry arrives in Japan

Transportation of British convicts to Van Diemen's Land ends

France acquires New Caledonia and sends convicts there

Gadsden Purchase (1853)

Argentina's Federalist Constitution approved

1853

1854

al-Hajj Umar begins jihad in West Africa

Miao rebellion (1854–1873) of Hmong against Chinese

Treaty of Kanagawa signed between Japan and the United States

Red Turban rebels attack Guangzhou

Eureka Stockade rebellion (Australia)

1854

1855

Santhal rebellion against British

Bowring Treaty between Britain and Thailand

Muslim rebellion in southwest China (1855–1873)

Shimoda Treaty between Russia and Japan

Massive earthquake in Edo

Van Diemen's Land renamed Tasmania

Constitution for limited self-government in New South Wales

Railroad line established across the Isthmus of Panama

1855

1856

Xhosa cattle killing (1856–1857)

Congress of Paris

Flaubert's Madame Bovary

Second Opium War (1856–1860)

Ley Lerdo (Mexico)

1856

1857

Toll at The Sound (Øresund) abolished

Great Mutiny (or Indian Rebellion) throughout India

Massacre of Cawnpore

Dred Scott v. Sandford Supreme Court decision

1857

1858

Burton and Speke become first Westerners to reach Lake Tanganyika

Irish Republican Brotherhood founded

Haussmann's Boulevard de Sébastopol opens (Paris)

Government of India Act

Queen Victoria's Proclamation (about India)

French invade Dai Nam (Vietnam)

Treaty of Tianjin

United States and Japan sign commercial treaty

Central Park begins (New York City)

War of the Reform in Mexico (1858–1860)

1858

1859

Livingstone discovers Lake Nyasa

Darwin's On the Origin of Species

J. S. Mill's On Liberty

Fenian Brotherhood founded (New York)

First battleship, French Gloire, built

Austria attacks Piedmont, which has French help

Workmen's Breach of Contract Act

Bengal Rent Act Rebellion against forced indigo cultivation (Bengal)

Colony of Queensland formed from New South Wales

John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry

Fenian Brotherhood founded (New York)

First commercial extraction of crude oil, in Pennsylvania

1859

1860

Britain annexes Lagos as a crown colony

Trade treaty between Britain and France

Trade treaty between Britain and France

Civil war in Lebanon (1860–1861)

Summer Palace at Beijing destroyed by the British

South Carolina is the first state to secede

1860

1861

Prince Albert dies

Serfs in Russia emancipated

Kingdom of Italy proclaimed

New penal code for India by Britain

Indian Councils Act

American Civil War (1861–1865)

Confederate States of America (1861–1865)

1861

1862

Al-hajj Umar Tal conquers Masina and establishes an empire

Al-hajj Umar Tal conquers Masina and establishes an empire from West Africa to Timbuktu

Treaty of Saigon between French and Nguyen

Muslim rebellion in northwest China (1862–1873)

Chinju uprising (Korea)

Homestead Act

Morrill Land Grant Act

Julia Ward Howe's “Battle Hymn of the Republic”

1862

1863

Irish People founded

Insurrection in Russian Poland

Japanese shore batteries fire on British ships leading to reprisals

Emancipation Proclamation

Gettysburg Address

1863

1864

Contagious Diseases Act

First International founded

Second Schleswig War

First Geneva Convention

Lincoln reelected as president

War of the Triple Alliance (Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay against Paraguay) (1864–1870)

Habsburgs rule Mexico (1864–1867)

1864

1865

Wagner's Tristan und Isolde

Bicameral parliament in Sweden

Lincoln assassinated

Thirteenth Amendment ratified by enough states; abolishes slavery

Morant Bay uprising in Jamaica

War of the Triple Alliance (1865–1870)

1865

1866

Contagious Diseases Act

Austro-Prussian War

Universal male suffrage (Prussia)

Famine in India

French attack Korea for anti-Christian activities U.S.

fails to open Korean ports

Irish nationalists make failed attacks on Canada

British Crown rule in Jamaica (1866–1944)

Spain attacks Peru

1866

1867

Diamonds discovered in South Africa

Second Reform Act passed

Fenian risings throughout Ireland

Manchester martyrs executed (Fenians)

Compromise (Ausgleich) creates Austria-Hungary

Luxembourg crisis between France and Prussia

Deobandi movement begins

Straits Settlements become a Crown colony

France annexes provinces around Saigon

Transportation of British convicts to Western Australia ends

Only French convicts to be sent to New Caledonia

Canada federated, becomes a Dominion

Widespread strike in Chicago

Clan na Gael founded

Final transatlantic slave-trade voyage arrives in Cuba

1867

1868

Trade Union Congress launched

Glorious Revolution (Spain)

Meiji Restoration

Ten Years' War (Cuba, 1868–1878)

1868

1869

Girton College, Cambridge, opens; first women's college

Irish Church Act

Tolstoy's War and Peace

Vatican I (1869–1870)

Suez Canal opens

1869

1870

Education Act

Land Act for Ireland

Ems telegram

Franco-Prussian War (1870–1871)

Third Republic rules France (1870–1940)

Papal infallibility proclaimed

Cultivation system abolished (Dutch East Indies)

Fifteenth Amendment ratified

1870

1871

Livingstone “found” at Lake Tanganyika

Trade Union Act

Treaty of Washington

Paris Commune

United German empire created

Rome made the capital of Italy

Daimyo replaced by governors (Japan)

U.S. again fails to open Korean ports

Chicago fire

Treaty of Washington

Daquilema uprising (Ecuador)

1871

1872

Third Carlist War (1872–1876)

Center Party founded (Germany)

Pabna peasant movement

First Chinese silk filature opens in Guangzhou

HMS Challenger gathers scientific data (1872–1876)

Dominion Lands Act

Alabama claims dispute settled

José Hernández's Romantic poem Martín Fierro

1872

1873

Second Ashanti war against the British (1873–1874)

Livingstone dies

Home Rule League founded

May Laws, an aspect of 1870s Kulturkampf (Germany)

First Spanish Republic (1873–1875)

French attack Dai Nam from Cochinchine Française

Treaty of Pangkor

Male conscription law (Japan)

Comstock founds the Society for the Suppression of Vice

Comstock Act

1873

1874

First Impressionist exhibition (Paris)

Zubeir Rahma annexes Darfur in the name of Egypt

French annex Tonkin (Vietnam)

Japan invades Taiwan

Popular Rights Movement (Japan, 1874–1889)

Supreme Court rules that taxes can be used for public high schools (Kalamazoo case)

1874

1875

Conspiracy and Protection of Property Act

Matthew Webb swims the English Channel

Bourbon Restoration in Spain

Eastern crisis

International Committee of the Red Cross formed

Britain gains control of the Suez Canal

Arya Samaj Hindu reform movement founded

Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College founded (Aligarh)

Deccan riots

Revolt of native chiefs against British (Malaya)

Treaty of Saint Petersburg between Russia and Japan about Kurils

Civil Rights Act

Supreme Court of Canada created

1875

1876

Balkan Crisis (1876–1878)

Ems Ukaz edict by tsar against Ukrainian language

Wagner's Ring premieres

Ottoman constitution

Famine in India (1876–1878)

Indian Association of Calcutta established

Treaty of Kanghwa between Korea and Japan

Last full-blooded Aboriginal dies (Tasmania)

The Porfiriato (Mexico, 1876–1911)

1876

1877

Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878)

Victoria becomes empress of India

Great northern China famine (1877–1878)

Tokyo University, first university in East Asia, opens

Edison invents the phonograph

1877

1878

Salvation Army founded

Congress of Berlin

Second Anglo-Afghan War (1878–1880)

Nordenskiöld makes first ship transit of the Northeast Passage (1878–1879)

Black Hills gold rush peaks (Dakotas)

1878

1879

British conquer Zulus

Stanley, for Belgians, establishes bases in the Congo region

Irish Land League

Parnell combines Home Rule League and Irish Land League

Dual Alliance between Austria-Hungary and Germany

Ibsen's A Doll's House

Koya rebellion

Japan annexes Ryukyu Islands

First indentured Indians arrive on Fiji

Edison's improved lightbulb

Pullman builds factory and town for workers (Chicago)

War of the Pacific (Chile versus Bolivia and Peru, 1879–1883)

1879

1880

De Brazza secures French areas north of Congo River

First bathing-beauty contest, Miss United States (Delaware)

Argentine Conquest of the Desert

1880

1881

Tuareg successfully attack French

Factories Act (India)

British North Borneo Company takes over Sabah

Government corruption scandal (Japan)

Panama Canal begun by a French company (1881–1893)

1881

1882

Married Women's Property Act

Triple Alliance among Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Italy (1882–1915)

Mahdist Revolt in Sudan (1882–1885)

British bombard and land at Alexandria

French attack Dai Nam from Cochinchine Française

First commercial power station (New York City)

1882

1883

Rabi Zubayr seizes control of Chadian kingdoms

Galton coins “eugenics”

German health insurance program

Krakatoa erupts (Indonesia)

French annex Annam

First Niagara Conference of religious revivalists

Brooklyn Bridge opens

1883

1884

Berlin West African Conference (1884–1885)

Oxford English Dictionary published (1884–1928)

Greenwich meridian established as the world standard

Abortive Nile campaign by Britain

Ilbert Bill (India)

Malabari's Notes on Infant Marriage and Enforced Widowhood

Convention of the Protectorate; Nguyen reduced by French into figureheads

Sino-French War (1884–1885); China loses Vietnam

Pro-Japanese murder Korean queen

Germany makes northeast coast of New Guinea a protectorate; Britain takes southeast

Mark Twain's Adventures of Huckleberry Finn

1884

1885

Congo Free State established

Panjdeh incident (Afghanistan)

Gen. Gordon (Gordon Pasha) dies at Khartoum

Bengal Tenancy Act

Indian National Congress formed

Third Anglo-Burmese War (1885–c. 1888)

Ton That Thuyet leads unsuccessful attack on French in Hue (Vietnam)

Li-Itō Convention (China and Japan)

Germany annexes the Marshall Islands

World's first skyscraper completed (Chicago)

1885

1886

Gold discovered on the Witwatersrand

Stevenson's Doctor Jekyll and Mr Hyde

Contagious Diseases Acts repealed

Ewha Haktang girls' school opens (Korea)

Chicago Haymarket riot

Cuba abolishes slavery

1886

1887

Britain will recognize Portuguese colonies only where Portuguese maintain order

Boulanger crisis (1887–1889) in France

Indian National Social Conference founded

French create the consolidated Indochinese Union

Peace-preservation law forbids activists from living in Tokyo

British and French share control of the New Hebrides

1887

1888

Rudd Concession

Barcelona Exposició Universal

Reforms in Thailand make a new system of government

Brunei becomes a British protectorate

British set up protectorate of the Cook Islands

Tesla patents an electric motor

Brazil abolishes slavery

Darío's Azul, founding poem of modernismo

1888

1889

British South Africa Company incorporated

Second International founded

Germany sets up state old-age pensions

Orient Express goes from Paris to Istanbul

Meiji Constitution

Limited self-government granted in Western Australia

Pan-American Conference held in Washington, D.C.

Pan-American Conference

Brazil becomes a republic

1889

1890

British South African Company raises Pioneer Column army

Britain issues ultimatum telling Portuguese to leave Malawi

First electric underground trains (London)

Second Morrill Act

Electric chair as capital punishment introduced (New York)

1890

1891

M'Siri, ruler of Yeke Kingdom (in Katanga), killed

International Classification of Diseases created

Age of Consent Act

United States agrees to respect international copyright

José Martí's Versos sencillos

Civil war in Chile

1891

1892

Tchaikovsky's Nutcracker

1892

1893

Buganda agrees to indirect British rule (Uganda)

Third Ashanti war against the British (1893–1894)

French take control of Timbuktu

Macmillan opens subsidiary in India

India Councils Act

French establish protectorate in Laos

New Zealand grants full suffrage, including women

Coup overthrows Hawaiian monarchy

World's Columbian Exposition (Chicago)

1893

1894

Dreyfus affair in France (1894–1906)

Tonghak Rebellion (Korea)

Kabo Reform (Korea)

First Sino-Japanese war; China loses Taiwan (1894–1895)

Republic of Hawai‘i proclaimed

Pullman strike (Chicago)

1894

1895

Fourth Ashanti war against the British (1895–1896)

Kenya becomes a British protectorate, ending Omani Arab rule (began 1730)

Lumières' first film, Workers Leaving the Factory

Röntgen discovers X-ray photography of bones

First Italo-Ethiopian War (1895–1896); Ethiopians defeat Italians at Adowa

Federated Malay States ruled by Britain (1895–1945)

Treaty of Shimonoseki

Dreyfus sentenced to Devil's Island

Cuban war of independence (1895–1898)

Liberal Revolution in Ecuador (1892–19250)

1895

1896

British South Africa Company suppresses rebellion (1896–1897)

Madagascar becomes a French protectorate

First revived Olympics held in Athens

Nobel prizes established

Plessy v. Ferguson Supreme Court decision

1896

1897

British capture Benin

Mary Kingsley's Travels in West Africa

Victoria's Diamond Jubilee

Bram Stoker's Dracula

Assam earthquake

Plague in Bombay

Ironworker's Union forms; first large-scale trade union in Japan

Belgica explores around Antarctica (1897–1899)

Transportation of French convicts to New Caledonia ends

1897

1898

Hut taxes were imposed and were followed by a general uprising (Sierra Leone)

Railroad completed in Congo Free State

Zola's “J'accuse” published in L'Aurore newspaper

National exhibition of women's labor (The Hague)

Collapse of Madhist state in Sudan

Fashoda Incident in Sudan between Britain and France

American operations in the Philippines

Meiji Civil Code in effect (1898–1946)

Hong Kong leased to Britain until 1997

Drought and famine in northern China (1898–1900)

Hawai'ian Islands transferred to United States

New York City consolidated, with five boroughs

Spanish-American War

Federalist War in Bolivia (1898–1899)

1898

1899

Boer War (1899–1902)

Kipling's “White Man's Burden”

Bernstein's revisionist Preconditions of Socialism

First Hague Convention

Anglo-Egyptian condominium agreement signed

Famine in India (1899–1900)

Revolt of Birsa Munda (1899–1900)

Philippine-American War (1899–1902)

Boxer Rebellion in China against foreign influence (1899–1901)

Protection law for Ainu (Japan)

Yermak makes first polar icebreaker voyage

1899

1900

Buganda Agreement

French defeat Rabi Zubayr (Chad)

Labour Representative Committee formed

Freud's Interpretation of Dreams

Planck proposes the quantum hypothesis

Punjab Alienation of Land Act

Famine in Indonesia

Dutch Ethical Policy begins (Indonesia)

Banks fail in Brazil (part of Encilhamento)

1900

1901

Queen Victoria dies

Taff Vale legal decision

Radical Party organized (France)

Australia federated, becomes a Dominion

British National Antarctic Expedition (1901–1904)

Hay-Pauncefote Treaties (1901–1902)

1901

1902

Cecil Rhodes dies

Anglo-Japanese Alliance signed

Bülow tariffs ratified

Famine in Indonesia

Anglo-Japanese Alliance signed

Scottish National Antarctic Expedition (1902–1904)

Cuba becomes independent

Argentina and Chile agree on arms control

1902

1903

Katanga Railway joins the Rhodesian rail network

Roger Casement's report on the administration of the Congo Free State

Military coup in Serbia

Amundsen in Gjøa makes first ship transit of the Northwest Passage (1903–1906)

Wright brothers fly first airplane

First American story film, Porter's Life of an American Fireman

1903

1904

Herero revolt (German Southwest Africa)

Britain and France sign Entente Cordiale

Britain and France sign Entente Cordiale

Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905)

Trans-Siberian Railway completed

Second Geneva Convention

Duy Tan Hoi (Reformation Society) formed (Vietnam)

Dutch give grant to colonial Indonesia

Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905)

Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine

Subway system begins in New York City

U.S. government builds Panama Canal (1904–1914)

1904

1905

Maji Maji rebellion (1905–1907)

Einstein's special theory of relativity

Weber's Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism

Revolution in Russia

Norway becomes independent

First Moroccan Crisis

Iranian revolution (1905–1911)

Partition of Bengal

Solo valley irrigation works fail (Indonesia)

Government-sponsored migration schemes (Indonesia)

Sun Yat-sen establishes Revolutionary Alliance

Cixi abolishes civil service examination

1905

1906

Union Minière du Haut-Katanga created

Société Internationale Forestière et Minière created (diamond mining)

Dreadnought launched

Trade Union Act

Conference of Algeciras

Dreyfus exonerated

All India Muslim League founded

Michelin invests in plantations in Cambodia and Vietnam

System of village schools set up (Indonesia)

British New Guinea (Territory of Papua) transferred to Australia

Anglo-French Condominium of the New Hebrides

Upton Sinclair's Jungle

Reforms end Encilhamento (Brazil)

1906

1907

Second Hague Convention

Bhutan's monarchy established with help of British

Dong Kinh Nghia Thuc opens in Hanoi

Thailand cedes suzerainty over western Cambodia to France

Association for Redemption of the National Debt organizes to repay Japan (Korea)

New Zealand becomes a Dominion

1907

1908

Belgian Congo created (in place of Congo Free State)

Baden-Powell creates the first Boy Scout manual

Bosnian crisis

Young Turk revolution

Bali ruled by Dutch East Indies

Anti-French attacks lead to repression (Vietnam)

France compels Japan to expel its Vietnamese students

FBI established

1908

1909

Secret Service Bureau created (with MI5 and MI6)

Ballets Russes founded (Paris)

Government of India Act, or Morley-Minto reforms

Treaty between Britain and Thailand

Representative bodies created throughout China (1909–1913)

Peary first to reach the North Pole

Ford begins serial production of the Model T

Scofield Reference Bible

1909

1910

Union of South Africa created as a Dominion

Portuguese monarchy overthrown

Rabindranath Tagore's Gitanjali

End of Chosǒn dynasty in Korea (began 1392); Japan rules

Royal Canadian Navy created

Laboratory for Experimental Evolution set up (New York)

Mexican Revolution (1910–1920)

1910

1911

National health insurance programs established

Rutherford's model of the atomic nucleus

Italo-Turkish War (1911–1912)

Second Moroccan Crisis

Italo-Turkish War (1911–1912)

Unpartition of Bengal

Factory Law (Japan; implemented 1916)

Amundsen and party become first to reach the South Pole

Taylor's Principles of Scientific Management (Taylorism)

Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire (New York)

1911

1912

African National Congress formed

Titanic sinks

Balkan Wars (1912–1913)

Stravinsky's Le sacre du printemps

Final Amur section of Trans-Siberian Railway built (1912–1916)

French Protectorate (Morocco, 1912–1956)

British move Indian capital from Calcutta to New Delhi

Failed military coup in Thailand

Manchu Qing dynasty overthrown (began 1644)

Chinese Republic (1912–1949)

Sun Yat-sen's Nationalist Party forms

Meiji dies; Taishō rules Japan (1912–1926)

Robert Falcon Scott and party reach South Pole, die on return

Race war in Cuba Sáenz Peña

Law (voting, Argentina)

1912

1913

Gandhi leads anti–pass law protest in South Africa

Rabindranath Tagore is the first non-European to win the Nobel Prize

First Far Eastern Championship Games held

1913

1914

African French and British forces defeat Germans in Togo

Germans attack Portugal's Angola and Mozambique

World War I (1914–1918)

July Crisis

Germany invades Belgium

Niš Declaration about Yugoslavia

Japan joins the Allies

Shackleton's Endurance expedition (1914–1916)

German New Guinea surrenders; Australia governs

Ford announces wages of five dollars a day and eight-hour workday (“Fordism”)

Panama Canal opens

Garvey launches the Universal Negro Improvement Association

1914

1915

Germans are defeated in Southwest Africa

Native Followers Recruitment Ordinance

Chilembwe leads rebellion against conscription (Malawi)

Diagne Law passed; Senegalese who fight for France receive French citizenship

Italy joins the Allies

Einstein's general theory of relativity

Gallipoli campaign

Armenian genocide (1915–1917)

Dardanelles campaign (1915–1916)

Last government-owned coffee plantations abandoned (Dutch East Indies)

New Culture Movement (1915–1924)

Japan issues Twenty-one Demands to China

Griffith's Birth of a Nation

The Fundamentals, 12 vols. (published 1910–1915)

United States occupies Haiti (1915–1934)

1915

1916

Germans are forced to retreat to Rio Muni from Cameroon

Easter Rising in Ireland

Britain begins military draft

First tanks, fighter airplanes, and flamethrowers used

Lucknow Pact

Yuan's death leads to extensive warlordism (China)

Sanger opens first birth control center in United States, in Brooklyn

National Birth Control League founded

United States occupies the Dominican Republic (1916–1924)

1916

1917

Asdic (sonar) prototype invented

Bolshevik Revolution

Russian civil war (1917–1920)

United States enters World War I

Balfour Declaration supports Zionists

Montague declaration aims for Dominion status for India (never achieved)

Thailand joins the Allies

China joins the Allies

First “red scare” (1917–1920)

United States enters World War I

Mexican Constitution approved

United States buys Saint John and Saint Thomas from Denmark

1917

1918

Germans surrender in East Africa

Women get the vote

Strikes throughout Britain

Habsburg Monarchy and German government collapse

Armistice, 11 November

Creation of the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (Yugoslavia)

Spanish flu pandemic (worldwide, 1918–1919)

Japan sends troops to Siberia

Rowlatt Act

Hmong uprising (1918–1922)

Surrogate national parliament set up (Indonesia)

Rice riots in Japan

1918

1919

Anglo-Irish War (1919–1921)

Polish-Russian War (1919–1920)

Third International (Comintern) founded (1919–1943)

Versailles Peace Treaty ends World War I

League of Nations founded

International Labor Organization founded

Khilafat Movement (1919–1924)

Greek-Turkish War (1919–1922)

Third Anglo-Afghan War

Egyptian uprising against British

Jallianwalla Bagh (Amritsar) Massacre

Government of India Act, with Montague-Chelmsford reforms (implemented 1921)

Jamiyyat al-῾Ulama-i Hind founded

March First independence movement in Korea May Fourth cultural movement after Beijing demonstration

Zapata killed

1919

1920

National Congress of British West Africa founded

Treaty of Sevrès

Gandhi-led noncooperation movement (1920–1922)

Indenture system abolished

Prohibition in the United States, by the Eighteenth Amendment

Nineteenth Amendment ratified (women's right to vote)

First Miss America contest

1920

1921

Bullhoek massacre (South Africa)

Lenin introduces the New Economic Policy

Spain defeated by Morocco

Moplah rebellion by Muslims (Kerala)

Chinese Communist Party formally organized

Mongolian revolution

Washington Naval Conference (1921–1922)

American Birth Control League founded

1921

1922

Whites in Southern Rhodesia vote for self-government

Makerere College, the first tertiary school in East Africa, founded

Harry Thuku riot (Kenya)

Five Power Naval Treaty

Irish Free State created; Ireland divided

Joyce's Ulysses

T. S. Eliot's The Wasteland

Benito Mussolini rules Italy (1922–1943) after the March on Rome

Soviet Union created

Egypt becomes independent

Chanak incident

Dewantoro founds Taman Siswa school system (Indonesia)

Nine-Power Treaty about open-door Chinese policy

Washington Naval Treaty (Five-Power Treaty) signed

Tenente Revolt in Brazil

1922

1923

Southern Rhodesia controlled directly by Crown

Restoration Settlement ends (Spain)

British Mandate of Palestine (1923–1948)

Nationalist Party works with the Comintern

Massive earthquake in Tokyo, followed by fires

1923

1924

Northern Rhodesia controlled directly by Crown

Forged Zinoviev Letter leaked

British Empire exhibition at Wembley (1924–1925)

Ho Chi Minh forms Thanh Nien

Sun Yat-sen presents the Three Principles of the People

Whampoa Military Academy opens (China)

Gas chamber as capital punishment introduced (Nevada)

Immigration Restriction Act

1924

1925

Locarno Pact

Conference creates the Geneva Protocol (enters into force in 1928)

Hitler's Mein Kampf (2 vols., 1925–1926)

Druze rebellion (Lebanon, 1925–1927)

May Thirtieth Movement

Sixteen-month general strike in Hong Kong

Japan introduces universal manhood suffrage

Scopes “monkey” trial

July revolution in Ecuador

1925

1926

“Balfour Definition of Dominion Status”

General Strike

Heisenberg formulates the uncertainty principle

Military coup in Portugal

Military coup in Poland

Bombay Textile Labor Union formed

Trade Union Act (India)

Nationwide anticolonial student strikes (Vietnam)

Cao Dai sect founded (Vietnam)

Chiang Kai-shek leads Northern Expedition

Shōwa (Hirohito) rules Japan (1926–1989)

Amundsen and Ellsworth become first to fly over the Arctic Ocean

Warner Brothers first add music and sound to some films

1926

1927

Trade Union Act outlaws sympathy strikes

All India State People's Conference founded

Simon Commission (1927–1928)

Vietnam Quoc Dan Dang (Nationalist Party) founded

Chiang Kai-shek takes Shanghai and Nanjing

Canton Commune fails

Red Purge in China

Lindbergh makes first solo transatlantic flight (New York–Paris)

Military regime in Chile (1927–1931)

1927

1928

Lower Congo–to-Katanga Railway completed

Kellogg-Briand Pact signed in Paris

First Five-Year Plan (Soviet Union, 1928–1932)

Nehru Report

Nationalist government of Chiang Kai-shek established

Price-Mars's Ainsi parla l'oncle codifies Négritude (Haiti)

1928

1929

Women's War against British policies (West Africa)

Lateran Pact; Vatican City established

Third Geneva Convention

Afghan civil war; King Amanullah exiled

Trade Disputes Act

Lahore congress of the Indian National Congress demands independence

Wall Street crash begins Depression

1929

1930

London Naval Conference

First World Cup held

Imperial exhibition at Antwerp

Turko-Greek protocol

Salt March

Hsaya San rebellion (Burma, 1930–1932)

Vietnam Quoc Dan Dang leads uprising; French repress

Taiwan aborigines attack Japanese at sports event

Smoot-Hawley tariff bill passed

Empire State Building completed (New York City)

General Confederation of Labor founded in Argentina

First World Cup held, in Uruguay

1930

1931

Statute of Westminster

Second Spanish Republic (1931–1939)

Imperial exhibition at Paris

Turko-Soviet Pact

Irwin-Gandhi Pact

Government of India Act

Two Bengali girls kill a British magistrate

Ho Chi Minh's Thanh Nien becomes the Indochinese Communist Party

Ho Chi Minh disappears until 1941

Mao builds Red Army and the Jiangxi Soviet

Mukden (or Manchurian) Incident; Japan makes Manchuria “Manchukuo”

First under-ice submarine operations near Spitsbergen, by Nautilus

Synthetic rubber neoprene developed

Scottsboro boys case (1931–1937)

Compañía de Salitre de Chile (nitrate) fails

Getulio Vargas becomes president in Brazil

1931

1932

Mozambique directly ruled by Portugal

Ottawa Agreements

Salazar rules Portugal as dictator (1932–1968)

Bloodless revolution in Thailand establishes constitutional monarchy

Massacre in Pingdingshan, Manchuria

Assassination of Japanese prime minister Inukai marks end of party government

First one-season ship transit of the Northeast Passage, by Soviet Sibiryakov

Ottawa Agreements Lindbergh

baby kidnapped

Chaco War (1932–1935)

1932

1933

British South Africa Company sells mineral rights to Southern Rhodesia

Hitler rules Germany (1933–1945)

Nadir Shah assassinated (Afghanistan)

Japan leaves League of Nations

Prohibition repealed, by the Twenty-first Amendment

Franklin D. Roosevelt announces Good Neighbor Policy

Rastafarianism created (Jamaica)

Roca- Runciman Pact

1933

1934

Asturian miner's revolt escalates nationally (Spain)

Jawaharlal Nehru's Glimpses of World History

Long March by Chinese Communists (1934–1935)

Japan withdraws from the Washington Naval Treaty system

Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act

1934

1935

Second Italo-Abyssinian War (1935–1946); Italian East Africa annexes Abyssinia

Italy invades and occupies Ethiopia

Government of India Act

1935

1936

Hitler militarizes the Rhineland Spanish civil war (1936–1939)

So-called Stalin Constitution ratified

Great Uprising among Arabs in Palestine (1936–1939)

Japan exits the second London Naval Conference

Failed mutiny by troops in Tokyo

Social Security system set up Hoover Dam completed

United States v. One Package of Japanese Pessaries Supreme Court decision

1936

1937

Portugal establishes a colonial development fund

Ireland called Eire (1937–1949)

Portugal establishes a colonial development fund

Imperial exhibition at Paris

Peel Commission proposal for partition rejected (Palestine)

Nanjing Massacre

Japan invades China; Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945)

Airship Hindenburg explodes near New York

Last public legal hanging occurs (Kentucky)

Amelia Earhart disappears mid-flight

Estado Novo declared in Brazil

1937

1938

Hitler annexes Austria

Sudeten Crisis

Military regime takes control of Thailand

House Un-American Activities Committee formed

1938

1939

Nazi-Soviet nonaggression pact

World War II (1939–1945); Germany invades Czechoslovakia, and Germany and Soviet Union invade Poland

Illegal immigration effort by Zionists to Palestine

Fighting between Japan and Soviet Union in Inner Mongolia

Bose leaves the Indian National Congress and forms the Forward Bloc

Hoa Hao sect founded (Vietnam)

Siam renamed “Thailand”

1939

1940

Chad is the first French colony to join the Free France movement

Winston Churchill is prime minister (1940–1945)

Battle of Britain

Japan, Germany, and Italy sign the Tripartite Pact

Germany conquers France

Vichy regime rules France (1940–1944)

Pakistan Resolution adopted by the Muslim League

Thirty Thakins trained in Japan to be a Myanmar Independence Army

Japanese occupy Indochina

Japan, Germany, and Italy sign the Tripartite Pact

Japan announces the Greater East Asia Co-prosperity Sphere

St. Roch makes first west-to-east transit of the Northwest Passage (1940–1942)

“Mexican Miracle” (1940–1970)

1940

1941

Atlantic Charter

Nazi Germany invades the Soviet Union

Nazis crush Yugoslavia

Ethiopia regains independence

Eritrea ceded from Italy to Britain

Jama῾at-i Islami founded

Vietminh founded as anti-Japanese, anti-French resistance

New Fourth Army Incident

Japanese attack Pearl Harbor

Atlantic Charter

United States joins Allies

Atlantic Charter

Territorial war between Ecuador and Peru

Movimiento Nacionalista Revolucionario formed (Bolivia)

1941

1942

Heydrich assassinated, Czech town of Lidice destroyed

Battle of Stalingrad

U.S.-led Operation Torch

Battle of al-Alamayn

Cripps Mission to India

Quit India movement

Japanese capture Singapore

Indian National Army is formed and fights with

Japanese Japanese occupy most of Burma and Indonesia

Battle of Midway

Australia finally agrees to the Statute of Westminster (1931)

Japan secures the north coast of New Guinea; Battle of the Coral Sea

Bracero Program begins

Manhattan Project set up

Brazil declares war on Axis

1942

1943

Failed plot by évolués against Belgians in Congo

Warsaw ghetto uprising; ethnic cleansing in Poland

Allies invade Italy

Marshal Tito and Communists seize power in Yugoslavia

Conferences in Casablanca and Tehran

Famine in Bengal

Famine in Henan Province

Cairo Declaration about Japan and Korea

Allied offensive in the South Pacific

Coup in Argentina

1943

1944

Brazzaville conference in Congo

Education Act provides free secondary education

D-Day, 6 June

Battle of the Bulge

Warsaw Uprising crushed by Germans

Battle of Leyte Gulf

First one-season ship transit of the Northwest Passage, by St. Roch

Battle of the Philippine Sea

Bretton Woods international trade talks

Federación Ecuatoriana de Indios founded

Glorious Revolution in Ecuador

Coup and reform in Guatemala

1944

1945

Yalta and Potsdam conferences

Germany defeated and occupied

First Nürnberg trial opens

United Nations founded

Bao Dai rules Japanese-sponsored Viet Nam De Quoc (Empire of Vietnam), then abdicates

Democratic Republic of Vietnam declared by Ho Chi Minh

Burma supports the Allies

Sukarno proclaims Indonesia's independence; Indonesian revolution (1945–1949)

U.S. forces invade Okinawa

Hiroshima and Nagasaki hit with atomic bombs; Japan surrenders

MacArthur appointed SCAP, controlling Japan

Franklin D. Roosevelt dies

United Nations founded

IMF created

Argentina declares war on Axis

Getulio Vargas gives up dictatorship in Brazil

1945

1946

Fourth Republic rules France (1946–1958)

Italian Republic declared

Irgun blows up King David Hotel (British headquarters) in Jerusalem

Kingdom of Transjordan proclaimed

Bombay Industrial Relations Act

Tebhaga movement (Bengal)

Noakhali riots (Bengal)

First Indochina War (1946–1954) between French and Vietminh

Chinese civil war (1946–1949)

Tokyo War Crimes Trial (1946–1948)

United States tests atomic bomb at Bikini Atoll

New York City Ballet founded

Perón elected president of Argentina

French Guiana stops being a penal colony

1946

1947

GATT signed

Marshall Plan announced

GATT signed

U.N. Partition Plan

Arab-Israeli war (the Catastrophe, 1947–1949)

Dead Sea scrolls discovered

Partition of India and Pakistan, and independence of both

Cao Dai and Hoa Hao sects sign treaties with the French (southern Vietnam)

New constitution in Japan

Heyerdahl makes Kon-Tiki expedition across the Pacific

CIA created Jackie Robinson is first black player in Major League Baseball

GATT signed

Chuck Yeager breaks the sound barrier

Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance

1947

1948

National Party wins South African elections on apartheid platform

National Health Service set up

Belgrade Convention

Soviet blockade of Berlin; U.S. Berlin airlift in response (1948–1949)

State of Israel declared

Sri Lanka (Ceylon) becomes independent

Telangana insurrection (Andhra Pradesh, India)

Burma (Myanmar) and Malaya become independent

Korea divided along 38th parallel into North and South

Eugenic Protection Law (Japan)

Organization of American States created

Operation Bootstrap (Puerto Rico)

1948

1949

March on Grand Bassam prison, Côte d'Ivoire

Republic of Ireland created

Orwell's 1984

Germany divided into East and West

NATO created

Soviet Union explodes a test atomic bomb

Council of Europe founded

Geneva Conventions revised

Dutch recognize Indonesia's independence

Elysée Agreement signed between Bao Dai and the French

Mao declares the People's Republic of China

Red Purge (Japan)

Newfoundland incorporated into federated Canada

NATO created

1949

1950

Apartheid legislated in South Africa

Club Med created (France)

Law of Return for all Jews to Israel

Dutch transfer their Borneo holdings to Indonesia

Chiang Kai-shek president of Republic of China (Taiwan)

Korean War (1950–1953)

Césaire's Discours sur le colonialisme

1950

1951

Libya becomes independent

Zamindari Abolition and Land Reform Act

San Francisco Peace Treaty

ANZUS treaty

ANZUS treaty

Birth control pill (“the pill”) first produced

1951

1952

Mau Mau uprising (Kenya, 1952–1960)

Anti-pass Defiance Campaign (South Africa)

Elizabeth II becomes queen

United Nations aligns Eritrea with Ethiopia

Japan independent again

Salk's polio vaccine ready and tested

Bolivian Revolution

Arbenz implements land reform (Guatemala)

1952

1953

Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland (1953–1963)

Stalin dies

Pact of Madrid gives Spain aid

Egyptian Republic declared

Mossadegh overthrown in CIA-helped coup (Iran)

Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay reach top of Mount Everest

Laos becomes independent

China's first Five-Year Plan (1953–1957)

Bolivian Agrarian Reform decreed

1953

1954

Federation of South African Women founded

Algerian War of Independence (1954–1962)

Revolts in Goa against Portuguese rule

Sino-Indian Treaty on Tibet

Vietminh defeat French at Dien Bien Phu; French lose Indochinese colonies, and Vietnam is divided at 17th parallel

West- sponsored Southeast Asian Treaty Organization founded

Moon founds Unification Church (Korea)

First icebreaker and warship passage of the Northwest Passage, by Labrador

Japanese fishermen exposed to radiation after U.S. tests in the West Pacific (Bikini)

Brown v. Board of Education Supreme Court decision

Army-McCarthy hearings

CIA backs a coup in Guatemala

Suriname gains self-government

1954

1955

Warsaw Pact signed

Austrian State Treaty

First Sudanese Civil War (1955–1972)

Bandung Conference

“Sect crisis” (South Vietnam)

Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam) declared

Bandung Conference

Miracle Growth era (Japan, 1955–1970)

AFL-CIO formed

First nuclear submarine, Nautilus

Emmet Till killed

Montgomery bus boycott (1955–1956)

Perón overthrown

26 July Movement organized (Cuban revolutionaries)

1955

1956

Loi cadre passed for French sub-Saharan colonies

Women protest pass laws (Pretoria, South Africa)

First nuclear electricity plant, Calder Hall

Hungarian Revolution

Suez Crisis

Sudan, Tunisia, and Morocco become independent

Minamata disease (mercury poisoning from fish) recognized

COINTELPRO begins

United States v. Roth Supreme Court decision about pornography

Revolutionaries including Castro invade Cuba

1956

1957

Ghana becomes independent

ABAKO wins elections in Congo

European Economic Community created

Sputnik launched

Hundred Flowers Movement

Semiannual Canton Export Commodities Trade Fair begins

First U.S. nuclear electricity plant, in Shippingport, Pa.

1957

1958

Guinea becomes independent

Anlu uprising by women (Cameroon, 1958–1961)

Fifth Republic rules France (1958– )

Lebanon crisis

United Arab Republic unites Egypt and Syria

Martial law in Pakistan

Great Leap Forward

First ship Arctic Ocean crossing, by the nuclear submarine Nautilus; also first ship at North Pole

West Indies Federation founded

1958

1959

Riots in Léopoldville (Kinshasa)

Basque separatist group ETA founded (Spain)

Protests in Tibet against Chinese rule; Dalai Lama flees

Vietnam (or Second Indochina) War (1959–1975)

Daqing oilfield discovered

First North Pole surfacing, by Skate

Alaska and Hawai‘i become U.S. states

Batista flees Cuba; Castro takes power

1959

1960

Cameroon, Togo, Mali, Senegal, Madagascar, Democratic Republic of Congo, Somalia, Benin, Niger, Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Chad, Central African Republic, Congo, Gabon, Nigeria, and Mauritania become independent

U.N. peacekeeping in Congo (1960–1964)

Massacre at Sharpeville, South Africa

European Free Trade Association created

Berlin crisis (1960–1961)

European Free Trade Association created

OPEC set up

Cyprus independent

White Revolution (Iran)

Sirimavo Bandaranaike of Sri Lanka elected first woman prime minister in the world

Indus Waters Treaty (India and Pakistan)

National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam forms

Major famine in China (1960–1962)

Quiet Revolution in Quebec (1960s)

FDA approves the pill

Canadian Bill of Rights passed

1960

1961

Tanganyika and Sierra Leone become independent

Guerrilla war against Portuguese rule (Angola)

South Africa leaves the Commonwealth

Berlin Wall built

Syria leaves United Arab Republic

Adolf Eichmann trial in Jerusalem

Kuwait independent

India annexes Goa, Daman, and Diu from Portugal

Muslim Family Law (Pakistan)

Republic of Indonesia fights for Netherlands' West New Guinea (succeeds in 1963)

Antarctic Treaty comes into force

Freedom Rides

Bay of Pigs invasion

Fanon's Les damnés de la terre

1961

1962

Burundi, Rwanda, and Uganda become independent

Guerrilla war against Portuguese rule (Guinea-Bissau)

Nelson Mandela imprisoned

First Beatles song released, “Love Me Do”

Vatican II (1962–1965)

Algeria becomes independent

Haile Selassie incorporates Eritrea into Ethiopia

Military coup in Burma

Socialist Education Campaign in China

Cuban Missile Crisis

Port Huron Statement by the Students for a Democratic Society

Carson's Silent Spring

Wal-Mart, K-Mart, and Target all founded

Cuban Missile Crisis

Jamaica becomes independent

1962

1963

Zanzibar and Kenya become independent

Muslim Brotherhood outlawed (Syria)

Federation of Malaysia (Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and, until 1965, Singapore) created

Buddhist monks immolate themselves to protest South Vietnamese policies

March on Washington, with Martin Luther King Jr.'s “I have a dream” speech

Birmingham church bombing

John F. Kennedy assassinated

1963

1964

Tanganyika and Zanzibar join to form the United Republic of Tanzania

Malawi and Zambia become independent

Guerrilla war against Portuguese rule (Mozambique)

Arab Common Market formed

Palestine Liberation Organization founded

Gulf of Tonkin Resolution; U.S. forces intervene in Vietnam

Vietcong bombs hotel in Saigon

China tests first nuclear bomb

Cook Islands gain independence from New Zealand

Civil Rights Act passed

Agrarian Reform and Colonization Law (Ecuador)

Military coup in Brazil

1964

1965

Gambia becomes independent

Mobutu establishes dictatorship (Democratic Republic of the Congo)

Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) declares independence; civil war results

Military coup in Central African Republic

Commonwealth Secretariat formed

War between India and Pakistan

Failed coup in Bali against Indonesia

Singapore becomes an independent republic

30 September failed coup by Communists leads to fighting (Indonesia)

Japans opens its first nuclear reactor

Selma-to-Montgomery marches, with Bloody Sunday

Malcolm X assassinated

Griswold v. Connecticut Supreme Court decision

Immigration and Nationality Act repeals 1924 Immigration Restriction Act

Border Industrialization Program begins maquiladoras (Mexico)

1965

1966

Botswana and Lesotho become independent

FROLINAT revolts (Chad)

Nkrumah ousted by a coup (Ghana)

Simultaneous protests in Washington, D.C., and Europe against Vietnam War

Military coup (Syria)

Sukarno yields power to Suharto (Indonesia)

Cultural Revolution (China, 1966–1976)

Red Guards begin forming (China)

Changes to Immigration Act end white Australia policy

Simultaneous protests in Washington, D.C., and Europe against Vietnam War

Guyana becomes independent

1966

1967

Arusha Declaration

Biafran War (1967–1970)

Eyadéma leads coup in Togo and becomes president

Military coup in Sierra Leone

Torrey Canyon oil spill off Cornwall

Six-Day War

Suez Canal closes until 1975

Suharto becomes president of Indonesia

Association of Southeast Asian Nations formed

January Storm by workers in Shanghai

Ecuador joins OPEC

Che Guevara assassinated

1967

1968

Equatorial Guinea, Mauritius, and Swaziland become independent

Mass anti-Vietnam protest (London)

Prague Spring International Vietnam Congress (West Berlin)

Movement of 22 March (France) founded

“Battle” of Valle Giulia (Rome) Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty

My Lai Massacre

Most Red Guard groups forcibly disbanded (China)

Martin Luther King Jr. and Robert Kennedy assassinated

Protests at Chicago Democratic Convention

Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty

Revolts in Mexico City (Tlatelolco Massacre)

1968

1969

Death penalty permanently abolished (Britain)

The Troubles begin (Northern Ireland)

Strategic Arms Limitation Talks held in Helsinki

al-Qaddafi takes control of Libya

War of attrition between Egypt and Israel

First U.S. troops withdraw from Vietnam

Sino-Soviet border clashes along Ussuri River

Neil Armstrong is first person to walk on the moon

Woodstock music festival

Boeing 747 introduced

Cartagena Agreement leads to Andean Pact

Leftist Peruvian military takes power

1969

1970

Republic of Southern Rhodesia declared

Somalia becomes Socialist under Barre

Bloody suppression of workers' protests (Poland)

West Germany and Soviet Union sign nonaggression pact

Warsaw Treaty between Poland and West Germany

Military coup (Syria)

Civil war (Jordan)

Kent State protestors killed by Ohio National Guardsmen

Guyana becomes a republic

Brazil begins building the Trans-Amazon Highway

1970

1971

Mobutu renames Republic of Congo “Zaire”

Croatian Spring

Four Power Agreement on Berlin

Bahrain, Qatar independent from Britain

United Arab Emirates created

Bangladesh becomes independent

Nixon announces that he will no longer confront Chinese Communism

COINTELPRO officially ends

1971

1972

Idi Amin orders all Asians out of Uganda

Basic Treaty between West and East Germany

Nixon visits Moscow

Antiballistic Missile Treaty

Addis Ababa Agreement (Sudan)

Okinawa reverts to Japan's control

Nixon visits China, opening relations

Labor Party wins; discrimination outlawed (Australia)

Title IX of the Higher Education Act passed

Antiballistic Missile Treaty

1972

1973

Guinea-Bissau becomes independent

One-party rule in Zambia (1973–1990)

Strike by black workers (South Africa)

Britain becomes full member of European Economic Community

Oil crisis

Solzhenitsyn's Gulag Archipelago

Yom Kippur War

OPEC withholds oil from allies of Israel and inflates world oil prices (first energy crisis)

Paris Peace Accords temporarily end Vietnam War; U.S. forces withdraw

Military government falls in Thailand

Paris Peace Accords end U.S. involvement in Vietnam War

Oil crisis

Roe v. Wade Supreme Court decision

Bretton Woods system collapses

Pinochet leads military coup in Chile

1973

1974

Angolan civil war (1974–1976)

Military coup in Portugal

Kosovo granted autonomous status

Ethiopian civil war (1974–1991)

Turkey invades Cyprus

Portuguese leave East Timor

Macau recognized as Chinese territory, though Portugal remains

Genesis of hip-hop

1974

1975

Angola, Cape Verde, Comoros, Mozambique, and São Tomé become independent

Lomé Convention in Togo

Libya invades Chad for Aouzou Strip

Jackson-Vanik amendment

Helsinki Accords

Franco dies (Spain)

Lebanese civil war (1975–1990)

Indira Gandhi declares state of emergency

PM Mujibur Rahman assassinated (Bangladesh)

Democratic Kampuchea under Pol Pot and the Khmer Rouge (1975–1979)

Indonesia invades East Timor

Pathet Lao seizes power in Laos

Army of North Vietnam takes Saigon

Last case of smallpox in Asia

Papua New Guinea becomes independent

Helsinki Accords

Jackson-Vanik amendment

Indo-Surinamese launch wave of arson in Paramaribo

Suriname becomes independent

1975

1976

Entebbe hijacking

Seychelles becomes independent

Soweto uprising

Committee in Defense of the Workers created (Poland)

Syria occupies Lebanon (1976–2005)

Saudi Arabia creates the world's largest national oil company

Moro National Liberation Front hijacks various targets (Philippines)

Socialist Republic of Vietnam declared; Vietnam reunified

Mass demonstration in Tiananmen Square

Mao dies and Gang of Four is arrested

Lockheed scandal (Japan)

Dirty War (Argentina, 1976–1983)

1976

1977

Djibouti becomes independent

Last case of smallpox occurs, in Somalia

War between Somalia and Ethiopia (Ogaden War)

Bokassa declares himself emperor (Central African Republic)

New constitution in Soviet Union

War between Somalia and Ethiopia (Ogaden War)

Revolutionary Association of the Women of Afghanistan founded

Military coup in Pakistan; Islamization by Zia-ul-Haq

Laos and Vietnam sign Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation

Lethal injection as capital punishment introduced (Oklahoma)

Conflict between Chile and Argentina

Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo begin (Argentina)

1977

1978

Jonestown Massacre

New Spanish constitution

Said's Orientalism

Communist regime in Afghanistan

Camp David Accords

Hezbollah founded

Vietnam invades Cambodia to overthrow the Khmer Rouge

Rise of the reform period and Deng Xiaoping (China)

1978

1979

Idi Amin removed from power (Uganda)

France helps overthrow Bokassa (Central African Republic)

Margaret Thatcher becomes prime minister

Catalan Statute of Autonomy

Iranian Islamic revolution

Soviets occupy Afghanistan (1979–1989)

Saddam Hussein rules Iraq (1979–2003)

Unsuccessful invasion of Vietnam by China

U.S.-China relationship normalized

Three Mile Island nuclear accident

Sandinista government rules Nicaragua (1979–1990)

1979

1980

Zimbabwe becomes independent

Creation of the Southern African Development Community

Strikes throughout Poland; Solidarity created

Marshal Tito dies (ruled Yugoslavia since 1943)

Iran-Iraq War (1980–1988)

OPEC raises world oil prices (second energy crisis)

Hindu-nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party founded

Kwangju Uprising in Republic of Korea

Special economic zones set up in China

Referendum to separate Quebec from Canada fails

So-called cocaine coup in Bolivia

1980

1981

Military coup in Central African Republic

Greenham Common antinuclear protest begins

Juan Carlos derails coup attempt (Spain)

Israel annexes the Golan Heights

British Honduras becomes independent (now Belize)

Territorial war between Ecuador and Peru

1981

1982

Habré takes control in Chad

Israel invades Lebanon

Arafat and PLO expelled to Tunis

Bombay textile strike (1982–1983)

Census shows that China's population is more than a billion

Canada Act and Constitution Act signed

Falklands War between Britain and Argentina

Scorched-earth campaign by military rulers against guerrillas and rural people (Guatemala)

1982

1983

Researchers discover virus that causes HIV/AIDS (Pasteur Institute, Paris)

Second Sudanese Civil War (1983–2005)

North Korean agents bomb Yangon

Closer Economic Relations between Australia and New Zealand

I, Rigoberta Menchú publicizes Guatemalan genocide

1983

1984

Miners' strike (1984–1985)

Bhopal disaster

Peace and Friendship Treaty between Chile and Argentina

1984

1985

Congress of South African Trade Unions formed

Achille Lauro hijacked

New bill of rights for writers (China)

1985

1986

Museveni, after coup, rules Uganda as a one-party state

Chernobyl nuclear disaster

Iran-Contra Affair (with U.S. CIA)

Saudi Arabia increases oil supply; prices fall

Doi moi reform program (Vietnam)

Martial law lifted in Taiwan

Democratic Progressive Party forms in Taiwan

Demonstrations at Tiananmen Square

Australia Act; Australia becomes independent constitutional monarchy (Elizabeth as queen)

Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador created

Iran-Contra Affair (with U.S. CIA)

1986

1987

Chad drives Libyan forces from the Aouzou Strip

Perestroika reforms (Soviet Union)

Milošević comes to power and inflames resentment against Kosovars

First Intifada (1987–1993)

1987

1988

Pan Am flight 103 explodes over Lockerbie

Arab-Fur fighting in Darfur; Janjaweed militia forms

Civil strife in Burma, ending in military junta

1988

1989

Liberian civil war (1989–1996)

Solidarity leads Poland

Khomeini issues fatwa against Rushdie for Satanic Verses

Taif Agreement

Military junta renames Burma “Myanmar”

Vietnam withdraws from Cambodia

Tiananmen Incident

Exxon Valdez oil spill (Alaska)

United States invades Panama, deposes Noriega

1989

1990

South Africa unbans African National Congress, frees Mandela

Namibia becomes independent

Margaret Thatcher falls from power

Germany reunited

Persian Gulf War (1990–1991)

Indigenous uprising in Ecuador

Military coup in Haiti

1990

1991

Sierra Leone civil war (1991–2002)

Somalia civil war

Belovezh Accords end the Soviet Union

Almaty Declaration and Protocol

European Union created

Slovenia and Croatia declare independence from Yugoslavia, which collapses

Shiite uprising against Saddam Hussein (Iraq)

Conference in Madrid for Israelis, Palestinians, and other Arabs

Dili Massacre in East Timor

Bubble economy collapses (Japan)

Reconciliation policy (Australia)

Intelligence Authorization Act restricts CIA

MERCOSUR created

1991

1992

Civil war, famine, and U.N. peacekeeping in Somalia (1992–1995)

Bosnian civil war

Main-Danube Canal completed

Mujahideen rule Afghanistan (1992–1996)

Ecuador leaves OPEC

Via Campesina founded

1992

1993

Protest led by the Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People (Nigeria)

Arusha Accords (Rwanda)

Operation Deny Flight (U.N. intervention in Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1993–1995)

Eritrea becomes independent

Oslo Accords

China and South Korea sign trade accords

Terrorist attack at the World Trade Center

Elias attempts a “self-coup” (Guatemala)

1993

1994

Mandela becomes president of South Africa

Genocide in Rwanda

Djibouti civil war ends with power-sharing agreement

King Hussein signs pact with Israel

United States lifts embargo on Vietnam

North Korea agrees to limited inspection of nuclear sites

NAFTA comes into effect

Massive protest by Indians in Ecuador

U.S. and U.N. troops occupy Haiti, restoring Aristide to power

NAFTA comes into effect

1994

1995

Execution of the activist Ken Saro-Wiwa (Nigeria)

Massacre in Srebrenica, Bosnia

Operation Deliberate Force in Bosnia

Dayton Accords on Bosnia

Insurrection in Darfur

Bombay is renamed Mumbai

Aum Shinrikyō members release sarin gas in Tokyo subway

Referendum to separate Quebec from Canada fails

Mississippi last state to ratify Thirteenth Amendment (went into effect 1865)

WTO created

Territorial war between Ecuador and Peru

1995

1996

Three army mutinies and a failed coup in Central African Republic

Taliban rules Afghanistan (1996–2001)

Madras is renamed Chennai

Unabomber caught after eighteen years

Huntingdon's The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order

Accords signed in Guatemala

1996

1997

Mobutu is overthrown by Kabila (and dies in exile); Zaire renamed Democratic Republic of the Congo

New Labour elected, with Blair as prime minister

Princess Diana dies in a car accident

Mother Teresa dies (India)

Financial crises in Thailand and Indonesia (1997–2001)

Hong Kong returns to Chinese sovereignty

Kyoto Protocol

New Ainu Law (Japan)

1997

1998

Terrorists bomb the U.S. embassy in Dar es Salaam

Belfast Agreement

Suharto resigns because of embezzlement (Indonesia)

Revised Land Administration Law (China)

1998

1999

Angolagate oil scandal

Scottish parliament reconvenes after U.K. devolution

NATO bombs Serbia; Kosovo becomes an international protectorate

King Hussein of Jordan (reigned since 1952) dies

Military coup in Pakistan

Referendum for East Timor

Macau returns to Chinese sovereignty

China represses Falun Gong

Referendum to make Australia a republic fails

Protests at a World Trade Organization meeting in Seattle

Shootings at Columbine High School (Colorado)

United States gives up control of the Panama Canal

Hugo Chávez elected president of Venezuela

1999

2000

al-Asqa Intifada begins

Terrorist attacks in Jakarta

2000

2001

Antiglobalization protests in Genoa at G8 conference

Milošević goes on trial at The Hague for war crimes

United States attacks Afghanistan

Calcutta is renamed Kolkata

History textbook Atarashii rekishi kyōkasho published; downplays Japanese aggression

11 September terrorist attacks

Patriot Act

United States declares that it will not ratify the Kyoto Protocol

Financial crisis in Argentina (2001–2003)

2001

2002

East Timor becomes independent (Timor-Leste)

Terrorist attacks in Bali

2002

2003

ExxonMobil begins to export oil from Chad

Military coup in Central African Republic

United States invades Iraq

Genocide in Darfur (2003– )

Israel bombs site near Damascus

SARS epidemic begins in Hong Kong and Vietnam

Chávez introduces Plan Zamora, a “land revolution” (Venezuela)

2003

2004

Demonstrations in Nairobi

Communal Land Rights Act (South Africa)

Trains bombed in Madrid

Orange Revolution (Ukraine)

Arafat dies

Indian Ocean tsunami

U.S. and U.N. troops occupy Haiti

2004

2005

Ellen Johnson Sirleaf becomes first African woman head of state (Liberia)

Terrorist bombings in London

Hunting foxes with dogs prohibited

Pope John Paul II (r. 1978–2005) dies

Cedar Revolution (Lebanon)

Most Hmong insurgents in Laos surrender

Hurricane Katrina

2005

Date

Africa South of the Sahara

Britain and Ireland

Europe

The Middle East, North Africa, and Central Asia

South Asia

Southeast Asia

East Asia

Australia, New Zealand, Oceania, and the Polar Regions

The United States and Canada

Latin America and the Caribbean

Date

1750

Maravi state system begins to decline (Malawi)

Pombal reforms begin in Portugal

Franciscans reach Gondar (Ethiopia) but are forced to return to Europe

Pombal reforms begin in Portuguese empire

Treaty of Madrid about missions

1750

1751

Anglicans evangelize among the Fante

Beginning of publication of the Encyclopédie

Britain signs treaty with Tunis

Clive captures Arcot for British control of southern India

Qing China invades and conquers Tibet

1751

1752

Mozambique's administration separated from that of Gao

Britain adopts Gregorian calendar

Afghans invade India

Civil war in Burma (Myanmar)

Ben Franklin invents the lighting conductor

1752

1753

British Museum founded

Albany Convention

1753

1754

First recorded resistance to Boers

End of the second Carnatic War

French and Indian War (1754–1763)

1754

1755

Smallpox epidemic in Cape Town

Samuel Johnson's Dictionary

Earthquake at Lisbon

Huge fire in Istanbul

Non-Christian Chinese expelled from Philippines

Battle at the Monongahela

1755

1756

Seven Years' War (1756–1763)

Third Carnatic War (1756–1763)

Afghans occupy Delhi

1756

1757

John Campbell invents sextant

Attack by Bedouins on the annual Damascus pilgrimage caravan to Mecca

British win battle of Plassey in Bengal

Konbaung dynasty indisputably rules Burma (1757–1885)

Qing China makes Guangzhou the only port open to European trade

1757

1758

Canal between Liverpool and Leeds begun (finished 1761)

Shogun punishes Takenouchi Shikibu, a scholar favoring imperial restoration

1758

1759

Rioting in Dublin over possibility of union

Expulsion of Jesuits from Portugal

Qing China conquers Turkestan

Quebec surrenders to the British after battle of the Plains of Abraham

Expulsion of Jesuits from Portuguese territories

1759

1760

Expulsion of Jesuits from Angola and Mozambique

Battle of Wandiwash (Vandavasi) between British and French

Montreal surrenders; all Canada now in Britain's control

Akan slaves revolt (Jamaica)

1760

1761

Harrison's chronometer accurately measures longitude

Battle of Panipat between Marathas and Afghans

British capture Pondicherry from French

1761

1762

Catherine II the Great of Russia begins rule (1762–1796)

Rousseau's Contrat social

Muhammad Abu Likaylik establishes the Hamadj dynasty, keeping Funj royals as puppets

British capture Manila

France cedes land west of Mississippi to Spain

French West Indies islands surrender to the British

1762

1763

Catholic mission begins at Gorée (Senegal)

British seize Senegambia

Treaty of Paris

English East India Company establishes base in Iran

Sanyasi rebellion against British (Bengal)

Pontiac Rebellion

Proclamation of 1763

Treaty of Paris over various territories

Treaty of Paris over various territories

1763

1764

Hargreaves invents the spinning jenny

Expulsion of Jesuits from France

English East India Company gains control of Bengal and Bihar after battle at Buxar

War between Burma and Thailand (1764–1769)

French settle on East Falkland (Isla Soledad); soon forced to leave by Spanish

Expulsion of Jesuits from French territories

1764

1765

Stril War in Norway

Shah Alam II grants English East India Company revenue-collecting power in Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa

Protests against the Stamp Act

British settle at Port Egmont, West Falkland (Gran Malvina)

1765

1766

Rioting in Ireland over food shortages

Esquilache Riots in Spain

Famine in Bengal

Burma repels three attacks by Chinese (1766–1769)

Bougainville circumnavigates the globe (1766–1769)

Repeal of the Stamp Act

1766

1767

Segu rebuilt by Ngolo Jara

Expulsion of Jesuits from Spain

Burma conquers Ayutthaya (Thailand)

Wallis is first European to see Tahiti

Townshend Acts tax imports

Expulsion of Jesuits from Spanish territories

1767

1768

Royal Academy founded

Beginning of publication of Encyclopædia Britannica

Ottoman-Russian War (1768–1774)

Bruce explores East Africa (1768–1773)

French-Tunisian War (1768–1770)

Ottoman-Russian War (1768–1774)

Thailand invades Cambodia

Famine in Vietnam

Cook's first voyage (1768–1771)

Bougainville travels through Pacific

British troops refused quarters in Boston

1768

1769

Watt patents the steam engine

Famine in India

War between Thailand and Vietnam (1769–1773)

Cook witnesses the transit of Venus (Tahiti)

1769

1770

Much resistance by Khoisan to Trekboers

Ansante seize Gomba

Taksin reconstitutes some areas of Ayutthaya (Thailand)

First Bengal opium arrives in China

Cook declares possession of eastern Australia (New South Wales)

Boston Massacre

Gaspée Affair in Narragansett Bay

1770

1771

Maupéou Coup (France)

Tay Son Rebellion (Vietnam, 1771–1802)

1771

1772

James Bruce traces the Blue Nile

Slavery abolished in Britain

Ann Lee heads Shakers; moves to America in 1774

First Partition of Poland

Sikhs attack Delhi

Direct administration by the English East India Company in Bengal

Thai burn down Phnom Penh

Cook's second voyage (1772–1775)

Boston Assembly threatens secession

1772

1773

Harrison gets the longitude prize

Regulating Act creates office of governor-general of India

Boston Tea Party

1773

1774

Donaldson v. Becket case confirms public domain

Spain skirmishes with Morocco about supposed pirates (1774–1775)

Wang Lun uprising (China)

Quebec Act Various “Coercive Acts” passed

First Continental Congress meets, draws up Declaration of Rights and Grievances

British leave Port Egmont

1774

1775

Succession disputes following the death of the Xhosa ruler (1775–1782)

Watt's steam engine introduced

First Anglo-Maratha War (1775–1782)

War between Burma and Thailand (1775–1776)

Battles of Lexington and Concord, Ticonderoga, Bunker Hill

Second Continental Congress meets

Continental Army, led by Washington, created

1775

1776

Yoruba introduce Islam into Dahomey

First contacts between Dutch and Xhosa

Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations

Occupation of Basra by Iran

Cook's third voyage (1776–1779)

Paine's Common Sense

Declaration of Independence

Battles of Long Island, Trenton

Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata created

1776

1777

Dominicans expelled from Mozambique

Battles of Princeton, Brandywine, Saratoga

Republic of Vermont exists (1777–1791)

Treaty of San Idelfonso (Brazil)

1777

1778

War of the Bavarian Succession (1778–1779)

Sikhs attack Delhi

Thailand invades Cambodia

France allies with the colonies

1778

1779

Fighting between Xhosa and Europeans (nine wars, 1779–1879)

Treaty of Teschen

Cook killed in Hawai‘i

Spain allies with the colonies

Portugal cedes Fernando Póo and Annobón to Spain

1779

1780

Fourth Anglo-Dutch War (1780–1784)

Gordon Riots

Fourth Anglo-Dutch War (1780–1784)

Second Anglo-Mysore War (1780–1784)

British siege of Charleston

Túpac Amaru rebellion (Peru, 1780–1782)

1780

1781

Clarendon Press, Oxford, created

Edict of Tolerance in Habsburg Monarchy

Kant's Critique of Pure Reason

Construction of Siberian highway begun

Charter Act

Siege of Yorktown; Cornwallis surrenders

Articles of Confederation ratified

1781

1782

Spanish capture Minorca from British

Ratanakosin kingdom, with Jakri (or Bangkok) dynasty, rules Thailand

Temmei famine in Japan (1782–1787)

1782

1783

Russia annexes the Crimea from the Ottomans

League of Princes

Sikhs attack Delhi

Mount Asama erupts (Japan)

Britain recognizes independence of the United States

1783

1784

Pitt's India Act gives Crown more rule in India

Burma conquers Arakan

United States enters the Guangzhou trade

Economic depression in United States

1784

1785

S. M. X. Golberry explores West Africa (1785–1787)

Railroad tie invented

League of the German Princes among Prussia, Electoral Saxony, and Hanover

War between Burma and Thailand (1785–1792)

Catholicism banned (Korea)

University of Georgia chartered; first state-sponsored university

1785

1786

Treaty between Morocco and United States

Reassertion of Ottoman control over Egypt

Cornwallis becomes governor-general of India

Qing China suppresses a rebellion in Taiwan

1786

1787

Britain resettles former slaves in Sierra Leone

War between Ottomans and Russia

Rice riots in Edo

First transport leaves Britain for Botany Bay

Constitutional Convention meets

1787

1788

African Association founded in London

Austria joins Ottoman-Russian war

Louis XVI asks Estates-General to pass taxes

War between Sweden and Russia

Tay Son dynasty rules Vietnam (1788–1802)

Transport arrives in Botany Bay; Sydney (Port Jackson) founded

U.S. Constitution ratified

1788

1789

Catholicism introduced at Warri (Nigeria)

Regency Bill passes, but George III recovers from his madness

Tennis Court Oath

Storming of the Bastille

Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen passed

Act of Unity and Security in Sweden

Mutiny on HMS Bounty, bound for Tahiti

Malaspina circumnavigates the globe (1789–1794)

Washington inaugurated as president

1789

1790

Civil Constitution of the Clergy (France)

Third Anglo-Mysore War (1790–1792)

1790

1791

Boswell's Life of Johnson

Louis XVI ratifies French Constitution

Mozart dies, age thirty-five

Famine in India

Publication of The Story of the Stone (The Dream of the Red Chamber) by Cao Xueqin

Bill of Rights comes into effect

Canada Act passed

Whiskey Rebellion

Haitian Revolution (1791–1804)

1791

1792

Denmark abolishes slave trade

Wollstonecraft's Vindication of the Rights of Woman

First Republic rules France (September 1792–October 1795)

French defeat Prussians at Battle of Valmy

Treaty of Jassy

Gustavus III of Sweden murdered

War of the First Coalition (1792–1797)

Japan refuses Russian requests for trade

Qing China invades Nepal from Tibet

Vancouver circumnavigates Vancouver Island

1792

1793

Alien Act removes Irish to Ireland

Second Partition of Poland

Louis XVI guillotined

France declares war on Britain, Holland, and Spain

Reign of Terror (1793–1794)

Levée en Masse

al-Nuhayyan family, rulers of Al Bu Falah tribe, move to Abu Dhabi

Permanent settlement of Bengal agreement between East India Company and Bengali landlords

Macartney mission fails to establish trade relations with China

First free settlers arrive in Australia

Mackenzie reaches Pacific coast overland

Whitney invents the cotton gin

Town of York (Toronto) founded

1793

1794

Freedom for all slaves in French colonies

Glorious First of June battle at sea

National uprising in Poland

Belgium incorporated into France

Hawai‘i under protection of British Crown

Jay's Treaty

Neutrality Act

First labor organization, the Federal Society of Journeymen Cordwainers, founded

Freedom for all slaves in French colonies

1794

1795

British gain control of Cape Town

London Missionary Society founded

Third Partition of Poland

Treaty of Basel between France and Prussia

Directory rules France (1795–1799)

Adoption of metric system in France

Batavian Revolution

United States signs treaty with Algiers

British hold Malacca for the Dutch

Revolt by Hmong suppressed by China (1795–1797)

Treaty of San Lorenzo, or Pinckney's treaty

War between Maroons and British (Jamaica)

Slave revolt on Grenada

1795

1796

Mungo Park reaches the Niger

Wesleyan missionaries work in Sierra Leone

Edward Jenner discovers that smallpox can be prevented with vaccination

Napoleon's Italian campaign (1796–1797)

Dutch cede Ceylon (Sri Lanka) to Britain

White Lotus Rebellion (1796–1804)

British capture the Dutch colonies Essequibo, Demerara, and Berbice

Slave revolt on Saint Vincent

1796

1797

Nore and Spithead mutinies

Battle off Cape Saint Vincent

Genoa forms its own republic

London Missionary Society sets up station in Tahiti

XYZ Affair

Mutiny on HMS Hermione

1797

1798

United Irishmen uprising

Wordsworth and Coleridge's Lyrical Ballads

Jourdan Law in France

Battle of the Pyramids; French occupy Egypt

Battle of the Nile

Britain and Oman sign treaty of friendship

Fourth Anglo-Mysore War (1798–1799)

Subsidiary Treaty between British and Indian princes

Quasi-War between United States and France (1798–1800)

Alien and Sedition Acts

1798

1799

First London Missionary Society station in South Africa

Khoi revolt

Combination Acts (1799, 1800)

Income tax introduced

Constitution of the Year VIII in effect; Napoleon consul

War of the Second Coalition (1799–1802)

French defeat Ottomans at Abukir

United States signs treaty with Tunis

1799

1800

British blockade of Brest

Government rather than VOC rules Netherlands East Indies (Indonesia)

Qing imperial prohibition of opium

Gabriel Prosser leads failed slave attack on Richmond, Va.

1800

1801

Act of Union, creating the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, takes effect

First census

Concordat between pope and Napoleon

Battle of Copenhagen

French leave Egypt

War between Libya and United States (1801–1805)

First Barbary War with United States (1801–1805)

Flinders circumnavigates Australia (1801–1803)

Pork trade begins between Tahiti and New South Wales

1801

1802

Kingdom of Sardinia annexed to France

Treaty of Amiens

Nguyen rule Vietnam (1802–1945)

British restore Malacca to the Dutch

Trinidad goes to Spain in Treaty of Amiens

1802

1803

Cape Town returned to Dutch

Robert Emmet proclaims Irish government and is executed

Royal Jennerian Society for vaccines founded

Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815)

British take over Delhi

Second Anglo-Maratha War (1803–1805)

British colonize Van Diemen's Land as a penal colony

Louisiana Purchase

1803

1804

Usman dan Fodio begins jihad in West Africa (Fulani War)

Trevithick introduces the first locomotive

Napoleon proclaimed emperor (1804–1815)

First Serbian Uprising against Ottomans

Japan refuses Russian requests for trade

Hamilton killed by Burr in duel

Consolidación de Vales Reales by Spanish crown regulates church property in empire

Haiti becomes independent

1804

1805

Fulani nomads launch a jihad in Borno

Battle of Trafalgar

Battle of Austerlitz

War of the Third Coalition

Janissaries rule Aleppo until 1813

Muhammad ῾Ali Pasha becomes viceroy of Egypt

New law code (Thailand)

China prohibits Christian literature

1805

1806

British retake control of Cape Town

Continental System established

Confederation of the Rhine created

War of the Fourth Coalition (1806–1807)

Francis II abdicates, ending Holy Roman Empire

Clashes between Russian explorers and northern Japanese

British unsuccessfully attack Buenos Aires

1806

1807

Britain abolishes slave trade

Second Battle of Copenhagen

Peninsular War (1807–1814)

Gunboat War (1807–1814)

Hesse and Bavaria make vaccination for smallpox mandatory

British occupy Alexandria

Ottomans invade Mani, Greece

Civil service examination revived (Vietnam)

Embargo Act

Fulton's steamboat goes up the Hudson to Albany

Portuguese family flees to Brazil

British unsuccessfully attack Buenos Aires

Britain abolishes slave trade

1807

1808

Napoleon makes brother Joseph king of Spain

Peninsular War (1808–1813)

Finnish war between Sweden and Russia (1808–1809)

Rum Rebellion

Slave trade made illegal

1808

1809

Duke of Wellington wins battle of Salamanca

Annexation of Finland by Russia

War of the Fifth Coalition

Rome declared a free imperial city

Peace treaty of the Dardanelles between Britain and Ottomans

Treaty of friendship between Afghans and British

Repeal of the Embargo Act

Creoles in Quito strive for independence (1809–1810)

1809

1810

Seku Ahmadu begins jihad in West Africa

Hawaiian Islands unified

Erie Canal proposed

Mexican independence from Spain declared

May Revolution (Argentina)

Bolivian independence movement begins

1810

1811

Ashanti campaign against the Fante fails

Future George IV serves as prince regent (1811–1820)

Massacre of Mamluk leaders

Turkish army revolts in Tunisia

Cambodian rebellion (1811–1812)

British occupy Netherlands East Indies (1811–1816)

Clashes between Russian explorers and northern Japanese

Battle of Tippecanoe

Grid plan accepted for New York City

Venezuela becomes independent

Paraguay becomes independent

Spain defeats Mexican revolutionaries at bridge of Calderón

1811

1812

Usman dan Fodio establishes the Sokoto caliphate

Constitution in Spain

War of the Sixth Coalition (1812–1814)

French invade Russia

Battles of Smolensk, Borodino

Hong Kyǒng-nae Rebellion (Korea)

United States declares war on Britain

1812

1813

Sectarian riots in Belfast

United Grand Lodge of England founded

Battle of the Nations (Leipzig)

Wellington wins Battle of Vitoria

Joseph Bonaparte abdicates

Charter Act opens India to free trade, ending East India Company's monopoly

The Tianli sect rebels and is suppressed

Qing imperial prohibition of opium

Battle of Lake Erie

Creek War (1813–1814)

1813

1814

Creation of Kingdom of Hanover

Pope restored to power in Rome

Napoleon abdicates

Treaty of Kiel; Sweden gets Norway

Gurkha War between Britain and Nepal (1814–1816)

Church Missionary Society sets up a station in New Zealand

Battle of Horseshoe Bend

America's first fully mechanized mill opens, at Waltham, Mass. (Waltham-Lowell system)

Dutch colonies Essequibo, Demerara, and Berbice ceded to the British

1814

1815

France abolishes the slave trade

Napoleon's hundred-day return

Battle of Waterloo

Congress of Vienna

Holy Alliance forms

Second Barbary War

Mount Tambora erupts (Indonesia)

Battle of New Orleans

Portuguese king returns to Portugal, leaving Prince Pedro as Brazil's regent

1815

1816

Elgin Marbles on display at the British Museum

Rossini's Il barbiere di Siviglia

Sweden introduces universal vaccination against smallpox

British bombard Algiers

American Bible Society founded

Argentina formally becomes independent

1816

1817

Ricardo's On the Principles of Political Economy and Taxation

Third Anglo-Maratha War (1817–1818)

1817

1818

British completely conquer Marathas

Bhil uprisings against British (1818–1831)

John Ross makes scientific voyage in the Arctic

Chile declares independence

1818

1819

Peterloo Massacre

Lord Byron's Don Juan (1819–1824)

Carlsbad Decrees

British attack Ras al-Khaimah (now part of United Arab Emirates)

British trading settlement opens in Singapore

Burma conquers Assam

1819

1820

Quinine discovered to be a malarial prophylaxis

Revolution in Naples and Piedmont

Liberal Triennium (Spain)

Britain signs peace treaty with sheikhs (Trucial States, now United Arab Emirates)

First coal mines open

Nguyen Du, author of the epic poem Truyen Kieu, dies (Vietnam)

Quinine discovered to be a malarial prophylaxis

Missouri Compromise

Guayaquil Creoles strive for independence

Argentina claims Falklands

1820

1821

Oudney, Denham, and Clapperton explore Lake Chad and the Niger (1821–1825)

Greece declares independence; war 1821–1829

Egyptians rule Sudan

Illicit trade in opium transferred to Lintin Island, Guangzhou

North West and Hudson's Bay companies merge

Spain recognizes Mexico's independence

Peru and Guatemala declare independence

1821

1822

Liberia established

Revolts in Sardinia

Muhammad ῾Ali introduces military conscription

Burma invades Manipur

Denmark Vesey leads slave revolt in Charleston, S.C.

Prince Pedro proclaims Empire of Brazil (1822–1889)

Ecuador part of Gran Colombia (1822–1830)

1822

1823

First Ashanti war against the British (1823–1831)

Supreme court and parliamentary system established in New South Wales

Monroe Doctrine

1823

1824

Britain grants right to form trade unions (Combination Acts repealed)

Beethoven's Symphony No. 9

British East India Company rules India

Kittur uprising against British

First Anglo-Burmese War (1824–1826)

Nederlandsche Handel-Maatschappij created

New penal colony established at Moreton Bay

Spanish defeated at Battle of Ayacucho (Peru)

1824

1825

Stockton-Darlington railway opens

Decembrist revolt in Russia

British Levant Company ends

Nguyen emperor outlaws Christian proselytism (Vietnam)

Java War (1825–1830)

Van Diemen's Land is made independent of New South Wales

Erie Canal completed

Bolivia declares independence

Brazil and Argentina fight over Uruguay (1825–1828)

1825

1826

Laing becomes first Westerner to reach Timbuktu, but is killed on return

British sign treaty with Siam

Bolívar convenes the Congress of Panama

1826

1827

Egyptian navy sunk by Europeans

Lao king leads an unsuccessful revolt against his Siamese overlord

Hicksite Separation within Quakerism (1827–1828)

1827

1828

Shaka Zulu murdered

Caillié reaches Timbuktu

Li Ruzhen's Flowers in the Mirror

Dutch annex western half of New Guinea

Noah Webster's unabridged dictionary

Nullification Crisis

Uruguay becomes independent

1828

1829

Metropolitan Police Act

Test Act repealed, allowing Catholics to hold office

British outlaw sati

Khasi resistance in Sylhet against British

Free colony established at Swan River

Britain claims continent of Australia

1829

1830

Lander brothers follow the Niger to its terminus

Locomotive line begins to be developed between Leeds and Manchester

July Revolution in Paris, resulting in the July Monarchy (1830–1848)

Belgium becomes independent

November insurrection in Poland

Uprisings in Modena, Parma, and Papal States

French seize Algeria from the Ottomans

Brahmo-Somaj sect founded

Campaign of persecution against Catholics (Vietnam)

Cultivation system introduced (Dutch East Indies)

Goodyear improves usability of rubber

First Latter Day Saint (Mormon) church formed

Gran Colombia dissolves into Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador

1830

1831

Royal Geographical Society created

Kol rebellion against British (1831–1832)

War between Thailand and Cambodia (1831–1834)

James Clark Ross reaches North Magnetic Pole

Garrison's Liberator newspaper begins

Nat Turner leads slave revolt in Southampton, Va.

Former Dutch colonies Essequibo, Demerara, and Berbice become British Guiana

1831

1832

First merchant expedition to the Niger

Reform Act passed

Egyptians capture Acre

1832

1833

Britain abolishes slavery

Church Temporalities (Ireland) Act

Oxford Movement begins

First Carlist War (1833–1840)

Charter Act ends English East India Company's monopoly in China

American Anti-Slavery Society founded

Chicago incorporated

Britain abolishes slavery

Britain evicts Argentineans from Falklands

1833

1834

Poor Law Amendment Act

Zollverein of eighteen contiguous states goes into effect (Germany)

The few remaining Aborigines in Tasmania are moved to Flinders Island

1834

1835

Baden joins the Zollverein

Macaulay's Minute on Education

Muslim slave rebellion (Brazil)

1835

1836

University of London founded (England's third university)

Qing emperor ends the opium trade

Free colony of South Australia established

Battle of the Alamo

Texas gains independence from Mexico

Constitution of Peru-Bolivian Confederation

1836

1837

Queen Victoria begins rule (1837–1901)

General Register Office opens

Indian indenture system legalized and regulated

Ōshio Heihachirō instigates Osaka rebellion

British House of Commons recommends protection of Aborigines

Rebellions in Quebec (1837–1838)

1837

1838

The Charter is prepared and published

First U.S. police force established, in Boston

1838

1839

Slaves aboard Amistad rebel

Chartist petition is presented to the Commons and fails; protests ensue

Dutch lose Belgium

First Anglo-Afghan War (1839–1842)

British seize Aden

Rebellion of Surendra Sai against British (1839–1862)

James Clark Ross makes Antarctic expedition (1839–1843)

Durham report (Canada)

Amistad, taken over by slaves, is captured by the U.S. Navy

Dissolution of Peru-Bolivian Confederation after Chilean attack

1839

1840

Omani Said bin Sultan moves his capital to Zanzibar

National Charter Association founded

Muhammad ῾Ali granted hereditary rule over Egypt

British bombard Acre

Damascus blood libel

First Opium War (1840–1842)

Transportation of British convicts to New South Wales ends

Guano boom, especially in Peru (through 1870s)

1840

1841

War between Thailand and Vietnam (1841–1845)

British Brooke family rule Sarawak

Act of Union creates Province of Canada (1841–1867)

Brook Farm commune formed (Mass.)

1841

1842

Portugal bans slave trade from Mozambique

Another Chartist petition fails, and protests again ensue

Treaty of Nanjing opens five treaty ports to West

Britain gains control of New Zealand (1842–1845)

Means-End Doctrine passed

1842

1843

Natal annexed as British colony

Dickens's A Christmas Carol

Disruption (Church of Scotland)

Sind incorporated into English East India Company empire

Potato blight begins in United States, spreads

1843

1844

British make Said bin Sultan end slave trade to Arabia

Treaty of Wangxia between China and United States

Washington, D.C., meridian becomes official for U.S. maps

1844

1845

Potato blight begins; famine results (1845–1849)

Ill-fated Franklin Arctic expedition (1845–1848)

Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass

New York City police established

1845

1846

Saifawa dynasty in Chad ends; longest-ruling family in history (began 1068)

Repeal of the Corn Laws

Corn is sold in Ireland

Evangelical Alliance founded

Second Carlist War (1846–1849)

Insurrection in Austrian Poland

Khond insurrection against British

Trade refused to U.S. ship (Edo Bay, Japan)

Mexican-American War (1846–1848)

Oregon Treaty

Mexican-American War (1846–1848)

Treaty of New Granada between Colombia and United States

1846

1847

Liberia becomes independent

Ten Hours Act passed

First publicly funded park, Birkenhead, opens (Liverpool)

The Liberator, Daniel O'Connell, dies

British Relief Organization founded

Forty-seven remaining Aborigines moved to Oyster Cove (Tasmania)

Douglass's North Star newspaper founded

Gold discoveries in California

Caste War of the Yucatán (1847–1901)

1847

1848

Al-hajj Umar Tal establishes an Islamic state in West Africa

Another Chartist petition fails, and protests again ensue

Failed rebellion by Young Ireland

Marx and Engel's Communist Manifesto

Revolutions throughout Europe

Second Republic rules France (1848–1852)

Universal manhood suffrage in France

Statuto Albertino in Sardinia

Insurrection in Prussian Poland

First Schleswig War (1848–1851)

Seneca Falls Convention

“Praieira” Revolt (Brazil, 1848–1852)

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

1848

1849

Livingstone crosses the Kalahari

Navigation Acts repealed

Punjab falls to English East India Company rule

Famine in Central Java (1849–1850)

U.S. castaways at Nagasaki liberated

California gold rush

Stagecoach line established across the Isthmus of Panama

1849

1850

Expansion of Vienna (1850–1857)

Taiping Rebellion (1850–1864)

Convicts start arriving at Swan River colony

Fugitive Slave Act

French Guiana becomes destination for French convicts

1850

1851

Britain bombards Lagos

Great Exhibition (Crystal Palace, London)

Hanover joins the Zollverein

Constitution in Prussia (lasts until 1918)

Coup by Louis-Napoleon (Napoleon III)

First cotton mill opened in Bombay

New colony of Victoria established (Australia)

Gold discovered in New South Wales

Melville's Moby-Dick

1851

1852

Patent law

Second French Empire of Napoleon III rules France (1852–1870)

Second Anglo-Burmese War (1852–1853)

British authorities invite colonial legislatures to write draft constitutions

Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin

Massachusetts passes first law making school compulsory

National uprising in Argentina: Overthrow of Rosas dictatorship

1852

1853

Livingstone crosses the continent and discovers Victoria Falls (1853–1856)

Crimean War (1853–1856)

Barth reaches Timbuktu

Nian rebellion in north China (1853–1868)

American Commodore Matthew Perry arrives in Japan

Transportation of British convicts to Van Diemen's Land ends

France acquires New Caledonia and sends convicts there

Gadsden Purchase (1853)

Argentina's Federalist Constitution approved

1853

1854

al-Hajj Umar begins jihad in West Africa

Miao rebellion (1854–1873) of Hmong against Chinese

Treaty of Kanagawa signed between Japan and the United States

Red Turban rebels attack Guangzhou

Eureka Stockade rebellion (Australia)

1854

1855

Santhal rebellion against British

Bowring Treaty between Britain and Thailand

Muslim rebellion in southwest China (1855–1873)

Shimoda Treaty between Russia and Japan

Massive earthquake in Edo

Van Diemen's Land renamed Tasmania

Constitution for limited self-government in New South Wales

Railroad line established across the Isthmus of Panama

1855

1856

Xhosa cattle killing (1856–1857)

Congress of Paris

Flaubert's Madame Bovary

Second Opium War (1856–1860)

Ley Lerdo (Mexico)

1856

1857

Toll at The Sound (Øresund) abolished

Great Mutiny (or Indian Rebellion) throughout India

Massacre of Cawnpore

Dred Scott v. Sandford Supreme Court decision

1857

1858

Burton and Speke become first Westerners to reach Lake Tanganyika

Irish Republican Brotherhood founded

Haussmann's Boulevard de Sébastopol opens (Paris)

Government of India Act

Queen Victoria's Proclamation (about India)

French invade Dai Nam (Vietnam)

Treaty of Tianjin

United States and Japan sign commercial treaty

Central Park begins (New York City)

War of the Reform in Mexico (1858–1860)

1858

1859

Livingstone discovers Lake Nyasa

Darwin's On the Origin of Species

J. S. Mill's On Liberty

Fenian Brotherhood founded (New York)

First battleship, French Gloire, built

Austria attacks Piedmont, which has French help

Workmen's Breach of Contract Act

Bengal Rent Act Rebellion against forced indigo cultivation (Bengal)

Colony of Queensland formed from New South Wales

John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry

Fenian Brotherhood founded (New York)

First commercial extraction of crude oil, in Pennsylvania

1859

1860

Britain annexes Lagos as a crown colony

Trade treaty between Britain and France

Trade treaty between Britain and France

Civil war in Lebanon (1860–1861)

Summer Palace at Beijing destroyed by the British

South Carolina is the first state to secede

1860

1861

Prince Albert dies

Serfs in Russia emancipated

Kingdom of Italy proclaimed

New penal code for India by Britain

Indian Councils Act

American Civil War (1861–1865)

Confederate States of America (1861–1865)

1861

1862

Al-hajj Umar Tal conquers Masina and establishes an empire

Al-hajj Umar Tal conquers Masina and establishes an empire from West Africa to Timbuktu

Treaty of Saigon between French and Nguyen

Muslim rebellion in northwest China (1862–1873)

Chinju uprising (Korea)

Homestead Act

Morrill Land Grant Act

Julia Ward Howe's “Battle Hymn of the Republic”

1862

1863

Irish People founded

Insurrection in Russian Poland

Japanese shore batteries fire on British ships leading to reprisals

Emancipation Proclamation

Gettysburg Address

1863

1864

Contagious Diseases Act

First International founded

Second Schleswig War

First Geneva Convention

Lincoln reelected as president

War of the Triple Alliance (Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay against Paraguay) (1864–1870)

Habsburgs rule Mexico (1864–1867)

1864

1865

Wagner's Tristan und Isolde

Bicameral parliament in Sweden

Lincoln assassinated

Thirteenth Amendment ratified by enough states; abolishes slavery

Morant Bay uprising in Jamaica

War of the Triple Alliance (1865–1870)

1865

1866

Contagious Diseases Act

Austro-Prussian War

Universal male suffrage (Prussia)

Famine in India

French attack Korea for anti-Christian activities U.S.

fails to open Korean ports

Irish nationalists make failed attacks on Canada

British Crown rule in Jamaica (1866–1944)

Spain attacks Peru

1866

1867

Diamonds discovered in South Africa

Second Reform Act passed

Fenian risings throughout Ireland

Manchester martyrs executed (Fenians)

Compromise (Ausgleich) creates Austria-Hungary

Luxembourg crisis between France and Prussia

Deobandi movement begins

Straits Settlements become a Crown colony

France annexes provinces around Saigon

Transportation of British convicts to Western Australia ends

Only French convicts to be sent to New Caledonia

Canada federated, becomes a Dominion

Widespread strike in Chicago

Clan na Gael founded

Final transatlantic slave-trade voyage arrives in Cuba

1867

1868

Trade Union Congress launched

Glorious Revolution (Spain)

Meiji Restoration

Ten Years' War (Cuba, 1868–1878)

1868

1869

Girton College, Cambridge, opens; first women's college

Irish Church Act

Tolstoy's War and Peace

Vatican I (1869–1870)

Suez Canal opens

1869

1870

Education Act

Land Act for Ireland

Ems telegram

Franco-Prussian War (1870–1871)

Third Republic rules France (1870–1940)

Papal infallibility proclaimed

Cultivation system abolished (Dutch East Indies)

Fifteenth Amendment ratified

1870

1871

Livingstone “found” at Lake Tanganyika

Trade Union Act

Treaty of Washington

Paris Commune

United German empire created

Rome made the capital of Italy

Daimyo replaced by governors (Japan)

U.S. again fails to open Korean ports

Chicago fire

Treaty of Washington

Daquilema uprising (Ecuador)

1871

1872

Third Carlist War (1872–1876)

Center Party founded (Germany)

Pabna peasant movement

First Chinese silk filature opens in Guangzhou

HMS Challenger gathers scientific data (1872–1876)

Dominion Lands Act

Alabama claims dispute settled

José Hernández's Romantic poem Martín Fierro

1872

1873

Second Ashanti war against the British (1873–1874)

Livingstone dies

Home Rule League founded

May Laws, an aspect of 1870s Kulturkampf (Germany)

First Spanish Republic (1873–1875)

French attack Dai Nam from Cochinchine Française

Treaty of Pangkor

Male conscription law (Japan)

Comstock founds the Society for the Suppression of Vice

Comstock Act

1873

1874

First Impressionist exhibition (Paris)

Zubeir Rahma annexes Darfur in the name of Egypt

French annex Tonkin (Vietnam)

Japan invades Taiwan

Popular Rights Movement (Japan, 1874–1889)

Supreme Court rules that taxes can be used for public high schools (Kalamazoo case)

1874

1875

Conspiracy and Protection of Property Act

Matthew Webb swims the English Channel

Bourbon Restoration in Spain

Eastern crisis

International Committee of the Red Cross formed

Britain gains control of the Suez Canal

Arya Samaj Hindu reform movement founded

Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College founded (Aligarh)

Deccan riots

Revolt of native chiefs against British (Malaya)

Treaty of Saint Petersburg between Russia and Japan about Kurils

Civil Rights Act

Supreme Court of Canada created

1875

1876

Balkan Crisis (1876–1878)

Ems Ukaz edict by tsar against Ukrainian language

Wagner's Ring premieres

Ottoman constitution

Famine in India (1876–1878)

Indian Association of Calcutta established

Treaty of Kanghwa between Korea and Japan

Last full-blooded Aboriginal dies (Tasmania)

The Porfiriato (Mexico, 1876–1911)

1876

1877

Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878)

Victoria becomes empress of India

Great northern China famine (1877–1878)

Tokyo University, first university in East Asia, opens

Edison invents the phonograph

1877

1878

Salvation Army founded

Congress of Berlin

Second Anglo-Afghan War (1878–1880)

Nordenskiöld makes first ship transit of the Northeast Passage (1878–1879)

Black Hills gold rush peaks (Dakotas)

1878

1879

British conquer Zulus

Stanley, for Belgians, establishes bases in the Congo region

Irish Land League

Parnell combines Home Rule League and Irish Land League

Dual Alliance between Austria-Hungary and Germany

Ibsen's A Doll's House

Koya rebellion

Japan annexes Ryukyu Islands

First indentured Indians arrive on Fiji

Edison's improved lightbulb

Pullman builds factory and town for workers (Chicago)

War of the Pacific (Chile versus Bolivia and Peru, 1879–1883)

1879

1880

De Brazza secures French areas north of Congo River

First bathing-beauty contest, Miss United States (Delaware)

Argentine Conquest of the Desert

1880

1881

Tuareg successfully attack French

Factories Act (India)

British North Borneo Company takes over Sabah

Government corruption scandal (Japan)

Panama Canal begun by a French company (1881–1893)

1881

1882

Married Women's Property Act

Triple Alliance among Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Italy (1882–1915)

Mahdist Revolt in Sudan (1882–1885)

British bombard and land at Alexandria

French attack Dai Nam from Cochinchine Française

First commercial power station (New York City)

1882

1883

Rabi Zubayr seizes control of Chadian kingdoms

Galton coins “eugenics”

German health insurance program

Krakatoa erupts (Indonesia)

French annex Annam

First Niagara Conference of religious revivalists

Brooklyn Bridge opens

1883

1884

Berlin West African Conference (1884–1885)

Oxford English Dictionary published (1884–1928)

Greenwich meridian established as the world standard

Abortive Nile campaign by Britain

Ilbert Bill (India)

Malabari's Notes on Infant Marriage and Enforced Widowhood

Convention of the Protectorate; Nguyen reduced by French into figureheads

Sino-French War (1884–1885); China loses Vietnam

Pro-Japanese murder Korean queen

Germany makes northeast coast of New Guinea a protectorate; Britain takes southeast

Mark Twain's Adventures of Huckleberry Finn

1884

1885

Congo Free State established

Panjdeh incident (Afghanistan)

Gen. Gordon (Gordon Pasha) dies at Khartoum

Bengal Tenancy Act

Indian National Congress formed

Third Anglo-Burmese War (1885–c. 1888)

Ton That Thuyet leads unsuccessful attack on French in Hue (Vietnam)

Li-Itō Convention (China and Japan)

Germany annexes the Marshall Islands

World's first skyscraper completed (Chicago)

1885

1886

Gold discovered on the Witwatersrand

Stevenson's Doctor Jekyll and Mr Hyde

Contagious Diseases Acts repealed

Ewha Haktang girls' school opens (Korea)

Chicago Haymarket riot

Cuba abolishes slavery

1886

1887

Britain will recognize Portuguese colonies only where Portuguese maintain order

Boulanger crisis (1887–1889) in France

Indian National Social Conference founded

French create the consolidated Indochinese Union

Peace-preservation law forbids activists from living in Tokyo

British and French share control of the New Hebrides

1887

1888

Rudd Concession

Barcelona Exposició Universal

Reforms in Thailand make a new system of government

Brunei becomes a British protectorate

British set up protectorate of the Cook Islands

Tesla patents an electric motor

Brazil abolishes slavery

Darío's Azul, founding poem of modernismo

1888

1889

British South Africa Company incorporated

Second International founded

Germany sets up state old-age pensions

Orient Express goes from Paris to Istanbul

Meiji Constitution

Limited self-government granted in Western Australia

Pan-American Conference held in Washington, D.C.

Pan-American Conference

Brazil becomes a republic

1889

1890

British South African Company raises Pioneer Column army

Britain issues ultimatum telling Portuguese to leave Malawi

First electric underground trains (London)

Second Morrill Act

Electric chair as capital punishment introduced (New York)

1890

1891

M'Siri, ruler of Yeke Kingdom (in Katanga), killed

International Classification of Diseases created

Age of Consent Act

United States agrees to respect international copyright

José Martí's Versos sencillos

Civil war in Chile

1891

1892

Tchaikovsky's Nutcracker

1892

1893

Buganda agrees to indirect British rule (Uganda)

Third Ashanti war against the British (1893–1894)

French take control of Timbuktu

Macmillan opens subsidiary in India

India Councils Act

French establish protectorate in Laos

New Zealand grants full suffrage, including women

Coup overthrows Hawaiian monarchy

World's Columbian Exposition (Chicago)

1893

1894

Dreyfus affair in France (1894–1906)

Tonghak Rebellion (Korea)

Kabo Reform (Korea)

First Sino-Japanese war; China loses Taiwan (1894–1895)

Republic of Hawai‘i proclaimed

Pullman strike (Chicago)

1894

1895

Fourth Ashanti war against the British (1895–1896)

Kenya becomes a British protectorate, ending Omani Arab rule (began 1730)

Lumières' first film, Workers Leaving the Factory

Röntgen discovers X-ray photography of bones

First Italo-Ethiopian War (1895–1896); Ethiopians defeat Italians at Adowa

Federated Malay States ruled by Britain (1895–1945)

Treaty of Shimonoseki

Dreyfus sentenced to Devil's Island

Cuban war of independence (1895–1898)

Liberal Revolution in Ecuador (1892–19250)

1895

1896

British South Africa Company suppresses rebellion (1896–1897)

Madagascar becomes a French protectorate

First revived Olympics held in Athens

Nobel prizes established

Plessy v. Ferguson Supreme Court decision

1896

1897

British capture Benin

Mary Kingsley's Travels in West Africa

Victoria's Diamond Jubilee

Bram Stoker's Dracula

Assam earthquake

Plague in Bombay

Ironworker's Union forms; first large-scale trade union in Japan

Belgica explores around Antarctica (1897–1899)

Transportation of French convicts to New Caledonia ends

1897

1898

Hut taxes were imposed and were followed by a general uprising (Sierra Leone)

Railroad completed in Congo Free State

Zola's “J'accuse” published in L'Aurore newspaper

National exhibition of women's labor (The Hague)

Collapse of Madhist state in Sudan

Fashoda Incident in Sudan between Britain and France

American operations in the Philippines

Meiji Civil Code in effect (1898–1946)

Hong Kong leased to Britain until 1997

Drought and famine in northern China (1898–1900)

Hawai'ian Islands transferred to United States

New York City consolidated, with five boroughs

Spanish-American War

Federalist War in Bolivia (1898–1899)

1898

1899

Boer War (1899–1902)

Kipling's “White Man's Burden”

Bernstein's revisionist Preconditions of Socialism

First Hague Convention

Anglo-Egyptian condominium agreement signed

Famine in India (1899–1900)

Revolt of Birsa Munda (1899–1900)

Philippine-American War (1899–1902)

Boxer Rebellion in China against foreign influence (1899–1901)

Protection law for Ainu (Japan)

Yermak makes first polar icebreaker voyage

1899

1900

Buganda Agreement

French defeat Rabi Zubayr (Chad)

Labour Representative Committee formed

Freud's Interpretation of Dreams

Planck proposes the quantum hypothesis

Punjab Alienation of Land Act

Famine in Indonesia

Dutch Ethical Policy begins (Indonesia)

Banks fail in Brazil (part of Encilhamento)

1900

1901

Queen Victoria dies

Taff Vale legal decision

Radical Party organized (France)

Australia federated, becomes a Dominion

British National Antarctic Expedition (1901–1904)

Hay-Pauncefote Treaties (1901–1902)

1901

1902

Cecil Rhodes dies

Anglo-Japanese Alliance signed

Bülow tariffs ratified

Famine in Indonesia

Anglo-Japanese Alliance signed

Scottish National Antarctic Expedition (1902–1904)

Cuba becomes independent

Argentina and Chile agree on arms control

1902

1903

Katanga Railway joins the Rhodesian rail network

Roger Casement's report on the administration of the Congo Free State

Military coup in Serbia

Amundsen in Gjøa makes first ship transit of the Northwest Passage (1903–1906)

Wright brothers fly first airplane

First American story film, Porter's Life of an American Fireman

1903

1904

Herero revolt (German Southwest Africa)

Britain and France sign Entente Cordiale

Britain and France sign Entente Cordiale

Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905)

Trans-Siberian Railway completed

Second Geneva Convention

Duy Tan Hoi (Reformation Society) formed (Vietnam)

Dutch give grant to colonial Indonesia

Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905)

Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine

Subway system begins in New York City

U.S. government builds Panama Canal (1904–1914)

1904

1905

Maji Maji rebellion (1905–1907)

Einstein's special theory of relativity

Weber's Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism

Revolution in Russia

Norway becomes independent

First Moroccan Crisis

Iranian revolution (1905–1911)

Partition of Bengal

Solo valley irrigation works fail (Indonesia)

Government-sponsored migration schemes (Indonesia)

Sun Yat-sen establishes Revolutionary Alliance

Cixi abolishes civil service examination

1905

1906

Union Minière du Haut-Katanga created

Société Internationale Forestière et Minière created (diamond mining)

Dreadnought launched

Trade Union Act

Conference of Algeciras

Dreyfus exonerated

All India Muslim League founded

Michelin invests in plantations in Cambodia and Vietnam

System of village schools set up (Indonesia)

British New Guinea (Territory of Papua) transferred to Australia

Anglo-French Condominium of the New Hebrides

Upton Sinclair's Jungle

Reforms end Encilhamento (Brazil)

1906

1907

Second Hague Convention

Bhutan's monarchy established with help of British

Dong Kinh Nghia Thuc opens in Hanoi

Thailand cedes suzerainty over western Cambodia to France

Association for Redemption of the National Debt organizes to repay Japan (Korea)

New Zealand becomes a Dominion

1907

1908

Belgian Congo created (in place of Congo Free State)

Baden-Powell creates the first Boy Scout manual

Bosnian crisis

Young Turk revolution

Bali ruled by Dutch East Indies

Anti-French attacks lead to repression (Vietnam)

France compels Japan to expel its Vietnamese students

FBI established

1908

1909

Secret Service Bureau created (with MI5 and MI6)

Ballets Russes founded (Paris)

Government of India Act, or Morley-Minto reforms

Treaty between Britain and Thailand

Representative bodies created throughout China (1909–1913)

Peary first to reach the North Pole

Ford begins serial production of the Model T

Scofield Reference Bible

1909

1910

Union of South Africa created as a Dominion

Portuguese monarchy overthrown

Rabindranath Tagore's Gitanjali

End of Chosǒn dynasty in Korea (began 1392); Japan rules

Royal Canadian Navy created

Laboratory for Experimental Evolution set up (New York)

Mexican Revolution (1910–1920)

1910

1911

National health insurance programs established

Rutherford's model of the atomic nucleus

Italo-Turkish War (1911–1912)

Second Moroccan Crisis

Italo-Turkish War (1911–1912)

Unpartition of Bengal

Factory Law (Japan; implemented 1916)

Amundsen and party become first to reach the South Pole

Taylor's Principles of Scientific Management (Taylorism)

Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire (New York)

1911

1912

African National Congress formed

Titanic sinks

Balkan Wars (1912–1913)

Stravinsky's Le sacre du printemps

Final Amur section of Trans-Siberian Railway built (1912–1916)

French Protectorate (Morocco, 1912–1956)

British move Indian capital from Calcutta to New Delhi

Failed military coup in Thailand

Manchu Qing dynasty overthrown (began 1644)

Chinese Republic (1912–1949)

Sun Yat-sen's Nationalist Party forms

Meiji dies; Taishō rules Japan (1912–1926)

Robert Falcon Scott and party reach South Pole, die on return

Race war in Cuba Sáenz Peña

Law (voting, Argentina)

1912

1913

Gandhi leads anti–pass law protest in South Africa

Rabindranath Tagore is the first non-European to win the Nobel Prize

First Far Eastern Championship Games held

1913

1914

African French and British forces defeat Germans in Togo

Germans attack Portugal's Angola and Mozambique

World War I (1914–1918)

July Crisis

Germany invades Belgium

Niš Declaration about Yugoslavia

Japan joins the Allies

Shackleton's Endurance expedition (1914–1916)

German New Guinea surrenders; Australia governs

Ford announces wages of five dollars a day and eight-hour workday (“Fordism”)

Panama Canal opens

Garvey launches the Universal Negro Improvement Association

1914

1915

Germans are defeated in Southwest Africa

Native Followers Recruitment Ordinance

Chilembwe leads rebellion against conscription (Malawi)

Diagne Law passed; Senegalese who fight for France receive French citizenship

Italy joins the Allies

Einstein's general theory of relativity

Gallipoli campaign

Armenian genocide (1915–1917)

Dardanelles campaign (1915–1916)

Last government-owned coffee plantations abandoned (Dutch East Indies)

New Culture Movement (1915–1924)

Japan issues Twenty-one Demands to China

Griffith's Birth of a Nation

The Fundamentals, 12 vols. (published 1910–1915)

United States occupies Haiti (1915–1934)

1915

1916

Germans are forced to retreat to Rio Muni from Cameroon

Easter Rising in Ireland

Britain begins military draft

First tanks, fighter airplanes, and flamethrowers used

Lucknow Pact

Yuan's death leads to extensive warlordism (China)

Sanger opens first birth control center in United States, in Brooklyn

National Birth Control League founded

United States occupies the Dominican Republic (1916–1924)

1916

1917

Asdic (sonar) prototype invented

Bolshevik Revolution

Russian civil war (1917–1920)

United States enters World War I

Balfour Declaration supports Zionists

Montague declaration aims for Dominion status for India (never achieved)

Thailand joins the Allies

China joins the Allies

First “red scare” (1917–1920)

United States enters World War I

Mexican Constitution approved

United States buys Saint John and Saint Thomas from Denmark

1917

1918

Germans surrender in East Africa

Women get the vote

Strikes throughout Britain

Habsburg Monarchy and German government collapse

Armistice, 11 November

Creation of the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (Yugoslavia)

Spanish flu pandemic (worldwide, 1918–1919)

Japan sends troops to Siberia

Rowlatt Act

Hmong uprising (1918–1922)

Surrogate national parliament set up (Indonesia)

Rice riots in Japan

1918

1919

Anglo-Irish War (1919–1921)

Polish-Russian War (1919–1920)

Third International (Comintern) founded (1919–1943)

Versailles Peace Treaty ends World War I

League of Nations founded

International Labor Organization founded

Khilafat Movement (1919–1924)

Greek-Turkish War (1919–1922)

Third Anglo-Afghan War

Egyptian uprising against British

Jallianwalla Bagh (Amritsar) Massacre

Government of India Act, with Montague-Chelmsford reforms (implemented 1921)

Jamiyyat al-῾Ulama-i Hind founded

March First independence movement in Korea May Fourth cultural movement after Beijing demonstration

Zapata killed

1919

1920

National Congress of British West Africa founded

Treaty of Sevrès

Gandhi-led noncooperation movement (1920–1922)

Indenture system abolished

Prohibition in the United States, by the Eighteenth Amendment

Nineteenth Amendment ratified (women's right to vote)

First Miss America contest

1920

1921

Bullhoek massacre (South Africa)

Lenin introduces the New Economic Policy

Spain defeated by Morocco

Moplah rebellion by Muslims (Kerala)

Chinese Communist Party formally organized

Mongolian revolution

Washington Naval Conference (1921–1922)

American Birth Control League founded

1921

1922

Whites in Southern Rhodesia vote for self-government

Makerere College, the first tertiary school in East Africa, founded

Harry Thuku riot (Kenya)

Five Power Naval Treaty

Irish Free State created; Ireland divided

Joyce's Ulysses

T. S. Eliot's The Wasteland

Benito Mussolini rules Italy (1922–1943) after the March on Rome

Soviet Union created

Egypt becomes independent

Chanak incident

Dewantoro founds Taman Siswa school system (Indonesia)

Nine-Power Treaty about open-door Chinese policy

Washington Naval Treaty (Five-Power Treaty) signed

Tenente Revolt in Brazil

1922

1923

Southern Rhodesia controlled directly by Crown

Restoration Settlement ends (Spain)

British Mandate of Palestine (1923–1948)

Nationalist Party works with the Comintern

Massive earthquake in Tokyo, followed by fires

1923

1924

Northern Rhodesia controlled directly by Crown

Forged Zinoviev Letter leaked

British Empire exhibition at Wembley (1924–1925)

Ho Chi Minh forms Thanh Nien

Sun Yat-sen presents the Three Principles of the People

Whampoa Military Academy opens (China)

Gas chamber as capital punishment introduced (Nevada)

Immigration Restriction Act

1924

1925

Locarno Pact

Conference creates the Geneva Protocol (enters into force in 1928)

Hitler's Mein Kampf (2 vols., 1925–1926)

Druze rebellion (Lebanon, 1925–1927)

May Thirtieth Movement

Sixteen-month general strike in Hong Kong

Japan introduces universal manhood suffrage

Scopes “monkey” trial

July revolution in Ecuador

1925

1926

“Balfour Definition of Dominion Status”

General Strike

Heisenberg formulates the uncertainty principle

Military coup in Portugal

Military coup in Poland

Bombay Textile Labor Union formed

Trade Union Act (India)

Nationwide anticolonial student strikes (Vietnam)

Cao Dai sect founded (Vietnam)

Chiang Kai-shek leads Northern Expedition

Shōwa (Hirohito) rules Japan (1926–1989)

Amundsen and Ellsworth become first to fly over the Arctic Ocean

Warner Brothers first add music and sound to some films

1926

1927

Trade Union Act outlaws sympathy strikes

All India State People's Conference founded

Simon Commission (1927–1928)

Vietnam Quoc Dan Dang (Nationalist Party) founded

Chiang Kai-shek takes Shanghai and Nanjing

Canton Commune fails

Red Purge in China

Lindbergh makes first solo transatlantic flight (New York–Paris)

Military regime in Chile (1927–1931)

1927

1928

Lower Congo–to-Katanga Railway completed

Kellogg-Briand Pact signed in Paris

First Five-Year Plan (Soviet Union, 1928–1932)

Nehru Report

Nationalist government of Chiang Kai-shek established

Price-Mars's Ainsi parla l'oncle codifies Négritude (Haiti)

1928

1929

Women's War against British policies (West Africa)

Lateran Pact; Vatican City established

Third Geneva Convention

Afghan civil war; King Amanullah exiled

Trade Disputes Act

Lahore congress of the Indian National Congress demands independence

Wall Street crash begins Depression

1929

1930

London Naval Conference

First World Cup held

Imperial exhibition at Antwerp

Turko-Greek protocol

Salt March

Hsaya San rebellion (Burma, 1930–1932)

Vietnam Quoc Dan Dang leads uprising; French repress

Taiwan aborigines attack Japanese at sports event

Smoot-Hawley tariff bill passed

Empire State Building completed (New York City)

General Confederation of Labor founded in Argentina

First World Cup held, in Uruguay

1930

1931

Statute of Westminster

Second Spanish Republic (1931–1939)

Imperial exhibition at Paris

Turko-Soviet Pact

Irwin-Gandhi Pact

Government of India Act

Two Bengali girls kill a British magistrate

Ho Chi Minh's Thanh Nien becomes the Indochinese Communist Party

Ho Chi Minh disappears until 1941

Mao builds Red Army and the Jiangxi Soviet

Mukden (or Manchurian) Incident; Japan makes Manchuria “Manchukuo”

First under-ice submarine operations near Spitsbergen, by Nautilus

Synthetic rubber neoprene developed

Scottsboro boys case (1931–1937)

Compañía de Salitre de Chile (nitrate) fails

Getulio Vargas becomes president in Brazil

1931

1932

Mozambique directly ruled by Portugal

Ottawa Agreements

Salazar rules Portugal as dictator (1932–1968)

Bloodless revolution in Thailand establishes constitutional monarchy

Massacre in Pingdingshan, Manchuria

Assassination of Japanese prime minister Inukai marks end of party government

First one-season ship transit of the Northeast Passage, by Soviet Sibiryakov

Ottawa Agreements Lindbergh

baby kidnapped

Chaco War (1932–1935)

1932

1933

British South Africa Company sells mineral rights to Southern Rhodesia

Hitler rules Germany (1933–1945)

Nadir Shah assassinated (Afghanistan)

Japan leaves League of Nations

Prohibition repealed, by the Twenty-first Amendment

Franklin D. Roosevelt announces Good Neighbor Policy

Rastafarianism created (Jamaica)

Roca- Runciman Pact

1933

1934

Asturian miner's revolt escalates nationally (Spain)

Jawaharlal Nehru's Glimpses of World History

Long March by Chinese Communists (1934–1935)

Japan withdraws from the Washington Naval Treaty system

Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act

1934

1935

Second Italo-Abyssinian War (1935–1946); Italian East Africa annexes Abyssinia

Italy invades and occupies Ethiopia

Government of India Act

1935

1936

Hitler militarizes the Rhineland Spanish civil war (1936–1939)

So-called Stalin Constitution ratified

Great Uprising among Arabs in Palestine (1936–1939)

Japan exits the second London Naval Conference

Failed mutiny by troops in Tokyo

Social Security system set up Hoover Dam completed

United States v. One Package of Japanese Pessaries Supreme Court decision

1936

1937

Portugal establishes a colonial development fund

Ireland called Eire (1937–1949)

Portugal establishes a colonial development fund

Imperial exhibition at Paris

Peel Commission proposal for partition rejected (Palestine)

Nanjing Massacre

Japan invades China; Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945)

Airship Hindenburg explodes near New York

Last public legal hanging occurs (Kentucky)

Amelia Earhart disappears mid-flight

Estado Novo declared in Brazil

1937

1938

Hitler annexes Austria

Sudeten Crisis

Military regime takes control of Thailand

House Un-American Activities Committee formed

1938

1939

Nazi-Soviet nonaggression pact

World War II (1939–1945); Germany invades Czechoslovakia, and Germany and Soviet Union invade Poland

Illegal immigration effort by Zionists to Palestine

Fighting between Japan and Soviet Union in Inner Mongolia

Bose leaves the Indian National Congress and forms the Forward Bloc

Hoa Hao sect founded (Vietnam)

Siam renamed “Thailand”

1939

1940

Chad is the first French colony to join the Free France movement

Winston Churchill is prime minister (1940–1945)

Battle of Britain

Japan, Germany, and Italy sign the Tripartite Pact

Germany conquers France

Vichy regime rules France (1940–1944)

Pakistan Resolution adopted by the Muslim League

Thirty Thakins trained in Japan to be a Myanmar Independence Army

Japanese occupy Indochina

Japan, Germany, and Italy sign the Tripartite Pact

Japan announces the Greater East Asia Co-prosperity Sphere

St. Roch makes first west-to-east transit of the Northwest Passage (1940–1942)

“Mexican Miracle” (1940–1970)

1940

1941

Atlantic Charter

Nazi Germany invades the Soviet Union

Nazis crush Yugoslavia

Ethiopia regains independence

Eritrea ceded from Italy to Britain

Jama῾at-i Islami founded

Vietminh founded as anti-Japanese, anti-French resistance

New Fourth Army Incident

Japanese attack Pearl Harbor

Atlantic Charter

United States joins Allies

Atlantic Charter

Territorial war between Ecuador and Peru

Movimiento Nacionalista Revolucionario formed (Bolivia)

1941

1942

Heydrich assassinated, Czech town of Lidice destroyed

Battle of Stalingrad

U.S.-led Operation Torch

Battle of al-Alamayn

Cripps Mission to India

Quit India movement

Japanese capture Singapore

Indian National Army is formed and fights with

Japanese Japanese occupy most of Burma and Indonesia

Battle of Midway

Australia finally agrees to the Statute of Westminster (1931)

Japan secures the north coast of New Guinea; Battle of the Coral Sea

Bracero Program begins

Manhattan Project set up

Brazil declares war on Axis

1942

1943

Failed plot by évolués against Belgians in Congo

Warsaw ghetto uprising; ethnic cleansing in Poland

Allies invade Italy

Marshal Tito and Communists seize power in Yugoslavia

Conferences in Casablanca and Tehran

Famine in Bengal

Famine in Henan Province

Cairo Declaration about Japan and Korea

Allied offensive in the South Pacific

Coup in Argentina

1943

1944

Brazzaville conference in Congo

Education Act provides free secondary education

D-Day, 6 June

Battle of the Bulge

Warsaw Uprising crushed by Germans

Battle of Leyte Gulf

First one-season ship transit of the Northwest Passage, by St. Roch

Battle of the Philippine Sea

Bretton Woods international trade talks

Federación Ecuatoriana de Indios founded

Glorious Revolution in Ecuador

Coup and reform in Guatemala

1944

1945

Yalta and Potsdam conferences

Germany defeated and occupied

First Nürnberg trial opens

United Nations founded

Bao Dai rules Japanese-sponsored Viet Nam De Quoc (Empire of Vietnam), then abdicates

Democratic Republic of Vietnam declared by Ho Chi Minh

Burma supports the Allies

Sukarno proclaims Indonesia's independence; Indonesian revolution (1945–1949)

U.S. forces invade Okinawa

Hiroshima and Nagasaki hit with atomic bombs; Japan surrenders

MacArthur appointed SCAP, controlling Japan

Franklin D. Roosevelt dies

United Nations founded

IMF created

Argentina declares war on Axis

Getulio Vargas gives up dictatorship in Brazil

1945

1946

Fourth Republic rules France (1946–1958)

Italian Republic declared

Irgun blows up King David Hotel (British headquarters) in Jerusalem

Kingdom of Transjordan proclaimed

Bombay Industrial Relations Act

Tebhaga movement (Bengal)

Noakhali riots (Bengal)

First Indochina War (1946–1954) between French and Vietminh

Chinese civil war (1946–1949)

Tokyo War Crimes Trial (1946–1948)

United States tests atomic bomb at Bikini Atoll

New York City Ballet founded

Perón elected president of Argentina

French Guiana stops being a penal colony

1946

1947

GATT signed

Marshall Plan announced

GATT signed

U.N. Partition Plan

Arab-Israeli war (the Catastrophe, 1947–1949)

Dead Sea scrolls discovered

Partition of India and Pakistan, and independence of both

Cao Dai and Hoa Hao sects sign treaties with the French (southern Vietnam)

New constitution in Japan

Heyerdahl makes Kon-Tiki expedition across the Pacific

CIA created Jackie Robinson is first black player in Major League Baseball

GATT signed

Chuck Yeager breaks the sound barrier

Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance

1947

1948

National Party wins South African elections on apartheid platform

National Health Service set up

Belgrade Convention

Soviet blockade of Berlin; U.S. Berlin airlift in response (1948–1949)

State of Israel declared

Sri Lanka (Ceylon) becomes independent

Telangana insurrection (Andhra Pradesh, India)

Burma (Myanmar) and Malaya become independent

Korea divided along 38th parallel into North and South

Eugenic Protection Law (Japan)

Organization of American States created

Operation Bootstrap (Puerto Rico)

1948

1949

March on Grand Bassam prison, Côte d'Ivoire

Republic of Ireland created

Orwell's 1984

Germany divided into East and West

NATO created

Soviet Union explodes a test atomic bomb

Council of Europe founded

Geneva Conventions revised

Dutch recognize Indonesia's independence

Elysée Agreement signed between Bao Dai and the French

Mao declares the People's Republic of China

Red Purge (Japan)

Newfoundland incorporated into federated Canada

NATO created

1949

1950

Apartheid legislated in South Africa

Club Med created (France)

Law of Return for all Jews to Israel

Dutch transfer their Borneo holdings to Indonesia

Chiang Kai-shek president of Republic of China (Taiwan)

Korean War (1950–1953)

Césaire's Discours sur le colonialisme

1950

1951

Libya becomes independent

Zamindari Abolition and Land Reform Act

San Francisco Peace Treaty

ANZUS treaty

ANZUS treaty

Birth control pill (“the pill”) first produced

1951

1952

Mau Mau uprising (Kenya, 1952–1960)

Anti-pass Defiance Campaign (South Africa)

Elizabeth II becomes queen

United Nations aligns Eritrea with Ethiopia

Japan independent again

Salk's polio vaccine ready and tested

Bolivian Revolution

Arbenz implements land reform (Guatemala)

1952

1953

Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland (1953–1963)

Stalin dies

Pact of Madrid gives Spain aid

Egyptian Republic declared

Mossadegh overthrown in CIA-helped coup (Iran)

Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay reach top of Mount Everest

Laos becomes independent

China's first Five-Year Plan (1953–1957)

Bolivian Agrarian Reform decreed

1953

1954

Federation of South African Women founded

Algerian War of Independence (1954–1962)

Revolts in Goa against Portuguese rule

Sino-Indian Treaty on Tibet

Vietminh defeat French at Dien Bien Phu; French lose Indochinese colonies, and Vietnam is divided at 17th parallel

West- sponsored Southeast Asian Treaty Organization founded

Moon founds Unification Church (Korea)

First icebreaker and warship passage of the Northwest Passage, by Labrador

Japanese fishermen exposed to radiation after U.S. tests in the West Pacific (Bikini)

Brown v. Board of Education Supreme Court decision

Army-McCarthy hearings

CIA backs a coup in Guatemala

Suriname gains self-government

1954

1955

Warsaw Pact signed

Austrian State Treaty

First Sudanese Civil War (1955–1972)

Bandung Conference

“Sect crisis” (South Vietnam)

Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam) declared

Bandung Conference

Miracle Growth era (Japan, 1955–1970)

AFL-CIO formed

First nuclear submarine, Nautilus

Emmet Till killed

Montgomery bus boycott (1955–1956)

Perón overthrown

26 July Movement organized (Cuban revolutionaries)

1955

1956

Loi cadre passed for French sub-Saharan colonies

Women protest pass laws (Pretoria, South Africa)

First nuclear electricity plant, Calder Hall

Hungarian Revolution

Suez Crisis

Sudan, Tunisia, and Morocco become independent

Minamata disease (mercury poisoning from fish) recognized

COINTELPRO begins

United States v. Roth Supreme Court decision about pornography

Revolutionaries including Castro invade Cuba

1956

1957

Ghana becomes independent

ABAKO wins elections in Congo

European Economic Community created

Sputnik launched

Hundred Flowers Movement

Semiannual Canton Export Commodities Trade Fair begins

First U.S. nuclear electricity plant, in Shippingport, Pa.

1957

1958

Guinea becomes independent

Anlu uprising by women (Cameroon, 1958–1961)

Fifth Republic rules France (1958– )

Lebanon crisis

United Arab Republic unites Egypt and Syria

Martial law in Pakistan

Great Leap Forward

First ship Arctic Ocean crossing, by the nuclear submarine Nautilus; also first ship at North Pole

West Indies Federation founded

1958

1959

Riots in Léopoldville (Kinshasa)

Basque separatist group ETA founded (Spain)

Protests in Tibet against Chinese rule; Dalai Lama flees

Vietnam (or Second Indochina) War (1959–1975)

Daqing oilfield discovered

First North Pole surfacing, by Skate

Alaska and Hawai‘i become U.S. states

Batista flees Cuba; Castro takes power

1959

1960

Cameroon, Togo, Mali, Senegal, Madagascar, Democratic Republic of Congo, Somalia, Benin, Niger, Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Chad, Central African Republic, Congo, Gabon, Nigeria, and Mauritania become independent

U.N. peacekeeping in Congo (1960–1964)

Massacre at Sharpeville, South Africa

European Free Trade Association created

Berlin crisis (1960–1961)

European Free Trade Association created

OPEC set up

Cyprus independent

White Revolution (Iran)

Sirimavo Bandaranaike of Sri Lanka elected first woman prime minister in the world

Indus Waters Treaty (India and Pakistan)

National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam forms

Major famine in China (1960–1962)

Quiet Revolution in Quebec (1960s)

FDA approves the pill

Canadian Bill of Rights passed

1960

1961

Tanganyika and Sierra Leone become independent

Guerrilla war against Portuguese rule (Angola)

South Africa leaves the Commonwealth

Berlin Wall built

Syria leaves United Arab Republic

Adolf Eichmann trial in Jerusalem

Kuwait independent

India annexes Goa, Daman, and Diu from Portugal

Muslim Family Law (Pakistan)

Republic of Indonesia fights for Netherlands' West New Guinea (succeeds in 1963)

Antarctic Treaty comes into force

Freedom Rides

Bay of Pigs invasion

Fanon's Les damnés de la terre

1961

1962

Burundi, Rwanda, and Uganda become independent

Guerrilla war against Portuguese rule (Guinea-Bissau)

Nelson Mandela imprisoned

First Beatles song released, “Love Me Do”

Vatican II (1962–1965)

Algeria becomes independent

Haile Selassie incorporates Eritrea into Ethiopia

Military coup in Burma

Socialist Education Campaign in China

Cuban Missile Crisis

Port Huron Statement by the Students for a Democratic Society

Carson's Silent Spring

Wal-Mart, K-Mart, and Target all founded

Cuban Missile Crisis

Jamaica becomes independent

1962

1963

Zanzibar and Kenya become independent

Muslim Brotherhood outlawed (Syria)

Federation of Malaysia (Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and, until 1965, Singapore) created

Buddhist monks immolate themselves to protest South Vietnamese policies

March on Washington, with Martin Luther King Jr.'s “I have a dream” speech

Birmingham church bombing

John F. Kennedy assassinated

1963

1964

Tanganyika and Zanzibar join to form the United Republic of Tanzania

Malawi and Zambia become independent

Guerrilla war against Portuguese rule (Mozambique)

Arab Common Market formed

Palestine Liberation Organization founded

Gulf of Tonkin Resolution; U.S. forces intervene in Vietnam

Vietcong bombs hotel in Saigon

China tests first nuclear bomb

Cook Islands gain independence from New Zealand

Civil Rights Act passed

Agrarian Reform and Colonization Law (Ecuador)

Military coup in Brazil

1964

1965

Gambia becomes independent

Mobutu establishes dictatorship (Democratic Republic of the Congo)

Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) declares independence; civil war results

Military coup in Central African Republic

Commonwealth Secretariat formed

War between India and Pakistan

Failed coup in Bali against Indonesia

Singapore becomes an independent republic

30 September failed coup by Communists leads to fighting (Indonesia)

Japans opens its first nuclear reactor

Selma-to-Montgomery marches, with Bloody Sunday

Malcolm X assassinated

Griswold v. Connecticut Supreme Court decision

Immigration and Nationality Act repeals 1924 Immigration Restriction Act

Border Industrialization Program begins maquiladoras (Mexico)

1965

1966

Botswana and Lesotho become independent

FROLINAT revolts (Chad)

Nkrumah ousted by a coup (Ghana)

Simultaneous protests in Washington, D.C., and Europe against Vietnam War

Military coup (Syria)

Sukarno yields power to Suharto (Indonesia)

Cultural Revolution (China, 1966–1976)

Red Guards begin forming (China)

Changes to Immigration Act end white Australia policy

Simultaneous protests in Washington, D.C., and Europe against Vietnam War

Guyana becomes independent

1966

1967

Arusha Declaration

Biafran War (1967–1970)

Eyadéma leads coup in Togo and becomes president

Military coup in Sierra Leone

Torrey Canyon oil spill off Cornwall

Six-Day War

Suez Canal closes until 1975

Suharto becomes president of Indonesia

Association of Southeast Asian Nations formed

January Storm by workers in Shanghai

Ecuador joins OPEC

Che Guevara assassinated

1967

1968

Equatorial Guinea, Mauritius, and Swaziland become independent

Mass anti-Vietnam protest (London)

Prague Spring International Vietnam Congress (West Berlin)

Movement of 22 March (France) founded

“Battle” of Valle Giulia (Rome) Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty

My Lai Massacre

Most Red Guard groups forcibly disbanded (China)

Martin Luther King Jr. and Robert Kennedy assassinated

Protests at Chicago Democratic Convention

Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty

Revolts in Mexico City (Tlatelolco Massacre)

1968

1969

Death penalty permanently abolished (Britain)

The Troubles begin (Northern Ireland)

Strategic Arms Limitation Talks held in Helsinki

al-Qaddafi takes control of Libya

War of attrition between Egypt and Israel

First U.S. troops withdraw from Vietnam

Sino-Soviet border clashes along Ussuri River

Neil Armstrong is first person to walk on the moon

Woodstock music festival

Boeing 747 introduced

Cartagena Agreement leads to Andean Pact

Leftist Peruvian military takes power

1969

1970

Republic of Southern Rhodesia declared

Somalia becomes Socialist under Barre

Bloody suppression of workers' protests (Poland)

West Germany and Soviet Union sign nonaggression pact

Warsaw Treaty between Poland and West Germany

Military coup (Syria)

Civil war (Jordan)

Kent State protestors killed by Ohio National Guardsmen

Guyana becomes a republic

Brazil begins building the Trans-Amazon Highway

1970

1971

Mobutu renames Republic of Congo “Zaire”

Croatian Spring

Four Power Agreement on Berlin

Bahrain, Qatar independent from Britain

United Arab Emirates created

Bangladesh becomes independent

Nixon announces that he will no longer confront Chinese Communism

COINTELPRO officially ends

1971

1972

Idi Amin orders all Asians out of Uganda

Basic Treaty between West and East Germany

Nixon visits Moscow

Antiballistic Missile Treaty

Addis Ababa Agreement (Sudan)

Okinawa reverts to Japan's control

Nixon visits China, opening relations

Labor Party wins; discrimination outlawed (Australia)

Title IX of the Higher Education Act passed

Antiballistic Missile Treaty

1972

1973

Guinea-Bissau becomes independent

One-party rule in Zambia (1973–1990)

Strike by black workers (South Africa)

Britain becomes full member of European Economic Community

Oil crisis

Solzhenitsyn's Gulag Archipelago

Yom Kippur War

OPEC withholds oil from allies of Israel and inflates world oil prices (first energy crisis)

Paris Peace Accords temporarily end Vietnam War; U.S. forces withdraw

Military government falls in Thailand

Paris Peace Accords end U.S. involvement in Vietnam War

Oil crisis

Roe v. Wade Supreme Court decision

Bretton Woods system collapses

Pinochet leads military coup in Chile

1973

1974

Angolan civil war (1974–1976)

Military coup in Portugal

Kosovo granted autonomous status

Ethiopian civil war (1974–1991)

Turkey invades Cyprus

Portuguese leave East Timor

Macau recognized as Chinese territory, though Portugal remains

Genesis of hip-hop

1974

1975

Angola, Cape Verde, Comoros, Mozambique, and São Tomé become independent

Lomé Convention in Togo

Libya invades Chad for Aouzou Strip

Jackson-Vanik amendment

Helsinki Accords

Franco dies (Spain)

Lebanese civil war (1975–1990)

Indira Gandhi declares state of emergency

PM Mujibur Rahman assassinated (Bangladesh)

Democratic Kampuchea under Pol Pot and the Khmer Rouge (1975–1979)

Indonesia invades East Timor

Pathet Lao seizes power in Laos

Army of North Vietnam takes Saigon

Last case of smallpox in Asia

Papua New Guinea becomes independent

Helsinki Accords

Jackson-Vanik amendment

Indo-Surinamese launch wave of arson in Paramaribo

Suriname becomes independent

1975

1976

Entebbe hijacking

Seychelles becomes independent

Soweto uprising

Committee in Defense of the Workers created (Poland)

Syria occupies Lebanon (1976–2005)

Saudi Arabia creates the world's largest national oil company

Moro National Liberation Front hijacks various targets (Philippines)

Socialist Republic of Vietnam declared; Vietnam reunified

Mass demonstration in Tiananmen Square

Mao dies and Gang of Four is arrested

Lockheed scandal (Japan)

Dirty War (Argentina, 1976–1983)

1976

1977

Djibouti becomes independent

Last case of smallpox occurs, in Somalia

War between Somalia and Ethiopia (Ogaden War)

Bokassa declares himself emperor (Central African Republic)

New constitution in Soviet Union

War between Somalia and Ethiopia (Ogaden War)

Revolutionary Association of the Women of Afghanistan founded

Military coup in Pakistan; Islamization by Zia-ul-Haq

Laos and Vietnam sign Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation

Lethal injection as capital punishment introduced (Oklahoma)

Conflict between Chile and Argentina

Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo begin (Argentina)

1977

1978

Jonestown Massacre

New Spanish constitution

Said's Orientalism

Communist regime in Afghanistan

Camp David Accords

Hezbollah founded

Vietnam invades Cambodia to overthrow the Khmer Rouge

Rise of the reform period and Deng Xiaoping (China)

1978

1979

Idi Amin removed from power (Uganda)

France helps overthrow Bokassa (Central African Republic)

Margaret Thatcher becomes prime minister

Catalan Statute of Autonomy

Iranian Islamic revolution

Soviets occupy Afghanistan (1979–1989)

Saddam Hussein rules Iraq (1979–2003)

Unsuccessful invasion of Vietnam by China

U.S.-China relationship normalized

Three Mile Island nuclear accident

Sandinista government rules Nicaragua (1979–1990)

1979

1980

Zimbabwe becomes independent

Creation of the Southern African Development Community

Strikes throughout Poland; Solidarity created

Marshal Tito dies (ruled Yugoslavia since 1943)

Iran-Iraq War (1980–1988)

OPEC raises world oil prices (second energy crisis)

Hindu-nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party founded

Kwangju Uprising in Republic of Korea

Special economic zones set up in China

Referendum to separate Quebec from Canada fails

So-called cocaine coup in Bolivia

1980

1981

Military coup in Central African Republic

Greenham Common antinuclear protest begins

Juan Carlos derails coup attempt (Spain)

Israel annexes the Golan Heights

British Honduras becomes independent (now Belize)

Territorial war between Ecuador and Peru

1981

1982

Habré takes control in Chad

Israel invades Lebanon

Arafat and PLO expelled to Tunis

Bombay textile strike (1982–1983)

Census shows that China's population is more than a billion

Canada Act and Constitution Act signed

Falklands War between Britain and Argentina

Scorched-earth campaign by military rulers against guerrillas and rural people (Guatemala)

1982

1983

Researchers discover virus that causes HIV/AIDS (Pasteur Institute, Paris)

Second Sudanese Civil War (1983–2005)

North Korean agents bomb Yangon

Closer Economic Relations between Australia and New Zealand

I, Rigoberta Menchú publicizes Guatemalan genocide

1983

1984

Miners' strike (1984–1985)

Bhopal disaster

Peace and Friendship Treaty between Chile and Argentina

1984

1985

Congress of South African Trade Unions formed

Achille Lauro hijacked

New bill of rights for writers (China)

1985

1986

Museveni, after coup, rules Uganda as a one-party state

Chernobyl nuclear disaster

Iran-Contra Affair (with U.S. CIA)

Saudi Arabia increases oil supply; prices fall

Doi moi reform program (Vietnam)

Martial law lifted in Taiwan

Democratic Progressive Party forms in Taiwan

Demonstrations at Tiananmen Square

Australia Act; Australia becomes independent constitutional monarchy (Elizabeth as queen)

Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador created

Iran-Contra Affair (with U.S. CIA)

1986

1987

Chad drives Libyan forces from the Aouzou Strip

Perestroika reforms (Soviet Union)

Milošević comes to power and inflames resentment against Kosovars

First Intifada (1987–1993)

1987

1988

Pan Am flight 103 explodes over Lockerbie

Arab-Fur fighting in Darfur; Janjaweed militia forms

Civil strife in Burma, ending in military junta

1988

1989

Liberian civil war (1989–1996)

Solidarity leads Poland

Khomeini issues fatwa against Rushdie for Satanic Verses

Taif Agreement

Military junta renames Burma “Myanmar”

Vietnam withdraws from Cambodia

Tiananmen Incident

Exxon Valdez oil spill (Alaska)

United States invades Panama, deposes Noriega

1989

1990

South Africa unbans African National Congress, frees Mandela

Namibia becomes independent

Margaret Thatcher falls from power

Germany reunited

Persian Gulf War (1990–1991)

Indigenous uprising in Ecuador

Military coup in Haiti

1990

1991

Sierra Leone civil war (1991–2002)

Somalia civil war

Belovezh Accords end the Soviet Union

Almaty Declaration and Protocol

European Union created

Slovenia and Croatia declare independence from Yugoslavia, which collapses

Shiite uprising against Saddam Hussein (Iraq)

Conference in Madrid for Israelis, Palestinians, and other Arabs

Dili Massacre in East Timor

Bubble economy collapses (Japan)

Reconciliation policy (Australia)

Intelligence Authorization Act restricts CIA

MERCOSUR created

1991

1992

Civil war, famine, and U.N. peacekeeping in Somalia (1992–1995)

Bosnian civil war

Main-Danube Canal completed

Mujahideen rule Afghanistan (1992–1996)

Ecuador leaves OPEC

Via Campesina founded

1992

1993

Protest led by the Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People (Nigeria)

Arusha Accords (Rwanda)

Operation Deny Flight (U.N. intervention in Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1993–1995)

Eritrea becomes independent

Oslo Accords

China and South Korea sign trade accords

Terrorist attack at the World Trade Center

Elias attempts a “self-coup” (Guatemala)

1993

1994

Mandela becomes president of South Africa

Genocide in Rwanda

Djibouti civil war ends with power-sharing agreement

King Hussein signs pact with Israel

United States lifts embargo on Vietnam

North Korea agrees to limited inspection of nuclear sites

NAFTA comes into effect

Massive protest by Indians in Ecuador

U.S. and U.N. troops occupy Haiti, restoring Aristide to power

NAFTA comes into effect

1994

1995

Execution of the activist Ken Saro-Wiwa (Nigeria)

Massacre in Srebrenica, Bosnia

Operation Deliberate Force in Bosnia

Dayton Accords on Bosnia

Insurrection in Darfur

Bombay is renamed Mumbai

Aum Shinrikyō members release sarin gas in Tokyo subway

Referendum to separate Quebec from Canada fails

Mississippi last state to ratify Thirteenth Amendment (went into effect 1865)

WTO created

Territorial war between Ecuador and Peru

1995

1996

Three army mutinies and a failed coup in Central African Republic

Taliban rules Afghanistan (1996–2001)

Madras is renamed Chennai

Unabomber caught after eighteen years

Huntingdon's The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order

Accords signed in Guatemala

1996

1997

Mobutu is overthrown by Kabila (and dies in exile); Zaire renamed Democratic Republic of the Congo

New Labour elected, with Blair as prime minister

Princess Diana dies in a car accident

Mother Teresa dies (India)

Financial crises in Thailand and Indonesia (1997–2001)

Hong Kong returns to Chinese sovereignty

Kyoto Protocol

New Ainu Law (Japan)

1997

1998

Terrorists bomb the U.S. embassy in Dar es Salaam

Belfast Agreement

Suharto resigns because of embezzlement (Indonesia)

Revised Land Administration Law (China)

1998

1999

Angolagate oil scandal

Scottish parliament reconvenes after U.K. devolution

NATO bombs Serbia; Kosovo becomes an international protectorate

King Hussein of Jordan (reigned since 1952) dies

Military coup in Pakistan

Referendum for East Timor

Macau returns to Chinese sovereignty

China represses Falun Gong

Referendum to make Australia a republic fails

Protests at a World Trade Organization meeting in Seattle

Shootings at Columbine High School (Colorado)

United States gives up control of the Panama Canal

Hugo Chávez elected president of Venezuela

1999

2000

al-Asqa Intifada begins

Terrorist attacks in Jakarta

2000

2001

Antiglobalization protests in Genoa at G8 conference

Milošević goes on trial at The Hague for war crimes

United States attacks Afghanistan

Calcutta is renamed Kolkata

History textbook Atarashii rekishi kyōkasho published; downplays Japanese aggression

11 September terrorist attacks

Patriot Act

United States declares that it will not ratify the Kyoto Protocol

Financial crisis in Argentina (2001–2003)

2001

2002

East Timor becomes independent (Timor-Leste)

Terrorist attacks in Bali

2002

2003

ExxonMobil begins to export oil from Chad

Military coup in Central African Republic

United States invades Iraq

Genocide in Darfur (2003– )

Israel bombs site near Damascus

SARS epidemic begins in Hong Kong and Vietnam

Chávez introduces Plan Zamora, a “land revolution” (Venezuela)

2003

2004

Demonstrations in Nairobi

Communal Land Rights Act (South Africa)

Trains bombed in Madrid

Orange Revolution (Ukraine)

Arafat dies

Indian Ocean tsunami

U.S. and U.N. troops occupy Haiti

2004

2005

Ellen Johnson Sirleaf becomes first African woman head of state (Liberia)

Terrorist bombings in London

Hunting foxes with dogs prohibited

Pope John Paul II (r. 1978–2005) dies

Cedar Revolution (Lebanon)

Most Hmong insurgents in Laos surrender

Hurricane Katrina

2005

Date

Global

Sub-Saharan Africa

North Africa and the Middle East

Europe

Central and South Asia

Southeast Asia

East Asia

Australia, New Zealand, Oceania, and the Polar Regions

The United States and Canada

Latin America and the Caribbean

Date

c. 2400 b.c.e.

Ku-Bau, a woman tavern-keeper who became an early Mesopotamian ruler of Kish, is possibly the earliest known woman ruler in the ancient Near East.

c. 2400 b.c.e.

2334 b.c.e.

Sargon of Akkad conquers the Sumerian city-states and installs his daughter Enheduanna, the world's first author known by name, as high priestess of the Sumerian moon god Nanna at the southern city-state of Ur.

2334 b.c.e.

1750 b.c.e.

The Code of Hammurabi prescribes the death penalty for adultery in Babylon.

1750 b.c.e.

c. 1500 b.c.e.

Hinduism begins in the Indus Valley–Sarasvati region of what is now Pakistan. It spreads gradually over the next millennium first to the Ganges valley and from there throughout the subcontinent.

c. 1500 b.c.e.

mid-fourteenth century b.c.e.

Nefertiti rules as the powerful queen of Egypt (r. 1353–1336 b.c.e.) and is often depicted on equal footing with her husband Akhenaten.

mid-fourteenth century b.c.e.

tenth century b.c.e.

Makeda, also known as Balqis, the Queen of Sheba (now variously identified as Yemen or Ethiopia), visits the court of Solomon, King of Israel.

tenth century b.c.e.

seventh and sixth centuries b.c.e.

Witchcraft, as the idea that some people have power over occult relationships among the human, animal, and natural worlds, is documented as a widespread belief around the Mediterranean.

The Greek poet Sappho, one of the great lyricists and one of the few known woman poets of ancient Greece, writes innovative lyric poetry; she refines the prevailing lyric meter such that the meter is now known as Sapphic meter. She is particularly known for representing lesbian relations in literature—called “lesbian” after Sappho's home, the island of Lesbos.

seventh and sixth centuries b.c.e.

500 b.c.e.

In India the earliest prescriptive texts in Sanskrit, which lay down social norms, are compiled from this period onward and are connected to systematic attempts to enforce gender stratification because of a concern with controlling procreation. This period also witnesses attempts to consolidate varna, or caste, identities.

500 b.c.e.

248 b.c.e.

The Vietnamese woman warrior Trinh Trieu Thi, known as Lady Trieu or Elder Sister Trieu, rides astride an elephant to lead a band of courageous but ill-trained local rebels against Chinese troops.

248 b.c.e.

195 b.c.e.

Roman women participate in a collective action in favor of the repeal of the Lex Oppia, a law governing women's display of certain luxury items. This is the first, and perhaps only, example in Roman history of women participating in collective action on their own behalf.

195 b.c.e.

180 b.c.e.

Chinese Empress Dowager Lü Zhi, who was empress consort of the founding emperor of the Han dynasty, Gaozu, and regent after his death, dies. She is the first woman ruler in Chinese history to issue imperial edicts.

180 b.c.e.

first century b.c.e.

Sati, the Hindu custom of widow immolation, is first mentioned by a Greek author describing instances from the fourth century b.c.e. in the Punjab (northwestern India, eastern Pakistan).

first century b.c.e.

39 b.c.e.

The Trung sisters (d. 43 b.c.e.), two elite Vietnamese women, spark a rebellion against the Chinese, and although they both die in defeat, they remain symbols of Vietnamese national resistance.

39 b.c.e.

38 b.c.e.

Livia Drusilla (58 b.c.e.–29 c.e.) marries Octavian (later Augustus), the first emperor of Rome, becoming the foremost woman in ancient Rome. She plays a central role in the dynastic politics of the Julio-Claudian clan for more than fifty years.

38 b.c.e.

30 b.c.e.

Cleopatra VII (b. 69 b.c.e.), the final and best-known pharaoh of the Ptolemaic dynasty of ancient Egypt, commits suicide following the Battle of Actium (31 b.c.e.).

30 b.c.e.

62 c.e.

Queen Boudicca, leader of a rebellion against the Roman conquerors of Britain, commits suicide after the Romans defeat the Britons.

62 c.e.

second century

The Kama Sutra, a Sanskrit text attempting to codify desire in general and sexual desire in particular, is composed between about the second century and the fourth century c.e. in India.

second century

203

The Christian martyr Perpetua (b. 182 c.e.), born near Carthage in North Africa, is imprisoned and sentenced to die in the arena for her refusal to reject her Christian beliefs.

203

238

Himiko, queen of the Wa and a shaman in the Japanese kingdom of Yamatai, begins her reign, which lasts until 247.

238

251

Lady Wei Huacun (d. 334 c.e.) founds the Shangqing school of Daoism in China.

251

267

Zenobia, the second wife of Septimius Odaenathus, king of a short-lived empire based in the city of Palmyra (in modern Syria), succeeds him on the throne after his death, ruling until the Roman conquest of Palmyra in 272.

267

c. 360

Hypatia of Alexandria (d. 415/6), a philosopher and the first woman mathematician of whose life we have fairly detailed knowledge, is born.

c. 360

496

Clotilda (475–545), wife of Clovis, the king of the Franks, converts her husband from paganism to Roman Catholicism, establishing the first formal link between church and state that is typical of European kingship.

496

mid-sixth century

Radegund (c. 525–587), queen of the Franks, founds the Convent of the Holy Cross in Poitiers, France, an influential monastery for women of all classes that often served as a refuge for aristocratic women escaping domestic violence and political persecution.

Hinduism develops a universalistic strand as it expands into new regions and thus competes with both Buddhism and Jainism. Women and low castes became the paradigmatic devotees. Some women, bypassing or leaving marriage to compose religious poetry in regional vernaculars, become acclaimed bhakti saints.

mid-sixth century

555

Khadijah (d. 619 or 620 c.e.), first wife of the prophet Muhammad, is born. She is the first person to accept Muhammad's status as a prophet and embrace Islam, and she supports him both emotionally and financially in the face of hostility from powerful Meccan opponents.

555

seventh century c.e.

Princess Bhrikuti of the Licchavi dynasty brings Buddhism to Tibet when she marries King Songtsen Gampo (r. 618–641 c.e.).

seventh century c.e.

622

The first Muslim community is founded in Medina, Arabia.

622

632

Fatima bint Muhammad (b. 604), the daughter of the prophet Muhammad and his first wife Khadijah, dies. She is the mother of al-Hasan and al-Husayn, who are considered by Shia Muslims to be the legitimate imams (spiritual and temporal leaders) of the community of believers.

632

634

The Korean queen Sandok (r. 634–654) is the first of three women rulers of the Silla Kingdom in southern Korea. She keeps the kingdom intact and promotes scholarship, diplomacy, and research, introducing innovations in religion and administration.

634

647

The Arab conquest of North Africa begins, leading to the Islamization of Berber societies. The transformation in the legal and social status of women from Berber to Muslim is a lengthy process that takes place following the conquest.

647

656

῾A᾽isha (c. 614–678), the third and most controversial wife of the prophet Muhammad, rides to the Battle of the Camel where she surveys the first civil war in Islamic society. She and two male allies, now revered by Sunni Muslims, challenge the leadership of ῾Ali ibn Abi Talib (d. 661), whose partisans, or Shia, become her political enemies.

656

664

The influential Anglo-Saxon abbess Hild of Whitby (c. 614–680) hosts the ecclesiastical Synod of Whitby.

664

690

Wu Zetian of the Chinese Tang dynasty (618–907) declares herself emperor of China and rules for fifty years—the only woman ever to rule in her own name as sovereign of the Chinese Empire. She also chooses Buddhism over Daoism as the state religion.

690

eighth century

The practice of foot-binding appears to have originated in China with a woman dancer in the court of the Tang emperor Daizong (r. 762–779). The common appeal of foot-binding reaches its pinnacle during the Ming (1368–1644) and Qing (1644–1912) dynasties.

eighth century

792

Lu Meiniang (d. c. 820), the famous courtesan of the Tang dynasty (618–907) and the only Tang woman known as both a Daoist saint and a poet, is born in southern China.

792

801

Rabi῾ah al-῾Adawiyyah (b. c. 714), a noted ascetic and teacher and one of the three great Sufi women saints of Basra, Iraq, dies.

801

tenth century

Gudit, Queen of Agao, known as the “queen of Damot,” rebels against the Christian Ethiopian kingdom and becomes a representative of a tradition of female political rule in southern Ethiopia.

tenth century

early eleventh century

The Japanese author, diarist, and poet Murasaki Shikibu (c. 973–c. 1014) writes The Tale of Genji, one of the world's earliest novels. Ever since, she has been considered one of Japan's greatest writers.

early eleventh century

1021

Sitt al-Mulk (970–1023), a princess belonging to the Shi῾a Isma῾ili Fatamid dynasty of Egypt, becomes the ruler of the Fatimid regime, serving as regent for her nephew al-Zahir. There is extensive speculation about whether she was involved in the murder of her brother al-Hakim, the caliph, an event that led to her rule.

1021

1039

Korean law states that slave status is hereditary and derived principally from the mother's status, regardless of the father's status.

1039

1083

Anna Comnena (d. c. 1153), a Byzantine princess and author of the historical work Alexiadis, is born in Constantinople.

1083

twelfth century

Mahadevi Akka, a poet and the best-known woman saint in India, is one of the group of saints, both men and women, who congregate around Basavanna in southwestern India and come to be known as Veerashaivites.

twelfth century

1129

The French abbess Heloise (c. 1095/1100–1164) receives land near Troyes—from her husband Peter Abelard, to whom she wrote her three Latin letters—that becomes the Convent of the Paraclete.

1129

1147

Eleanor of Aquitaine (1122–1204), at that time wife of the French king Louis VII, accompanies her husband on the Second Crusade to Jerusalem. Their marriage is later annulled, leaving Eleanor free to marry the future English king Henry Plantagenet.

1147

1173

The German abbess and mystic Hildegard of Bingen (1098–1179) completes her final visionary work Liber divinorum operum (Book of Divine Works), which represents her most sophisticated theological ideas.

1173

1218

Hōjō Masako (1157–1225), administrator and stabilizer of Japan's first warrior government, the Kamakura Shogunate (c. 1183–1333), reaches the height of her prestige when she receives the Junior Second Rank from the imperial government.

1218

1236

Sultan Raziyya (r. 1236–1240) becomes the only woman sultan of Delhi, ascending the throne despite qualified male siblings, potential contenders to the throne.

1236

1249

After the death of Sultan al-Salih Ayyub of Egypt, his widow Shajar al-Durr coordinates the successful Egyptian defense against the Crusade of King Louis IX of France.

1249

1262

Rudrama-devi (r. 1262–1289) inherits the throne of the Kakatiya kingdom from her father, becoming one of the most successful woman rulers in South Asia's medieval history.

1262

1279

The Indian poet and ascetic Muktabai (d. 1298), who along with her siblings creates the foundation of what is known as Varkari bhakti poetry in Marathi, is born in the holy town of Alandi.

1279

1298

The papal edict Periculoso enjoins strict enclosure on all Catholic nuns, although the edict was more discussed than enforced before the sixteenth century when it is reissued by the Council of Trent and is enforced in more strident tones by a Catholic Church threatened by the Protestant reformers.

1298

1380

Catherine of Siena (b. c. 1347)—Catholic saint and mystic, Dominican Order tertiary, co-patron of Italy, and Doctor of the Church—dies at the age of thirty-three because of the severe regimen of self-starvation and bodily mortification that she practiced for years.

1380

1392

The Chosŏn dynasty of Korea (1392–1910) introduces the Confucian system, fundamentally altering gender relations. Confucian doctrine stresses patrilineal descent, draws a sharp distinction between public and private, and considers it a law of nature that women are accorded positions inferior to those of men.

1392

1405

The Book of the City of Ladies by the French author Christine de Pizan (1365–c. 1430), which undercuts men's claims to intellectual superiority and argues for a place for women in the public sphere, first appears in France.

1405

1431

The French Catholic visionary Joan of Arc (b. c. 1412) is burned at the stake in Rouen after being condemned by the English as a heretic for her support of the French dauphin Charles VII during the Hundred Years' War (1337–1453).

1431

1453

Shinsawbu (1395–1472?), also known as Shengtasambhu, becomes queen of the Mon Kingdom of Pegu (Hanthawaddy) in Burma.

1453

1474

Isabel I of Castile (1451–1504) becomes queen of Spain, where she rules as an influential and proficient Renaissance monarch with her husband, Ferdinand II of Aragon.

1474

sixteenth century

The Atlantic slave trade begins.

Idia, the mother of the great warrior Oba Esigie (r. 1504–1550), ruler of the kingdom of Benin in southwest Nigeria, becomes the first woman to receive the title of iyoba, or queen mother, and is the only woman to go to war with an army that she raised to fight for her son.

Islam takes root in the islands of Southeast Asia in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.

sixteenth century

1519

Hernán Cortés takes Malinche (c. 1496–1531 or after 1551), an indigenous woman who could speak in the languages of both the Nahua people and the Maya, as his own mistress and companion during the conquest of Tenochtitlán (1519–1521).

1519

1523

Gulbadan Banu Begam (d. 1603), the daughter of the first Mughal king of India, Babur, and the author of Ahval, a memoir detailing the domestic life of the early Mughal kings, is born in Afghanistan.

1523

1531

According to tradition, a vision of the Virgin Mary appears to the Aztec peasant Juan Diego at Tepeyac Hill in northern Mexico City, telling him to build a church at Tepeyac for Indian converts to Catholicism. As a sign she leaves an image of a dark-skinned Mary, an icon that becomes known as the Virgin of Guadalupe.

1531

1536

The wife of the son of Christopher Columbus, María de Toledo (1490–1549), engages in a legal campaign in order to reconfirm economic benefits for her family. She wins her case when the royal councils of Spain ratify Columbus's entailed estate.

1536

1541

The Spanish woman Inés de Suárez (c. 1507–1580) helps the Spanish military leader Pedro de Valdivia found the city of Santiago, Chile. The same year, when Valdivia is away, Suárez helps fend off thousands of indigenous people from taking Santiago. As a reward for her actions, Spanish officials give her extensive landholdings, making her one of the richest Spaniards in colonial Chile.

1541

1545–1563

The Council of Trent reaffirms the necessity of cloistering for all women religious.

1545–1563

1558

Elizabeth I (1533–1603) becomes queen of England and Ireland, ruling alone until her death.

1558

1564

The Thai queen Suriyothai disguises herself as a soldier and accompanies her husband to the battlefield after the Burmese attack Ayutthaya; she dies saving his life.

1564

1576

Aminatu (1536–1610) becomes the queen of Zauzau in northern Nigeria, ruling for thirty-four years. Aminatu was known as a warrior queen who led her mounted troops into battle and united a large portion of Hausaland.

1576

1589

Catherine de Médicis (b. 1519), who ruled as regent of France from 1560 to 1574 and was an important figure in the French wars of religion, dies in France.

1589

1599

Marie de l’Incarnation (d. 1672), an Ursuline nun who taught both French and Indian women in the Quebec wilderness, is born in France.

1599

1602

Sor María de Agreda (d. 1665) is born. She becomes a Spanish nun, mystic, and author who is also a recurring figure in the folklore of the American Southwest.

1602

1607

The Company of Mary, the Catholic female teaching order, is founded by Jeanne of Lestonnac (1557–1640) in Bordeaux, France. The Company of Mary follows a life dedicated to studying, as a personal goal, and teaching women, as a social goal.

1607

1611

Nur Jahan (1577–1645), the most powerful of all Mughal women, marries the emperor Jahangir and then leads the dominant faction at court. In the years shortly before her husband's death in 1627, she even seems to have been the acting sovereign.

1611

1617

After visiting London with the financial backing of the Virginia Company, Chief Powhatan's daughter Pocahontas (b. c. 1596) dies and is buried in Gravesend, Kent. The story of Pocahontas remains largely unknown, but it is likely that Captain John Smith fabricated the story of his salvation by Pocahontas.

1617

1624

Queen Njinga (1582–1663) becomes leader of the northern Angolan kingdoms of Ndongo and Matamba, ruling until her death. She is known for her resistance to Portuguese incursion, her conversion to Christianity, and her alleged gender ambiguity.

1624

1638

In March 1638, Anne Hutchinson (1591–1643) is tried by the Boston Puritan church, whose ministers worry about the influence that Hutchinson has on Boston's women. The congregation's men agree to excommunicate her for lying about how long she had held her heterodox opinions. That spring Hutchinson and other radicals leave Boston to found a colony in what later became Rhode Island.

1638

1641

Taj al-Alam Safiyyat al-Din (r. 1641–1675) ascends the throne as sultana of Aceh in northern Sumatra, the first of four women rulers who govern Aceh consecutively in the seventeenth century.

1641

1643

For the first time, Virginia tax law distinguishes between African women—who are “tithable”—and white women.

1643

1650

In London, the brother-in-law of Anne Bradstreet, an English colonist in America, publishes Bradstreet's first volume of poetry, The Tenth Muse, Lately Sprung Up in America. This is the first volume of poetry written by a colonist.

1650

1653

Marguerite Bourgeois (1620–1700), a French nun born in Troyes, founds the first women's congregation in Canada for teaching young French and Native American girls.

1653

1666

The Quaker leader Margaret Fell (1614–1702) publishes the well-known tract Womens Speaking Justified, Proved and Allowed of by the Scriptures, which argues for women's spiritual equality and for their voices to be heard in meetings and preaching.

1666

1671

Saint Rose of Lima, born Isabel Flores de Oliva in Peru (1586–1617), is canonized, becoming the first Catholic saint in the Americas.

1671

1677

The Puritan Mary Rowlandson (c. 1635–1711), a white woman who was captured by the Narragansett Indians in a raid on her town in 1676 during King Philip's War, publishes her book A True History of the Captivity and Restoration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson.

1677

1678

The Venetian Elena Lucrezia Cornaro Piscopia (1646–1684) becomes the first woman university graduate when she receives a PhD from the University of Padua.

1678

1689

Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz (1648–1695), the most famous nun from colonial Spanish America, known in her lifetime as the “Tenth Muse of America,” publishes her first collection of poetry, Inundación castálida (Inundation of the Muses).

1689

1693

Fourteen women and five men are hanged and one man is pressed to death after 156 people are accused of practicing witchcraft during the Salem witch trials in Salem, Massachusetts.

1693

eighteenth century

The Western intellectual and cultural movement known as the Enlightenment begins in Europe.

eighteenth century

1700

The Indian leader Tarabai (1675–1761) becomes regent of the Hindu state of Maratha, guarding Maratha independence from the Mughal Empire.

1700

1704

Kimpa Vita (b. c. 1684), a Kongolese woman known as the Kongolese Joan of Arc, claims to be possessed by Saint Anthony. Because she is a threat to the power of secular and religious leaders, in 1706 priests and the royal council condemn her as a heretic and burn her at the stake.

1704

1714

Sor María Anna Águeda de San Ignacio (1695–1756) enters a female lay religious institution called the Beaterio de Santa Rosa de Santa María in Puebla, and she later transforms it into the earliest colonial convent to venerate the Americas' first saint, Rose of Lima.

1714

1727

The Sisters of the Order of Saint Ursula open the Ursuline Academy, a girls' school in New Orleans. This academy is now the oldest continuously operating girls' school in the United States.

1727

1730

Empress Mentewwab (r. 1730–1768), a central figure in Ethiopian national politics, rules the country through a web of male kinsmen. She maintains power until the assassination of her grandson in 1768.

1730

1733

The Company of Mary, a Catholic religious order dedicated to teaching women, opens its first convent in the New World in Cap Français (today's Haiti), a French colony.

1733

1735

The Korean Lady Hyegyŏng (d. 1815), the wife of the crown prince Sado and the author of Hanjungnok (The Memoirs of Lady Hyegyŏng), which gives extraordinary insights into eighteenth-century court life, is born.

1735

1740

The accession of Maria Theresa (1717–1780) to the throne of the Habsburg Monarchy leads to the War of the Austrian Succession (1740–1748).

1740

1742

Sor Francisca Josefa Castillo y Guevara (b. 1671), a colonial Colombian nun whose posthumously published spiritual autobiography becomes one of the world's most popular, dies.

1742

1751

The Chinese poet and tanci novelist Chen Duansheng (d. c. 1796) is born in Qiantang (Hangzhou), Zhejiang Province, China. She is known today for her tanci entitled Zaisheng yuan (Karmic Bonds of Reincarnation).

1751

1753

The state senate, Russia's highest court, issues a ruling that allows married women to buy and sell property and enter contracts independent of their husbands, a right unique in Europe.

1753

1762

Catherine II (1729–1796) becomes empress of Russia. She makes women's education the responsibility of the state.

1762

1763

Gabriela Silang, a “priestess” who became leader of an anti-Spanish rebellion in the Philippines following the death of her husband, is executed for her opposition to colonization.

The Chinese novelist Cao Xueqin (b. c. 1715), author of the preeminent classic Chinese novel, Hong lou meng (Dream of the Red Chamber), dies. The novel describes the Qing dynasty (1644–1912) family structure and how women and girls manage within this male-dominated structure.

1763

1773

Phillis Wheatley (1753–1784), an enslaved woman poet living in Boston, travels to Britain and publishes her verse under the title Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral. This is the first book of poetry published by an African American.

1773

1774

The Shaking Quakers (or Shakers), an English religious group founded in 1772 by “Mother” Ann Lee, move to the North American colonies. They eventually settle in some nineteen communes across the United States.

1774

1776

Abigail Adams (1744–1818) urges her husband and the Continental Congress to “remember the ladies” when writing laws for the newly formed United States of America.

1776

1781

Micaela Bastidas (b. 1744), leader of resistance to Spanish colonial rule in the Andes, is executed in Cuzco by the Spanish colonial administration.

1781

1788

The first shiploads of British convicts, including women, arrive in Sydney, Australia, and from the 1790s small numbers of free women migrants begin arriving.

1788

1789

Leona Vicario (d. 1842), a key protagonist in the Mexican independence movement, is born in Mexico City to wealthy Spanish parents.

1789

1792

The British author Mary Wollstonecraft (1759–1797) publishes Vindication of the Rights of Woman, voicing the early feminist argument of women's equality in response to the rhetoric of the French Revolution.

Sarah Pierce's Litchfield Female Academy is founded in Connecticut. More than three thousand women attended the school during its forty-one-year existence.

1792

1793

During the height of the French Revolution, the French queen Marie-Antoinette (b. 1755) is convicted of plotting against the French Republic and is guillotined in Paris, just months after her husband Louis XVI was executed for treason.

1793

1804

The Napoleonic Code is introduced throughout the French Empire and eventually becomes the basis of civil codes throughout the world.

1804

1805

Mercy Otis Warren (1728–1814) publishes her History of the Rise, Progress, and Termination of the American Revolution. The three-volume tome was not only one of the earliest histories of the American Revolution but the first written by a woman.

1805

1807

Great Britain abolishes the slave trade; slavery is abolished in the British colonies in 1833.

1807

1810

The South African Sara Baartman is taken from Cape Town to London, where she is displayed as the “Hottentot Venus.” She dies in Paris in 1815, having been exhibited and owned by an animal trainer.

The French-Swiss woman of letters and political figure Germaine de Staël (1766–1817) publishes her most celebrated literary work, On Germany, which introduces German manners, letters, and philosophy to the French.

1810

1811

The Company of Mary opens New Enseñanza, a convent in Mexico City for teaching Indian women. Previously the order had founded the houses of Mendoza (today's Argentina, 1780), Mexico City (1754), and Santa Fé de Bogotá (today's Colombia, 1783).

1811

1815

In the war for Bolivian independence, Juana Azurduy de Padilla (c. 1780–1862) and her husband Manuel mount a guerrilla war against Spanish royalists. She trains a group of women, known as the Amazons, who fight in sixteen battles, and she herself gains a reputation as a daring soldier who will not hesitate to kill the enemy or pursue them in battle.

1815

1817

Policarpa Salavarrieta (b. c. 1795) is executed by the Spanish government for helping try to liberate Colombia from Spain. She becomes a martyr for the Colombian independence movement.

1817

c. 1825

The Swahili poet Mwana Kupona (d. 1860) is born in Siu, in the northern Kenyan Lamu archipelago. She is best known for the Utenda Wa Mwana Kupona, a 102-stanza poem in Arabic script, which gives advice to her daughter.

c. 1825

1826

Eliza Darling founds the Female School of Industry and the Female Friendly Society in Australia.

1826

1828

The Oblate Sisters of Providence, a Catholic order for African American women, is founded in Baltimore, Maryland.

1828

1829

The British prohibit the practice of sati (widow immolation) in India.

Josepha Ortiz de Domínguez (b. c. 1768), wife of Don Miguel Domínguez, a Spanish-appointed corregidor who was sympathetic to the Mexican independence movement, dies. Ortiz de Domínguez, or “La Corregidora,” is also a key protagonist in the Mexican independence movement.

1829

1830s

The Asante stateswoman Yaa Kyaa (c. 1770–c. 1840) brokers peace between the Asante and the British, which brings about the opening of trade routes in the Gold Coast. She continues to lead Asante diplomatic missions in West Africa in the 1830s.

In Tasmania, Tarenorerer (c. 1800–1831) leads a band in armed warfare against European colonists.

1830s

1831

Mary Prince (c. 1788–?) publishes The History of Mary Prince, a West Indian Slave, Related by Herself, becoming the first known self-emancipated slave woman to write an autobiography.

1831

1833

The British Factory Act inaugurates hours regulation, barring children younger than nine from working in textile factories and reducing the working day to twelve hours for thirteen- to eighteen-year-olds. It was not until about a decade later that a bill was passed to include women under such legislation.

Lydia Maria Child (1802–1880) publishes her Appeal in Favor of That Class of Americans Called Africans, the first extensive study of slavery and emancipation. Widely read and debated, Child's Appeal is often credited with turning abolitionism into a movement.

Soledad Acosta de Samper (d. 1913), the Colombian writer and notable advocate for the education of women, is born.

1833

1834

Textile workers in Lowell, Massachusetts, go on strike (and again in 1836) to protest deteriorating conditions and speedups in the factories.

1834

1836

The American Anti-Slavery Society persuades both Angelina Emily Grimké (1805–1879) and Sarah Grimké (1792–1873)—two sisters who had spoken out against slavery after growing up in a wealthy slaveholding family in South Carolina—to move to New York and speak with women in private homes. The Grimkés thus become the first women abolitionist agents.

1836

1840

Lucretia Mott (1793–1880) and Elizabeth Cady Stanton (1815–1902) meet at the World Anti-Slavery Convention, where they are both refused seats because of their sex. Watching the meeting from the balcony, Mott and Stanton decide to form a convention devoted to achieving women's rights.

1840

1841

Catherine Beecher (1800–1878), an educator and social reformer who promotes the concept of separate spheres, publishes her popular Treatise on Domestic Economy. The book seeks to recast women's gendered identity to give women greater power in their personal and family lives, as well as in their communities.

Gertrudis Gómez de Avellaneda (1814–1873), Cuban-Spanish Romantic poet, novelist, and dramatist, publishes her first and most famous novel, Sab. Like Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852), Sab also draws a clear parallel between the evils of slavery and the powerlessness of women.

1841

1845

In Algiers, the Frenchwoman Véronique Allix-Luce founds a Franco-Arab school for girls that receives government support and provides schooling to some one thousand young girls until 1861, when it is brought to an end by Muslim opposition.

1845

1847

The English writer Charlotte Brontë (1816–1855) publishes her novel Jane Eyre under the pseudonym Currer Bell; the novel immediately becomes a best seller.

1847

1848

In July, the Seneca Falls Convention is held in Seneca Falls, New York. The convention is the first to call explicitly for women's educational, religious, social, economic, and political rights, and it has been considered the symbolic beginning of the nineteenth-century women's rights movement.

1848

1849

Elizabeth Blackwell (1821–1910) becomes the first woman to graduate from medical school in the United States.

1849

1850

Sojourner Truth (c. 1797–1883), New York preacher, freed slave, and abolitionist, dictates The Narrative of Sojourner Truth.

1850

1851

The Taiping Rebellion (1851–1864) begins in China as an uprising against the ruling Manchu Qing dynasty (1644–1912). Women have often been seen as central to the Taiping ideology, and feminists and socialists alike have looked upon the Taiping movement as offering the first blossomings of gender and class equality in China, even though evidence of women's emancipation in the movement is slim.

1851

1852

Qurrat al-῾Ayn (b. 1814), an early champion of women's equality in Iran—as well as an activist, intellectual, poet, and one of the first eighteen believers in the Babi movement—is put to death in Tehran.

The American author Harriet Beecher Stowe (1811–1896) publishes Uncle Tom's Cabin.

1852

1853

Marianita de Jesús (1618–1645), an Ecuadorian saint also known as the Lily of Quito, is beatified on 20 November 1853 and is canonized on 9 June 1950.

1853

1856

Muganzirwazza (1817–1882) assumes the role of queen mother of Buganda on the accession of her son Mutesa I to power. Her influential role is something similar to that of a king and a prime minister, and she is among the first anti-imperialists of Buganda.

1856

1858

The first state schools for girls open in the Ottoman Empire. An 1869 decree makes primary education compulsory for both boys and girls aged six to ten, though its implementation is limited.

Lakshmi Bai, the only woman rebel leader of the revolt of 1857 in Jhansi, India, dies fighting the British near Gwalior.

1858

1860

Jewish women in France establish the Alliance Israélite Universelle to regenerate Jewish culture and identity through modern coeducational schools.

Between 1860 and 1900, nearly ninety thousand single British women, who were in demand both as domestic servants and as wives, arrive in Australia as assisted migrants. They are helped by such organizations as the Female Middle Class Emigration Society, founded in London in 1862 to help solve the problem of “surplus women.”

1860

1861

A former slave who hid in a tiny garret for seven years to avoid capture, Harriet Jacobs, under the pseudonym Linda Brent, publishes her autobiography, Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl.

Nuns are expelled from all convents in Colombia. Five years later, nuns are expelled from convents in Mexico. However, in both countries the nuns are able to refound their schools and resume their educational services in less than fifteen years.

1861

1863

The International Red Cross is founded by Swiss citizen, Jean Henri Dunant (1828–1910), after the bloody battle at Solferino (24 June 1859) during the Austro-Sardinian War.

A former slave and a conductor for the Underground Railroad, Harriet Tubman (1825–1913) engineers the Combahee River Raid on 2 June 1863, during which more than 750 slaves are freed.

1863

1868

Louisa May Alcott (1832–1888) publishes Little Women, a novel that has become a worldwide icon of American girlhood.

The Cuban war for independence from Spain begins. During the initial Ten Years War (1868–1878), Mariana Grajales sacrifices several sons to the war effort.

1868

1869

Pope Pius IX (r. 1846–1878) decrees that any interruption of pregnancy after conception is a grave sin and that anyone who participates in an act of abortion has excommunicated herself or himself from the Roman Catholic Church.

Lucy Stone (1818–1893) helps establish the American Woman Suffrage Association (AWSA), which endorses the Fifteenth Amendment and focuses on winning a separate woman suffrage amendment.

1869

1870

Victoria Woodhull (1838–1927) and her sister Tennessee Claflin open the first Wall Street brokerage firm for women. Two years later, Woodhull runs for president and starts a newsletter, Woodhull & Claflin's Weekly, a forum for unconventional social thought.

1870

1871

The French anarchist, feminist, and revolutionary Louise Michel (1830–1905) plays a central role in the Paris Commune. She is exiled to New Caledonia after her arrest but returns to France in 1880 and receives a hero's welcome.

1871

1872

The Japanese Education Ordinance institutes compulsory elementary education for boys and girls in coeducational schools. In 1899 the Girls' High School Law requires the opening of at least one high school for women in every prefecture. By 1904, 90 percent of Japanese women are enrolled in school.

1872

1873

Susan B. Anthony (1820–1906) is tried for voting in the 1872 election. Anthony was using the “New Departure” theory, first proposed by Victoria Woodhull in 1871, that she was already afforded the right to vote by existing laws.

1873

1874

The Russian mathematician, writer, and social activist Sofia Kovalevskaia (1850–1891) becomes the first woman to earn a doctorate in mathematics, receiving her degree from Göttingen University in Germany.

1874

1875

The Luso-African Mãe Aurélia Correia (b. 1810?), a prominent slave trader and merchant in the Upper Guinea Coast, dies.

The Supreme Court rules in Minor v. Happersett that voting is a privilege, not a right, of citizenship, thus striking down the “New Departure” theory that women already, under existing laws, had the right to vote.

Juana Paula Manso de Noronha (b. 1819), a pioneering women's rights advocate in a society in which the majority of women are illiterate, dies. Noronha spends her life defending women's education as necessary for women's social and financial emancipation and for the progress of Argentina as a nation.

1875

1878

The Dutch physician, public health advocate, suffragist, and international peace activist Aletta Jacobs (1854–1929) earns her medical degree in Amsterdam. She opens a practice the next year. Jacobs also translated and wrote many essays on women's rights and peace, and she later became interested in the issue of contraception.

1878

1879

The Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen's play A Doll's House is first performed in Copenhagen. Ibsen's heroine Nora embodies the struggle associated with the First Wave of the women's movement in Europe.

The Indonesian nationalist and pioneer of women's schooling Raden Ajeng Kartini (d. 1904) is born in Java. She is declared a national heroine by President Sukarno in 1963.

Frances Willard (1839–1898) becomes president of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU), holding the post until 1898. As president, Willard builds the WCTU into the largest women's organization in the nineteenth-century United States, thereby shaping the political, reform, and legislative goals of a generation of middle- and upper-class American women.

1879

1882

Clara Barton (1821–1912) becomes the first president of the American Red Cross, holding the post until 1904. Barton had led a difficult but successful campaign to have the United States sign the Geneva Convention and thus establish the American Red Cross.

1882

1883

Kadambini Ganguly (1861–1923) graduates from Bethune College in Calcutta (now Kolkata), becoming one of the first women to earn a bachelor's degree under British colonial rule. She later attends medical school in India.

Victoria, Australia, becomes the first British colony to give married women property rights with the Married Women's Property Acts.

1883

1884

Henrietta Dugdale founds the Victorian Women's Suffrage Society in Melbourne; it is one of the first suffrage organizations in Australia.

1884

1885

The Indian National Congress is founded and has women delegates by 1889. The public activism of bourgeois women for the nationalist cause does not come into its own, however, until the launching of the Swadeshi campaign in 1905 for the substitution of foreign with indigenous products.

The Japanese feminist and socialist Fukuda Hideko (1865–1927) is imprisoned for her part in the Osaka Incident, making her the first woman in modern Japanese history to be jailed as a political prisoner. She is released in 1889.

1885

1886

Britain's Contagious Diseases Acts are repealed as a result of a campaign led by the social reformer Josephine Butler (1828–1906).

The Ewha Womans University is founded in Korea by Mary F. Scranton, an American Methodist missionary. As one of the oldest modern higher educational institutions in Korea, Ewha has produced many firsts in a wide range of fields, including liberal arts, fine arts, Korean studies, music, dance, and physical education.

1886

1888

D. Isabel de Bragança (1846–1921), acting as a regent for her father Emperor Pedro II, signs a law outlawing slavery in the Brazilian empire, thus earning the title “the Redemptress.”

1888

1889

T'aitu Bitoul (c. 1850–1918) becomes empress of Ethiopia, working alongside her husband, Menelik II (r. 1889–1913), to preserve Ethiopia's political independence. An active participant in the Battle of Adwa in 1896, she is described as the real founder of Addis Ababa.

Jane Addams (1860–1935) and Ellen Gates Starr found Hull House in Chicago, launching the settlement house movement.

The National Women's Exposition is held in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

1889

1890

The National Woman Suffrage Association (created by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony in 1869) and the American Woman Suffrage Association (created by Lucy Stone and Henry Browne Blackwell in 1869) put aside their differences and create the conglomerate group the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA).

1890

1891

The Age of Consent Act is passed in India. Although it does not raise the age of marriage, the act raises the age of consent for penetrative sexual intercourse from ten to twelve for both married and unmarried girls.

1891

1892

It becomes illegal to advertise or sell contraception in Canada.

1892

1893

The first Jadid schools open in Turkestan, founded by the Tatar educator Ismail Bey Gaspirali, who believed that phonetic literacy and linguistic unity were the tools that would free Turkic peoples from Russian domination. The Jadids favored education for women, with the limited aim of training enlightened mothers to raise a new generation of Muslim patriots.

Women in New Zealand get the right to vote, followed by women in South Australia in 1894, and white women in Western Australia in 1899.

Sophia Hayden (1868–1953), the first academically trained woman architect in the United States, designs the Women's Building for the Chicago World's Columbian Exposition.

1893

1894

Most German bourgeois women's organizations are united in the Bund Deutscher Frauenvereine (BDF; Federation of German Women's Organizations), and in response to the promulgation of the Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch (German Civil Code) in 1896, the BDF commits itself to fighting for the legal equality of women and men, including women's suffrage.

The Kabo Reform in Korea, the result of a campaign by reform-minded intellectuals, enhances women's position in society through promoting education and through abolishing concubinage and the prohibition of widow remarriage. It also eliminates the status distinctions between the yangban elite and commoners and ends slavery in Korea.

Elizabeth Peabody (b. 1804), New England transcendentalist educator, author, publisher, editor, and social reformer, dies.

1894

1895

Elizabeth Cady Stanton writes her controversial work The Woman's Bible (1895), which argues for the superiority of women and questions women's treatment by religion.

Soledad Acosta de Samper (1833–1913), the most important Colombian writer of the nineteenth century and a notable advocate for the education of women, publishes La mujer en la sociedad moderna (The Woman in Modern Society).

1895

1896

The film director Alice Guy shoots The Cabbage Patch Fairy, the first scripted film in France.

The National Association of Colored Women (NACW) forms from a merger of the National League of Colored Women (founded in 1892) of Washington, D.C., and Boston's National Federation of Afro-American Women (1895). With the motto “Lifting as We Climb,” the organization aims at achieving self-protection, self-advancement, and justice for African Americans.

1896

1897

The French feminist Marguerite Durand's journal La Fronde first appears in France.

1897

1898

Despite the pleas of Queen Lili'uokalani (1838–1917), who travels to Washington, D.C., with a petition signed by nearly every native Hawaiian alive, the United States annexes Hawai‘i as a territory. Thus Lili'uokalani becomes the last monarch of Hawai‘i.

Cuba and Spain sign the Treaty of Paris after Cuba wins its war for independence from Spain. Ana Betancourt demands that women's rights be incorporated into new national agenda.

1898

1899

Cecilia Grierson (1859–1934) becomes the first woman in Argentina to earn a degree as a medical doctor. In 1891, Grierson had founded the first professional nursing school in Argentina, and she was an active founding member of the Argentine National Council of Women and the Argentine Association of University Women.

1899

1900

Women first compete in the Olympic Games, held in Paris in 1900, in three sports—golf, tennis, and yachting—despite the vocal objections of the International Olympic Committee founder Pierre de Coubertin.

The Nigerian anticolonial and women's rights activist Funmilayo Ransome-Kuti (d. 1978) is born to Yoruba parents in Abeokuta. One of the best-known African women activists of the twentieth century, she became a significant figure in human rights and independence struggles throughout the world.

The Irish actress Maud Gonne (1866–1953), who was instrumental in the Gaelic revival and the struggle for Irish independence, founds Inghinidhe na hÉireann (Daughters of Ireland) in response to the exclusion of women from Irish nationalist groups.

Margaret Abbott takes the gold medal for golf, one of three sports open to women, at the Paris Olympics.

1900

1901

The Asante queen mother Yaa Asantewaa (c. 1830–1921) surrenders to the British after leading the final Asante resistance to British rule. Defeated, she is exiled to the Seychelles, where she dies in October 1921.

Queen Victoria (b. 1819), England's longest-reigning monarch (r. 1837–1901), dies, ending the Victorian era, one of conservative values and customs but one that also saw a new technologically advanced and industrialized world begin.

Girls are finally included in the Chinese education system as a result of a campaign to promote women's education that emerges in the aftermath of China's defeat in the first Sino-Japanese War (1894–1895).

The Argentine feminist, activist, reformer, and author Elvira López publishes her groundbreaking doctoral thesis “El movimiento feminista.” The thesis examines questions of gender equality and the preservation of difference, and it advocates access to education as a crucial factor in rectifying social and class inequities.

1901

1902

The International Woman Suffrage Alliance (IWSA) is founded in Washington, D.C., by suffrage leaders including Carrie Chapman Catt and Anita Augspurg to promote the enfranchisement of women throughout the world.

In Australia, women active in temperance campaigns from the 1880s become involved in the suffrage struggle, resulting in the 1902 Commonwealth Franchise Act, which extends federal political rights to all white women. Aboriginal women are excluded from citizenship and political rights until the 1960s.

1902

1903

Marie Curie and her husband Pierre win the Nobel Prize in Physics for their research on radioactivity. Marie Curie wins a second Nobel Prize, in Chemistry, in 1911.

The Women's Trade Union League (1903–1950) is founded by social reformers and trade unionists to organize wage-earning women into trade unions, provide education, and agitate for protective labor legislation in the United States.

1903

1904

The Swiss traveler and Islamic convert Isabelle Eberhardt (b. 1877) dies in a flash flood in the Sahara after spending decades traveling throughout North Africa disguised as “Si Mahmoud,” a male Sufi.

Ida Minerva Tarbell (1857–1944), an American investigative journalist for McClure's, publishes some of her muckraking articles in a two-volume collection, The History of the Standard Oil Company.

1904

1905

The British suffragist Christabel Pankhurst—daughter of Sylvia Pankhurst, who founded the Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU) in 1903—initiates the WSPU's “militant,” or confrontational and extra-Parliamentary, tactics to campaign for the vote.

1905

1906

Finland becomes the first European nation to grant women full suffrage. The Scandinavian countries of Norway (1913) and Denmark and Iceland (1915) soon follow.

1906

1907

The member parties of the meeting of the Second (Socialist) International support a resolution calling for universal suffrage.

The Italian educator Maria Montessori (1870–1952) becomes the director of a primary school, Casa dei Bambini (Children's House), where she develops a method of early-childhood education that emphasizes individual development and self-motivation.

The revolutionary Chinese feminist and writer Qiu Jin (b. 1875) is executed for her role in planning an uprising against the Qing dynasty (1644–1912). She becomes a martyr for the Chinese nationalist movement and is viewed as one of the great woman revolutionaries of modern times.

The Fédération Nationale St.-Jean-Baptiste is founded as an umbrella feminist organization in Quebec.

1907

1908

The Korean government legalizes women's higher education and builds the Capital School for Girls' Higher Education.

The Pan-American Scientific Congress is held in Santiago, Chile, in 1908–1909; among the two thousand teachers, scientists, and physicians in attendance are more than one hundred women who, according to accounts at the time, express their opinions openly.

1908

1909

International Women's Day (IWD) is launched in the United States by socialist women calling for improved wages and working conditions for women. The IWD, originally the idea of the German socialist Clara Zetkin (1857–1933), begins in Europe in 1911, and the United Nations proclaims the IWD (8 March) an official holiday in 1975.

The Muhammad Ali Benevolent Society, one of the first non-governmental women's charitable organizations, is founded in Cairo, Egypt, to instruct new mothers in child care.

The Swedish novelist Selma Lagerlöf (1858–1940) becomes the first woman to win the Nobel Prize in Literature.

Supported by the Women's Trade Union League, between twenty and thirty thousand Italian, Russian, and Jewish women take to the streets to fight for union recognition, higher wages, shorter working hours, and better conditions at work.

1909

1910

Amid Progressive-era panic over “white slavery,” the Mann Act is passed in the United States, prohibiting the transportation of women across state lines for “immoral purposes.”

The First International Feminine Congress is held in Buenos Aires. It is organized by the Argentine Association of University Women and is the first conference of openly feminist leanings in Latin America.

1910

1911

The Japanese feminist, writer, and New Woman Hiratsuka Haruko (1886–1971) founds the women's literary magazine Seit.

1911

1912

Mekatilili Wa Menza, an elderly Kenyan woman, becomes a leading figure of the Giriama resistance, 1912–1914, in British-colonized Kenya. Under Mekatilili, the Giriama swear oaths and articulate grievances and noncooperation but do not declare war.

The first Indonesian women's organization, Putri Mardika (Free Women), is established, an event that is considered the start of Indonesia's national awakening.

Tang Qunying founds the Chinese Suffrage Society, and the Chinese Republican revolutionary government bans foot-binding. But only in the 1950s—after the Communist mobilization of Chinese peasants and workers—does foot-binding end.

Despite the International Olympic Committee's invitation to have women swimmers participate in the Stockholm Olympics, James Sullivan, the American Olympic administrator, bans American women from participating in the sport.

1912

1913

The Turkish feminist and novelist Halide Edib Adivar (1882–1964) publishes her famous novel Yeni Turan (New Turan), in which she envisions a democratic Turkey in which women enjoy political suffrage and wider employment opportunities.

Willa Cather (1873–1947) publishes her second novel, O Pioneers! Featuring a Swedish immigrant heroine in Nebraska, the novel establishes Cather's reputation as a novelist of the American West.

1913

1914

The assassination of the Austro-Hungarian archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie in Sarajevo on 28 June sets in motion a chain of events the leads to the outbreak of World War I in Europe and the Middle East.

Jiang Qing (d. 1991), Chinese actress, politician, and the wife of Mao Zedong, is born in Shandong Province.

The African American sculptor Meta Vaux Fuller (1877–1968) completes her work Ethiopia Awakening, in which she uses an Egyptian-style female figure to represent the growth of African self-awareness and desires for autonomy.

María Jesús Alvarado founds Evolución Femenina (Feminine Evolution), an institution that seeks legal equality for women in Peru.

1914

1915

The Women's International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF) is founded at the meeting of the International Council of Women in The Hague, Netherlands, to seek universal disarmament and permanent peace.

The Chilean educator and feminist Amanda Labarca organizes the country's first women's organization, the Readers Club, to promote the cultural education of women.

1915

1916

Empress Zewditu (1875–1930) ascends the throne of Ethiopia, ruling until her death. She is the only woman known to have ruled Ethiopia in her own right.

The Irish nationalist Constance Markievicz (1868–1927) serves as a commandant in the failed Easter Rising; she is sentenced to death but is released from prison in 1917.

The college professor Dhondo Keshav Karve (1858–1962), the husband of the remarried Brahman widow Anandibai Karve, founds India's first women's university, now known as S.N.D.T. Women's University.

Margaret Sanger (1879–1966) opens the nation's first contraceptive clinic in Brownsville, Brooklyn, and is promptly arrested and later imprisoned for thirty days. She first coins the term “birth control” in 1914 in The Woman Rebel, a militantly feminist journal published in New York by Sanger herself. She founds the American Birth Control League in 1921.

1916

1917

On International Women's Day (23 February), working-class women in Petrograd, Russia (formerly Saint Petersburg), stage an enormous demonstration calling for bread and peace, sparking the revolution that overthrows Tsar Nicholas II. Russia becomes the first major country to grant women full suffrage.

The Women's Indian Association (WIA) is formed in Adyar (part of Madras) by a diverse group of women, including Annie Besant and Margaret Cousins, the theosophist Dorothy Jinarajadasa, and Ammu Swaminathan, Malathi Patwardhan, Mrs. Dadabhoy, and Mrs. Ambujammal.

1917

1918

World War I ends with the signing of the armistice on 11 November. The minimum number of battlefield deaths in the war is estimated at ten million, with thirty million wounded or incapacitated. The global influenza epidemic that follows leaves as many as one hundred million more dead.

Initially known as the Bantu Women's League, the African National Congress (ANC) Women's League is founded in South Africa. The league is formally acknowledged as part of the ANC in 1931, although women were not admitted as members of the ANC until 1943.

Great Britain grants suffrage to women over thirty; in 1928 all women over twenty-one can vote. Poland also grants suffrage to women in 1918. The Netherlands follows in 1919, Austria in 1920, Spain in 1931, and France and Italy in 1945.

Federal suffrage is extended to women in Canada but excludes Japanese Canadians, Chinese Canadians, Doukhobors, and indigenous people.

Alicia Moreau de Justo (1885–1986), Argentine physician, socialist, and feminist, helps found the Unión Feminista Nacional (National Feminist Union) and its journal, Nuestra causa (Our Cause), in which she publishes many of her articles on women's political rights.

1918

1919

The Treaty of Versailles is signed at the Paris Peace Conference, emphasizing German war guilt and redrawing the map of Europe and the Middle East. In addition, the League of Nations is created, providing the foundation for international work on women's rights in the latter part of the twentieth century.

The Egyptian Uprising breaks out in early March, uniting Egyptians of all classes and religions in a common struggle against British colonial rule. Cairene women of all classes participate in demonstrations, and when a number of lower-class women are killed in demonstrations in Cairo, their funerals turn into further demonstrations of nationalist solidarity.

The Polish-German revolutionary Rosa Luxemburg (b. 1871) is brutally murdered in Berlin with her colleague Karl Liebknecht. Luxemburg was a founder—with Liebknecht, Clara Zetkin, and others—of the German Spartacist League, which becomes the German Communist Party in 1919.

The Nineteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution is ratified by three-quarters of the states, thus making the amendment law. The amendment bars states from denying suffrage to citizens on the basis of gender. However, the amendment does not extend to women in the American colonies, so women in Puerto Rico and the Philippines do not win the right to vote until the 1930s.

1919

1920

The Brazilian Bertha Lutz (1894–1976) founds her own women's rights organization, the Liga para a Emancipação Intelectual da Mulher (League for the Intellectual Emancipation of Women). Two years later this small local group is transformed into the Federação Brasileira pelo Progresso Feminino (FBPF; Brazilian Federation for Feminine Progress), affiliated with the International Woman Suffrage Alliance.

1920

1921

The International League of Iberian and Hispanic-American Women (Liga Internacional de Mujeres Ibéricas e Hispanoamericanas) is formed by Latin American liberal feminists with their Iberian counterparts.

The first umbrella women's organization of the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenians, Narodni Zenski Savez Srba, Hrvata, i Slovenaca (National Woman's Alliance of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenians), founded in 1919, brings together fifty thousand women from 205 organizations around the country.

The Japanese poet, translator, social critic, and essayist Yosano Akiko (1878–1942) opens, with some progressive friends, the Bunka Gakuin (Cultural Academy), with a goal that Yosano had advocated in her essays: to foster women's individual talents and promote their economic self-sufficiency.

Edith Cowan becomes the first woman elected to the state parliament of Western Australia. It is not until 1943 that Dame Enid Lyons of Tasmania and Dorothy Tangney of Western Australia are elected to the federal legislature.

The Sheppard-Towner Maternity and Infancy Protection Act, the first federal social welfare measure in the United States, is passed. This act provides federal matching grants to the states to combat infant and maternal mortality. In 1929, conservative and medical opposition force the program to shut down.

1921

1922

Fearing social and political disruption after the 1921 Bulhoek massacre, South African officials declare the religious prophet Nontetha Nkwenkwe (c. 1875–1935) mad and incarcerate her in an asylum, where she remains— despite repeated appeals for her release—until her death from cancer.

The Chinese Communist revolutionary Xiang Jingyu (1895–1928) is chosen to lead the Chinese Communist Women's Bureau, becoming its first director. She is arrested and executed by the Nationalist government in 1928, becoming the most famous woman revolutionary martyr of the Chinese Communist revolution.

The Equal Rights Amendment is introduced by the National Woman's Party.

1922

1923

The Egyptian feminist Huda Sha῾rawi (1879–1947), leader of the Women's Wafd, founds the Egyptian Feminist Union (EFU).

The French actress Sarah Bernhardt (b. 1844), the best-known and most highly regarded stage actress of the nineteenth century, dies.

The Afghan king Amanullah (r. 1919–1929) begins an ambitious reform program intended to make Afghanistan a modern nation while still respecting Islamic law. The reforms include restrictions on polygyny, banning child marriage, and opening public schools for girls. He abdicates in the midst of a civil war in 1929, and further reforms for women are delayed by decades.

1923

1924

Magda Portal, along with Raúl Haya de la Torre, founds the Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana (APRA), which is the formalized party of the Aprista movement that works on behalf of Peru's women and indigenous and poor people.

1924

1926

Women in the Jewish community of Palestine achieve the rights to vote and to be elected to political office.

The Italian novelist and short-story writer Grazia Deledda (1871–1936) wins the Nobel Prize in Literature.

The Colombian socialist María Cano (1887–1967) takes an active role in the labor movement as vice president of the Third National Conference for Workers. On that occasion the conference declares her “La Flor del Trabajo de Colombia” (the flower of all workers of Colombia).

1926

1927

The Communist Party of the Soviet Union launches a massive assault against all “crimes of traditional life” (known in Russian as byt crimes), intended to liberate women and restructure Central Asian society. The Zhenotdel stages public demonstrations in the Uzbek, Tajik, and Kyrgyz regions, where women burn their veils and demand freedom.

1927

1928

The Inter-American Commission of Women (IACW), or Comisión Interamericana de Mujeres (CIM), is established in Cuba and is the first intergovernmental organization in the world to be founded for the express purpose of working for the rights of women.

1928

1929

The stock market crash in the United states in October sets off the Great Depression, an economic disaster that affects the global economy.

In Nigeria, the Igbo “women's war” draws thousands of rural women to protest a census and rumored taxation of women.

The Arab Women's Union holds a congress in Jerusalem, bringing together more than two hundred women to form a Palestinian women's movement whose aims are to work toward an independent nation-state and to elevate the status of women and girls.

The British modernist writer Virginia Woolf (1882–1941) publishes the feminist classic A Room of One's Own.

The Child Marriage Restraint Act in India establishes the minimum age of marriage at fourteen for girls and eighteen for boys, abandoning the attempt to police consummation of marriage. Later acts in 1955 and 1978 raise the minimum age of marriage to eighteen for girls and twenty-one for boys.

1929

1930

The Roman Catholic Church's opposition to abortion becomes absolute with the publication of the papal encyclical Casti connubii, which also prohibits Roman Catholics from using any form of birth control and stresses the sanctity of marriage.

The Kenyan political activist Wambui Wangarama (1905–?) leads nationalist women to break from the Kikuyu Central Association and found the first women's political organization in Kenya, the Mumbi Central Association (MCA).

The Central Committee of the Soviet Communist Party announces the liquidation of the Women's Section, known as the Zhenotdel, which was formed in 1919 under the leadership of the Bolshevik women leaders Inessa Armand, Alexandra Kollontai, and Nadezhda Krupskaia.

The Indian nationalist Mahatma Gandhi organizes the Salt Satyagraha, in which he marches to the sea to make salt in defiance of the British monopoly over its manufacture. This campaign about a common kitchen item brings women of all classes in unprecedented numbers to the campaign.

The Liberal Cairine Reay Wilson becomes the first woman senator in Canada.

At the Third International Conference for Women in Bogotá, Colombia, Ofelia Uribe de Acosta (1900–1988) delivers a paper proposing full civil and economic rights for married women. This becomes the basis for a bill, passed by the Colombian parliament in 1932, that grants these privileges to women.

1930

1931

A new civil code in Iran, developed by the reformist leader Reza Shah, gives women the right to ask for divorce under certain conditions and raises the marriage age to fifteen for girls and eighteen for boys. Though demands for voting rights are refused, the shah implements reforms in girls' education and establishes a government office for women's affairs.

The American pacifist and feminist Jane Addams (1860–1935) wins the Nobel Peace Prize.

1931

1932

Pritilata Waddedar (b. 1911) becomes one of the first women martyrs for the Indian nationalist cause, marking a shift in women's involvement in revolutionary groups, from peripheral supportive roles to bearing arms and undertaking assassinations.

President Franklin D. Roosevelt names Frances Perkins (1880–1965) secretary of labor, thus making her the first woman to serve in the U.S. cabinet.

Women in Brazil get the same rights to vote as men. Illiterate women, like illiterate men, are still not allowed to vote. Literate Guatemalan women get the right to vote in 1945 (all women get the right to vote in 1966). Women get the vote in Chile in 1949, in Argentina in 1952, and in Peru in 1956.

1932

1933

Gertrude Stein publishes The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas. This story of Stein's life bears the name of her longtime companion Alice B. Toklas (1877–1967).

1933

1934

Women in Turkey get the rights to vote and to be elected, and eighteen women are elected as deputies in the February 1935 elections.

The postmodern Argentine feminist poet and playwright Alfonsina Storni (1892–1938) publishes Mundo de siete pozos (World of Seven Wells), which many regard as one of her two most accomplished works. The other work is Mascarilla y trébol (Mask and Shamrock, 1938).

1934

1935

Irène Joliot-Curie (1897–1956), the daughter of the physicists Pierre and Marie Curie, wins the Nobel Prize in Physics with her husband Frédéric Joliot-Curie for their experiments that resulted in the first production of radioactivity in 1934.

The Vietnamese Communist Nguyen Thi Minh Khai (1910–1941), the highest-ranking woman in the Indochinese Communist Party (ICP) in the 1930s, is the only woman selected to address the Seventh Congress of the Comintern in Moscow. She uses this platform to highlight issues of gender oppression within both the colonized societies and the West.

1935

1936

The Spanish anarchist group Mujeres Libres, the only autonomous anarchist women's organization in Europe, is founded.

Mary McCleod Bethune (1875–1955) is appointed to the head of the Division of Negro Affairs, in the National Youth Administration, thus becoming the first black woman in U.S. history to hold such a high-level federal position.

1936

1937–1938

The Rape of Nanjing—large-scale murder, plunder, and rape of Chinese soldiers, prisoners, and civilians—is committed by Japanese troops in and around Nanjing. Western observers in 1937 estimate that twenty thousand rapes occur; the People's Republic of China claims eighty thousand.

1937–1938

1937

The Danish author Karen Blixen (1885–1962), under the pseudonym Isak Dinesen, publishes her memoir Out of Africa about her life as a coffee farmer in Kenya.

The Indian reformer Durgabai Deshmukh (1909–1981) starts the Andhra Mahila Sabha (Andhra Women's Conference) to generate funds for and set up educational and vocational training facilities for women in India.

Women in the Philippines achieve the right to vote after extensive campaigning. In the same year, twenty-four women are elected to local offices, and in 1941 the first woman is voted into the House of Representatives.

The Socialist Party legislator and birth-control activist Katō Shidzue (1897–2001) opens a birth-control clinic in Tokyo. She is later arrested and forced to close the clinic, but she continues her work from her home and later runs successfully for political office.

The American Medical Association recognizes contraception as a legitimate service that should be included in the medical curriculum.

1937

1938

The black South African feminist and politician Cissie Gool (1897–1963) is elected to the Cape Town City Council. She remains active in local politics and resistance organizations in South Africa until her death.

1938

1939

World War II begins on 1 September when the German military, under the leadership of Adolf Hitler, invades Poland, causing Britain and France to declare war on Germany.

The Ravensbrück concentration camp, the only Nazi camp that incarcerated mostly women, is established in Brandenburg, Germany. Although Ravensbrück did not become an extermination camp until late 1944, around twenty-eight thousand people died there because it was a central site for the female slave market and for many medical experiments.

Ethel Waters (1896?–1977) becomes the first African American to star in her own show on television, NBC's The Ethel Waters Show. In 1962 she becomes the first African American actress to be nominated for an Emmy Award, for her portrayal of a dying jazz singer in “Good Night, Sweet Blues,” an episode of the television drama series Route 66.

The Mexican artist Frida Kahlo (1907–1954) paints her classic piece Las Dos Fridas. Kahlo's systematic exploration of numerous alternative roles and her subsequent espousal of “nontraditional selves” reflect a deep understanding that identity is a complex, mutable, and multilayered configuration rather than a static and monolithic “given.”

1939

1940

Emma Goldman (b. 1869), a Russian Jewish immigrant anarchist in the United States, dies in Toronto. Goldman's ideas resonated especially with women and with workers faced with the challenges and new mobility of budding industrial capitalism.

The Cuban constitution prohibits sexual discrimination in employment and guarantees women equal pay for equal work.

1940

1942

Women in the Dominican Republic get the right to vote; women received the vote in Puerto Rico in 1932, in Cuba in 1934, and in the English-speaking Caribbean countries by 1964.

1942

1944

The U.S. Supreme Court rules in favor of Mitsuye Endo, a Japanese American who argues that the process of detention to an internment camp during World War II is illegal because of the violation of her citizen's rights of habeas corpus. This ruling enables Japanese Americans to return home, though often to lives shattered by internment.

Amelia Peláez (1896–1968), a modernist Cuban painter, becomes the most highly praised of the artists represented in the exhibition Modern Cuban Painters at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City.

1944

1945

World War II ends in Europe with the German surrender on 8 May. The war continues in the Pacific until the Japanese surrender on 14 August after the United States drops an atomic bomb on each of two Japanese cities, Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

Eleanor Rathbone (1872–1946), English feminist and member of Parliament, succeeds in getting the Family Allowances Act, central to the creation of the postwar welfare state, passed through Parliament.

The Pakistani politician, diplomat, and writer Begum Shaista S. Ikramullah (1915–2000) becomes the first Muslim woman to receive a PhD from the University of London. In Pakistan she is active in the women's rights movement and later becomes a delegate to the United Nations and ambassador to Morocco.

Gabriela Mistral (1889–1957), a Chilean poet, journalist, educator, and diplomat, wins the Nobel Prize in Literature.

1945

1946

The United Nations Commission on the Status of Women (CSW) is formed. The CSW focuses on mapping out the legal status and social positions of women in the member states and subsequently on the preparation of legislation and international conventions for the advancement of women.

The Berber peasant Fadhma Amrouche (1882–1967), the mother of the noted Algerian writers Taos Marie-Louise Amrouche and Jean Amrouche, writes Histoire de ma vie, the first autobiography written by an Algerian woman. It is not published, however, until 1968, a year after her death.

Indonesia's largest Islamic organization, Nahdlatul Ulama (NU), establishes a women's section, Muslimat NU, at the same time that two women become ministers in early Sukarno cabinets: Maria Ulfah (minister for social affairs in 1946) and S. K. Trimurti (minister for labor in 1947–1948).

Under the new Japanese constitution of 3 November, women and men have equal rights. In 1945 Japanese women achieve the rights to vote and to run for office.

The American Babe Didrikson Zaharias (1911–1956) has a streak, lasting into 1947, during which she wins sixteen of seventeen golf tournaments. In 1932 she had won three medals at the Olympics.

1946

1947

The Uganda Council of Women (UCW) is founded. Known for the multiracial character of its membership, which includes women of African, Indian, and European descent as well as women representing religious and community organizations, the UCW remains active until the early 1970s.

The Iraqi poet and critic Nazik al-Mala᾽ika (b. 1923) launches free verse as a new form with her famous poem “Cholera,” refashioning poetry from a strict masculine art in Arab culture by loosening its age-old strictures, incorporating social and psychological realities into it, and creating poetry with organic unity.

India gains independence from Britain under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi, who credits his strategy of active nonviolent resistance, or satyagraha, to the tradition of passive resistance of the women in his own family and British women's suffrage campaigns that he witnessed in London.

1947

1948

The United Nations adopts the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the first major international human rights covenant. The commission that creates the document is led by former American first lady Eleanor Roosevelt.

The system of racial discrimination known as apartheid formally begins in South Africa with the election of the National Party. Under apartheid a wide swath of laws are passed that restrict the movement, education, and labor opportunities of black South Africans.

The Israeli constitution, established after the creation of the state of Israel in 1948, is one of the earliest constitutional documents in the world to include sex as a group classification within a guarantee of equality and political rights.

A new constitution is instituted with the establishment of the Republic of Korea (17 July 1948) in the southern half of the Korean peninsula, guaranteeing individual freedom, the equality of men and women, the right to education, and universal suffrage.

Sexual Behavior in the Human Male, the first of two scientific surveys of sexuality, is released (the second is released in 1953). Together known as the Kinsey Reports, the surveys attract widespread public interest and controversy.

1948

1949

Syrian women are granted the right to vote; women are granted political rights in Lebanon in 1953.

The French novelist and intellectual Simone de Beauvoir (1908–1986) publishes her influential book Le deuxième sexe (The Second Sex), widely considered to be a key text in the Second Wave feminist movement of the 1960s and 1970s.

1949

1950

The Marriage Law of 1 May 1950 guarantees rights for women in Communist China.

Gwendolyn Brooks (1917–2000) becomes the first African American to win the Pulitzer Prize in poetry for Annie Allen, published in 1949.

1950

1952

The Kikuyu nationalist Rebecca Njeri Kairi (1895–?) is detained by British authorities in Kenya for her role in the Mau Mau uprising. After her release in 1960, Kairi leads the women's branch of the Kenya African National Union (KANU) and is elected to the KANU executive council in 1961.

Women in Greece are granted full voting rights, and then wider political rights in 1955 in an attempt to improve Greece's international reputation in the aftermath of the civil war (1944–1949). However, equality between women and men is not constitutionally established until 1975.

The Singapore Council of Women, spearheaded by Shirin Fozdar, is formed as an umbrella group for the more than thirty women's associations concerned with educational, racial, social, and professional affiliations in Singapore.

The Argentinean first lady and powerful political figure Eva Perón (b. 1919) dies at the age of thirty-three. She had become secretary of labor in 1946, and among the poor she became known as the Lady of Hope.

1952

1953

The Japanese feminist Ichikawa Fusae (1893–1981) is elected to the Japanese Diet, where she campaigns for women's issues. She remains active in politics until her death.

1953

1954

Mai (Mother) Chaza (d. 1960), a healer and prophet, leads an independent African church known as Guta re Jehova (City of God) in colonial Zimbabwe until her death. She fits into a tradition of strong women healers in Shona culture.

The Indian novelist Kamala Markandaya (1924–2004) publishes her renowned first novel Nectar in a Sieve, which highlights the experiences of lower-caste peasants in South India. Her work more generally focuses on the experiences of women and their resistance to patriarchal paradigms.

The Vietnamese feminist and scholar Le Thi, who participated in the revolution against the French during the 1940s, becomes the director of the Center for Family and Women's Studies in the National Center for Social Sciences and Humanities, the foremost research facility of its kind in Vietnam; she serves until 1995.

1954

1955

The right to abortion is reinstated in the Soviet Union, two years after the death of Joseph Stalin. Although first made legal in 1920, abortion was abolished in 1936 in a governmental push to stabilize the family and birthrates.

The Hindu Marriage Act is passed in India, making polygamy illegal and legalizing divorce.

Rosa Parks (1913–2005) refuses to give up her seat on a bus in Montgomery, Alabama, and is arrested, thus beginning the Montgomery bus boycott and the civil rights movement.

1955

1956

Twenty thousand women from all over South Africa march to Pretoria to demand an end to pass laws for women in a demonstration sponsored by the Federation of South African Women (FSAW), a nonracial organization formed in 1954.

Djamila Bouhired (b. 1935) and many other Algerian women play key roles in the Battle of Algiers during the Algerian war of independence (1954–1962). Bouhired and two Algerian women dressed as Europeans place concealed bombs in the European sections of Algiers; Bouhired is captured in 1957 and becomes a cause célèbre for the French army's systematic use of torture.

1956

1957

Ghana becomes the first African nation to achieve independence from European colonial rule. In the coming years most African countries achieve independence, with the notable exceptions of the Portuguese colonies of Angola, Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau, and Cape Verde and the southern African settler nations of South Africa, Namibia, and Zimbabwe (then Rhodesia).

Ellen Louks Fairclough (1905–2004) is named secretary of state for Canada, thus becoming Canada's first woman federal cabinet minister.

1957

1958

The International Labour Organization adopts the Convention on Discrimination (Employment and Occupation), with the aim of contributing to the elimination of discrimination on the basis of race, creed, or sex in employment and occupation.

Aruna Asaf Ali becomes the first elected mayor of Delhi.

1958

1960

Aoua Kéita (1912–1980), midwife and feminist political activist, is the first woman elected deputy to the newly independent Republic of Mali's national assembly, following many years of anticolonial activism.

Sirimavo Bandaranaike (1916–2000) is elected prime minister of Sri Lanka, becoming the world's first woman prime minister.

The birth-control pill is introduced in the United States.

Vilma Espín (1930–2007) becomes president of the Federación de Mujeres Cubanas (FMC; Federation of Cuban Women), an organization created by her brother-in-law Fidel Castro.

1960

1961

Elizabeth Gurley Flynn (1890–1964), agitator and organizer for the Industrial Workers of the World, becomes the first woman national party chair of the Communist Party.

1961

1962

The British writer Doris Lessing (b. 1919) publishes The Golden Notebook.

Rachel Carson (1907–1964), an American biologist, writer, and environmentalist, publishes Silent Spring.

1962

1963

The Russian cosmonaut Valentina Tereshkova (b. 1937) becomes the first woman in space during her mission in Vostok 6. She later becomes active in politics, including chairing the Soviet Committee for Women from 1968 to 1987.

1963

1964

Women in Afghanistan get the right to vote in the wake of reforms under Zahir Shah (r. 1933–1973).

Title VII of the Civil Rights Act in the United States outlaws gender discrimination in employment by expanding the act to include “sex.”

1964

1965

The World Health Organization (WHO), one of the main bodies of the United Nations, launches its own family-planning program in 1965, organizing symposia and conducting hundreds of studies on fertility control methods, including steroid contraception, the rhythm method, and abortion, and their health implications.

In Hawai‘i, Patsy Takemoto Mink (1927–2002) becomes the first Asian American woman elected to the U.S. Congress.

1965

1966

Constance Cummings-John (1918–2000), a nationalist leader who helped found the Sierra Leone Women's Movement (SLWM) in 1951, becomes mayor of Freetown, Sierra Leone—the first woman to be mayor of an African city.

The Egyptian psychologist, writer, and activist Nawal el Saadawi (b. 1931) becomes Egypt's director of public health. She publishes Women and Sex, her groundbreaking book on mental health, sexuality, and women, in 1969. At least in part because of controversy over the book, el Saadawi is dismissed from the ministry of health in 1972.

The German-Jewish writer Nelly Sachs (1891–1970)—who, together with Paul Celan, is considered to be the most important poet of the Holocaust—wins the Nobel Prize in Literature.

Indira Gandhi (1917–1984) becomes prime minister of India, serving for four terms until her assassination in 1984.

Betty Friedan (1921–2006)—author of the influential Feminine Mystique (1963)—and other liberal feminists help form the National Organization for Women (NOW).

1966

1967

Illegal since the early nineteenth century, abortion becomes legal in England, Wales, and Scotland.

The Pakistani political activist Fatima Jinnah (b. 1893), sometimes called the Mader-e-Millat (Mother) of Pakistan, dies in Karachi. She is known both for her strong support of her brother Quaid-i-Azam (Muhammad Ali Jinnah), the founder of Pakistan, in achieving Pakistani independence and for her political activism, including an unsuccessful campaign for president in 1964.

1967

1968

The successful marketing of the birth-control pill in 1960 arouses hopes among liberal Catholics that their church would accept hormonal methods of contraception, but the papal encyclical Humanae vitae confirms traditional Roman Catholic teachings against the use of contraception.

The Family Protection Law in Iran provides women with some rights to divorce, requires that a first wife give written consent before her husband can marry a second wife, and sets the marriage age for women at eighteen. The law is abolished in 1979 with the ascension of the Ayatollah Khomeini and the establishment of the Islamic Republic of Iran.

The activist Helen Keller (b. 1880), who at the age of nineteen months contracted an illness that left her totally deaf and blind, dies. In 1904, Keller graduated magna cum laude from Radcliffe College; while still a student she published her first book, The Story of My Life (1903).

1968

1969

Golda Meir (1898–1978) becomes the first woman prime minister of Israel, holding this position until 1974.

Nguyen Thi Dinh (1920–1992) serves as deputy commander of the armed forces of the National Liberation Front after 1969, the highest-ranking woman in the southern Communist forces during the Vietnam War. She later serves as president of the Vietnam Women's Union and continues to advocate for women's rights until her death.

The Canadian government legalizes birth control and makes limited provisions for abortion. Meanwhile, police raid New York City's Stonewall Inn, a popular gay bar, galvanizing the gay community. The early days of the post-Stonewall gay liberation movement (1969–1971) see calls to overturn monogamy, gender hierarchies, and other normalizing binaries; it is said that this will free heterosexuals as well as “sexual minorities” from such artificial and stifling conventions.

1969

1971

Türkan Akyol (b. 1928) becomes the first woman prime minister of Turkey.

The feminist Gloria Steinem (b. 1934) founds, with Patricia Carbine as well as other feminist writers and editors, Ms., a progressive commercial magazine for women. The completely woman-run magazine first appears as an insert in New York magazine; the first stand-alone issue is published in the spring 1972.

1971

1972

The Nigerian-born British author Buchi Emecheta (b. 1944) publishes her first novel, In the Ditch, chronicling her own experiences of racial discrimination and poverty in London.

The West German author and radical Ulrike Meinhof (1934–1976) is captured after participating in several lethal bombings with the Red Army Faction, a guerilla group that she cofounded with Andreas Baader and Gudrun Ensslin.

Abortion is legalized in India.

The principle of “equal pay for work of equal value” is adopted in Australia under the leadership of the Australian Labour Party. The federal government also begins funding child care, paid maternity leave is granted for Commonwealth public servants, and no-fault divorce is introduced.

The National Action Committee (NAC), Canada's leading organized feminist group, forms at a meeting of the Royal Commission on the Status of Women.

1972

1973

Yang Zhihua (b. 1900), an early Communist revolutionary, prominent party labor organizer, and high-ranking leader in the All-China Federation of Trade Unions and the All-China Women's Federation, dies of cancer in Beijing.

The U.S. Supreme Court rules 7 to 2 in favor of Jane Roe, a woman seeking to have an abortion in Texas. The court case, known as Roe v. Wade, sets the precedent for abortion legislation in the United States.

Incited by women's demonstrations, military men take control in Chile, overthrowing the democratically elected Salvadore Allende. Before the takeover, thousands of conservative women had marched in protest against Allende, banging empty pots and pans to symbolize that they lacked food because, they claimed, of government policies.

1973

1974

The Progressive Organization of Women (POW), founded in South India, is the first contemporary feminist group formed in India.

In the United States, the Women's Educational Equity Act is passed. It provides for federal financial and technical support to local efforts to remove barriers for women in all areas of education—through, for example, the development of model programs, training, and research.

Cuba passes the Working Women's Maternity Law, which grants working mothers eighteen months of paid leave.

1974

1975

The United Nations names 1975 International Women's Year, and the first United Nations Conference on Women is held in Mexico City. The United Nations Decade for Women (1976–1985) is also the result of this conference.

Graça Machel (b. 1945), the first lady of Mozambique, is appointed minister of education and culture. Throughout her political career she worked for children's causes including increased access to education and the problems of child soldiers. In 1998 she married Nelson Mandela and became the first lady of South Africa.

1975

1976

The Grameen Bank is founded in Bangladesh. A world-renowned program known for its micro-credit activities on behalf of women, the bank, along with its founder Muhammad Yunus, wins the 2006 Nobel Peace Prize.

Pat O'Shane is admitted to the bar, becoming Australia's first Aboriginal barrister.

Nós Mulheres (We Women), the journal of Brazil's Associação de Mulheres (Women's Association), forms in São Paulo. The journal is one of the first feminist journals to emerge from the radical Second Wave feminist organizations.

1976

1977

The biology professor Wangari Maathai (b. 1940) launches the Green Belt Movement in Kenya, encouraging women to plant trees in rural areas to prevent deforestation and soil erosion.

The Mahila Dakshata Samiti (MDS), a socialist women's organization linked to the socialist political party Janata Dal, is founded in India.

Leslie Marmon Silko (b. 1948), an acclaimed novelist, poet, and storyteller of Mexican, Anglo-American, and American Indian ancestry, publishes her first major novel, Ceremony.

Las Madres de Plaza de Mayo (the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo) meet for the first time in the Plaza de Mayo in Buenos Aires, Argentina, to protest the military dictatorship that does not acknowledge its role in the disappearance of the mothers' loved ones.

1977

1978

The International Lesbian and Gay Association (ILGA) is founded and focuses on sexual-orientation discrimination as a global issue.

The Zambian prophet and healer Alice Lenshina Mulenge (b. c. 1924), the founder of the Lumpa Church, dies in prison; she had been arrested and her settlements destroyed by the newly independent Zambian government.

Contraception is legalized in Spain, followed by the legalization of divorce in 1981 and of abortion in the 1990s.

The Chinese novelist Zhang Jie (b. 1937), a pioneering Chinese feminist writer of the post-Mao era, wins the National Best Short Story Prize for her first story, “Cong senlin li lai de haizi” (The Music of the Forests).

Lois Gibbs (b. 1952) discovers that her neighborhood of Love Canal, in Niagara Falls, New York, was built on a toxic waste dump. Now an environmental activist, in 1980 she sets up a national network called the Citizens' Clearinghouse for Hazardous Waste (CCHW), which helps local communities clean up toxic waste.

1978

1979

The United Nations General Assembly adopts the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), the definitive international legal instrument for the protection of women's human rights.

Margaret Thatcher (b. 1925) becomes prime minister of Britain, the first woman to hold that office. She remains a controversial figure because of both her conservative policies and her hostility toward feminism.

The Albanian-born Catholic nun Mother Teresa (1910–1997) wins the Nobel Peace Prize in recognition of her work with the poor in India, where she founds the Missionaries of Charity and establishes hostels for AIDS patients, slum schools, dispensaries, and homes for the dying, lepers, and the mentally ill poor.

Lydia Gueiler Tejada (b. 1921) becomes the interim president of Bolivia—the first woman president in both Bolivia and South America.

1979

1980

The German feminist and peace activist Petra Kelly (1947–1992) helps found Die Grünen (the German Green Party, or “Greens”), a new political movement that links feminism, environmentalism, and pacifism.

Lois M. Wilson (b. 1927) becomes the first woman moderator of the United Church, Canada's largest Protestant denomination.

1980

1981

The International Olympic Committee elects its first women members, Flor Isava-Fonseca of Venezuela and Pirjo Haggman of Finland, at its Baden-Baden meetings.

Abortion is legalized in the Netherlands.

President Ronald Regan appoints Sandra Day O’Connor (b. 1930) as the first woman Supreme Court justice. She is confirmed by a unanimous vote in the Senate. She resigns from the court in 2005 but serves until her successor, Samuel Alito, is confirmed in January 2006.

Venezuela's Flor Isava-Fonseca (b. 1921) becomes one of two women to be elected for the first time to the International Olympic Committee at its Baden-Baden meetings.

1981

1982

The South African journalist and antiapartheid activist Ruth First (b. 1925) is killed by a letter bomb sent by a South African police death squad.

The Swedish social reformer, sociologist, author, and international politician Alva Myrdal (1902–1986) wins the Nobel Peace Prize for her work in nuclear disarmament. Along with her husband Gunnar Myrdal, she is a leading promoter for a woman-friendly welfare state, known as the Swedish model.

Bertha Wilson (1923–2007) becomes the first woman judge on the Canadian Supreme Court.

1982

1983

Alice Walker (b. 1944) wins the 1983 Pulitzer Prize in fiction for her book The Color Purple (1982). She is the first African American woman to be awarded the prize.

1983

1984

The Dowry Prohibition Act is passed in India, prohibiting the giving or taking of dowry in consideration of marriage; the act is seen as a major victory for the women's movement.

In the Philippines, a proliferation of grassroots organizations leads to the establishment of GABRIELA (General Assembly Binding Women for Reforms, Integrity, Equality, Leadership, and Action), which comprises more than a hundred groups whose political ideologies differ but who are united in their desire to advance women's causes and redress social inequality.

Jeanne-Mathilde Benoît Sauvé (1922–1993) becomes Canada's first woman governor-general.

In Guatemala the Mutual Support Group for the Appearance, Alive, of Our Children, Spouses, Parents, Brothers, and Sisters is founded.

1984

1985

DAWN (Development Alternatives with Women for a New Era), a network based in the global South that conducts research and advocacy on economic justice, gender justice, and democracy, is formed.

The Syrian Socialist National Party (SSNP) sends its first suicide bomber, a girl named Sana'a Mehaydali (Khyadali Sana, Sana'a Mehaidli), to attack an Israeli convoy in Lebanon. Between 1985 and 1987 the SSNP conducts six more suicide attacks using women.

1985

1986

The Indian prime minister Rajiv Gandhi enacts the Muslim Women's (Protection of Rights on Divorce) Act (MWA) in response to a divorce case in 1985—that of Shah Bano—in which the Indian Supreme Court argued that criminal law overrides personal law, causing uproar among Muslim religious leaders.

Corazon Aquino, widow of Benigno Aquino, becomes president of the Philippines after the overthrow of Ferdinand Marcos; she holds the office until 1992.

The American modernist painter Georgia O'Keeffe (b. 1887) dies. O'Keeffe became most prominent during the 1970s when feminists rediscovered her art, promoting her as a woman artist who invented vaginal iconography. Although O'Keeffe rejected such interpretations, her art and life nevertheless became inextricably linked to Second Wave feminism.

1986

1988

The Zimbabwean writer and filmmaker Tsitsi Dangarembga (b. 1959) publishes her most famous work, the novel Nervous Conditions; in 1989 it wins the African division of the Commonwealth Writers Prize.

Benazir Bhutto (b. 1953) is elected prime minister of Pakistan at the age of thirty-five. She is removed in 1990 and reelected in 1993, only to be dismissed by presidential decree in 1996, charged with corruption, laundering money, and taking bribes.

The Vietnamese dissident novelist Duong Thu Huong (b. 1947) publishes her third and most controversial novel, Paradise of the Blind. The book was later banned in Vietnam for its critical appraisal of both official misconduct and also the heartless interference in the public and private lives of ordinary people during the land reform of the 1950s.

The Canadian Supreme Court strikes down laws limiting access to abortion. Also, the Liberal Ethel Blondin-Andrew (b. 1951) becomes the first aboriginal woman to be a member of parliament in Canada.

1988

1989

Aung San Suu Kyi (b. 1945) is put under house arrest, where she still remains in 2007. In 1988 she had cofounded the National League for Democracy (NLD) in Burma, becoming its secretary-general and rallying millions across Burma through her embrace of Buddhist and Gandhian tactics of nonviolence and her outspoken rejection of oppression. She received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1991.

Jenny Shipley becomes the first woman prime minister of New Zealand. Helen Clark becomes the deputy prime minister and then, in 1999–2006, the prime minister.

1989

1990

The U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child goes into effect.

Mary Robinson (b. 1944) becomes the first woman president of Ireland, a position that she holds until 1997. After leaving the presidency she serves as the U.N. high commissioner for human rights until 2002.

Violeta Barrios de Chamorro (b. 1929) becomes the first woman president of Nicaragua after defeating the left-wing revolutionary Daniel Ortega.

1990

1991

The South African writer Nadine Gordimer (b. 1923) receives the Nobel Prize in Literature for a body of work that addresses the racism and apartheid that have divided South Africa.

A young Tamil woman named Thenmuli Rajaratnam (Dhanu) assassinates the Indian prime minister Rajiv Gandhi, detonating a bomb that kills them both, along with sixteen others.

In Cambodia, Khemara, the first non-governmental organization formed in the post-1989 liberal climate, is founded. Khemara aims at the advancement and empowerment of women in Cambodian society. It is established by a Cambodian woman, Mu Sochua, who later serves as Cambodia's minister of women's and veteran's affairs (1998–2003).

The thirteenth World Conference of the International Lesbian and Gay Association—founded in 1978 to focus on sexual-orientation discrimination as a global issue—is held in Acapulco, Mexico, after city officials in Guadalajara, Mexico, threaten to arrest attending individuals and then shut down the conference.

1991

1992

Rigoberta Menchú (b. 1959), a Maya social activist, receives the Nobel Peace Prize in recognition of her international efforts to defend indigenous people's rights and promote social justice. She is the first indigenous American to receive the award.

1992

1993

The United Nations adopts the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women.

Abortion is delegalized in Poland, forbidden except on the grounds of medical necessity or in the case of rape or incest. This legislation triggers women's political mobilization, helping to create one of the strongest feminist movements in Eastern Europe.

In the Chinese-controlled Central Asian province of Xinjiang, Rebiya Kadir, a Uyghur mother of eleven who built her own multimillion-dollar firm, founds the Thousand Mothers Association, a mutual aid society to promote women-owned businesses and combat drug abuse among Uyghur youth.

Toni Morrison (b. 1931), an African American novelist, wins the Nobel Prize in Literature. In Canada, the Conservative Kim Campbell (b. 1947) becomes Canada's first woman prime minister.

1993

1994

The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo, Egypt, produces the first major international agreement recommending improved access to safe abortion.

At the age of eighty, the South African political activist Ellen Kuzwayo, or “Ma K” (1914–2006), is elected to South Africa's first nonracial parliament, representing the constituency of Dobsonville for the African National Congress.

Chandrika Bandaranaike Kumaratunga (b. 1945) becomes the president of Sri Lanka, a post that she holds until 2005. Both her parents were prime ministers of Sri Lanka, and her mother Sirimavo Bandaranaike (1916–2000) was the first woman prime minister in the world.

The U.S. Violence against Women Act is passed. With this act the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention establish the Rape Prevention and Education (RPE) Program, which provides funding for programs that help prevent sexual violence.

The Peruvian Commission of Congressional Women is organized. Four years later the commission realizes one of its main goals when the electoral law establishes that all political parties must include a minimum of twenty-five women candidates in all electoral races.

1994

1995

The United Nations Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing produces the Beijing Declaration and the Platform for Action that identifies twelve areas of continuing concern regarding women's status.

1995

1996

The International Labour Organization adopts the Convention on Home Work, a major achievement for women in the informal sector worldwide.

The Polish poet Wislℓawa Szymborska (b. 1923), a member of the Polish school of poetry, wins the Nobel Prize in Literature.

The Taliban establishes control over Kabul in Afghanistan, instituting a version of extremist Islam that includes total seclusion of women from public places, a ban on women's education, and a dress code that requires women to wear the chadri (a sheetlike covering for the entire body) outside the home.

The Canadian Human Rights Act prohibits “sexual orientation” as a basis of discrimination.

1996

1997

The organization of the Women's International War Crimes Tribunal begins, through the collaboration of international women's groups. The movement emerges from a global initiative to address the Japanese army's sexual violence against more than two hundred thousand women in Asia during World War II.

In the European Union, a European Court of Justice decision, Marschall v. Land Nordhein-Westfalen (1 C.M.L.R. 547 [1997]), validates gender-based affirmative action.

El Salvador strikes down the only remaining legal grounds for abortion, to save a woman's life.

1997

1999

Beverley McLachlin (b. 1943) becomes the first woman chief justice of the Canadian Supreme Court.

1999

2000

France becomes the first country to institute a legal parity mandate requiring that all political parties present equal numbers of men and women candidates in most elections.

Annette Hsiu-lien Liu, a political activist who was jailed in 1979, becomes Taiwan's first woman vice president in the first multiparty presidential election in Taiwan.

2000

2001

Megawati Sukarnoputri (b. 1947) becomes Indonesia's first woman president, an office that she holds until 2004.

2001

2002

The U.S. State Department announces its decision to suspend $34 million in funding from the U.N. Population Fund, which it claims (without evidence) is supporting abortions in China.

The Afro-Brazilian political leader Benedita da Silva (b. 1943) becomes the first woman governor of the state of Rio de Janeiro. Silva had helped found the Partido dos Trabalhadores (PT; Brazilian Workers' Party) in 1980. Silva also was, in 1994, the first woman elected to the Brazilian senate.

2002

2003

Hanan Ashwari (b. 1946), Palestinian politician and promoter of peace, receives the Sydney Peace Prize. Also, the Iranian human rights activist Shireen Ebadi (b. 1947) wins the Nobel Peace Prize. Both events are seen by many as hopeful signs of support for women's rights in Muslim societies.

Doris Lessing (b. 1919), a British novelist, wins the Nobel Prize in Literature.

The Chinese politician Wu Yi (b. 1938), the only woman since the 1970s to assume a high level of prominence and authority in the People's Republic of China, is appointed minister of health.

2003

2004

Wangari Maathai (b. 1940) wins the Nobel Peace Prize for her work in the Green Belt Movement and her contributions to peace, democracy, and sustainable development.

Marion Scrymgour (b. 1960) becomes the first indigenous woman minister in Australia, having also served as the member for Arafura in the Northern Territory in 2001.

Susan Sontag (b. 1933), an American philosopher of culture, filmmaker, playwright, theater director, short-story writer, and novelist, dies from cancer.

2004

2005

Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf (b. 1938) is elected president of Liberia, becoming the first elected African woman head of state.

The National Assembly of Kuwait grants women the right to vote.

Angela Merkel (b. 1954) becomes the first woman chancellor of Germany.

Sister Dorothy Stang (b. 1940), an environmental activist of the Sisters of Notre Dame de Namur, is murdered in Brazil.

2005

2006

The Episcopal Church in the United States elects its first female presiding bishop, Katharine Jefferts Schori (b. 1954).

2006

2007

Congresswoman Nancy Pelosi (b. 1940) becomes the first woman elected to serve as Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives.

Rigoberta Menchú tries to become Guatemala's first woman president.

2007