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Directory of Contributors

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Directory of Contributors

Mohammad Abderrazzaq

Institute for the Study of Muslim Societies and Civilizations, Boston University

Malcolm X, Memory of

Aasha M. Abdill

Independent Scholar, Brooklyn, New York

Head Start

Gregory Adamo

Department of Communication Studies, Morgan State University

Crocker, Frankie; Davis, Sammy, Jr.

Daniel Adams

Department of Fine Arts, Texas Southern University

Composers; Miami

Harry Adams

Department of Justice Studies, Prairie View A&M University

Organized Crime

Luther Adams

University of Washington, Tacoma

Ali, Muhammad; Berry, Mary F.

Michael Adams

North Carolina State University


Michael Adams

Texas Southern University

Politics and Politicians

Thomas Jessen Adams

University of Chicago

Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters; Los Angeles; Mississippi Freedom Summer; New South; White Citizens’ Council

OluwaTosin Adegbola

Department of Communications Studies, Morgan State University

Burrell Communications; Gates, Henry Louis, Jr.; Hurston, Zora Neale; Turner, Tina

Shantel Agnew

University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Bradley, Ed; Chenault, Kenneth; Ford, Harold, Jr.; Freeman, Morgan

Anthony Aiello

Cornell University

Gulf War; Iraq War; Payton, Walter; Till, Emmett, Lynching of

Thomas Aiello

Department of History and Geography, University of Louisiana, Lafayette

Bing, Dave; Black Arts Movement; Cheyney University of Pennsylvania; Farr, Mel; Grambling State University; McKissick, Floyd B.

Mohammed Badrul Alam

Jamia Millia Islamia University, New Delhi, India

Brown, Ron; Herman, Alexis; Mfume, Kweisi

Julia L. Alderson

Department of Art, Pacific State University

Matthews, Victoria Earle; Moore, Queen Mother

Omar H. Ali

Vanderbilt University

Black Politics

Iain Anderson

Department of History, Dana College

Cole, Nat King; Henderson, Fletcher Hamilton, Jr.

Melodie Andrews

Department of History, Minnesota State University, Mankato

Women's Suffrage

Raymond Arsenault

University of South Florida, Saint Petersburg


Umaru Bah

Independent Scholar, Columbia, Maryland


Gordon Morris Bakken

California State University, Fullerton


Jared A. Ball

Independent Scholar, Washington, D.C.

Bell, Derrick; COINTELPRO

Roland Barksdale-Hall

Black Caucus of the American Library Association

Cartoonists; Lampkin, Daisy

L. Diane Barnes

Department of History, Youngstown State University

American Colonization Society;


The; Cleveland, Grover, Administration of; Dixon, Thomas, Jr.; Douglass, Frederick, in American Memory; Eugenics Movement; Fisk Jubilee Singers; Great Depression; Great Migration; Harding, Warren G., Administration of; Niagara Movement; Peonage; Quarles, Benjamin; Taft, William Howard, Administration of; Trotter, William Monroe

John H. Barnhill

Independent Scholar, Houston, Texas

African Diaspora; Carter, Jimmy, Administration of; Ford, Gerald, Administration of; Hate Crimes; Hate Speech; Jefferson, William; Marches on Washington, D.C.: Overview

Alwyn Barr

Department of History, Texas Technical University


Melvin Barrolle

Howard University

National Conference of Black Lawyers; Seale, Bobby

Jack Bass

Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, College of Charleston

Orangeburg Massacre

Dalea Bean

University of the West Indies, Mona, Jamaica

Harlem Riots: Harlem Riots of 1943 and Harlem Riots of 1964; National Negro Business League

Anja Becker

Center for the Americas, Vanderbilt University

Carnegie Corporation; Lawson, James M.; Meharry Medical College; Nashville; Peabody Education Fund; Southern Education Board

Barbara C. Behan

Independent Scholar, Missoula, Montana

Black Towns; Montana

Gail K Beil

Independent Scholar, Marshall, Texas

Farmer, James; Thurman, Howard; Tolson, Melvin; Wiley College

Michal Belknap

California Western School of Law; University of California, San Diego

Civil Rights

Patrick Belton

Trinity College, Oxford


Theresa W. Bennett-Wilkes

Independent Scholar, Oakland, California

Belafonte, Harry; Belton, Sharon Sayles; Cleaver, Eldridge; Clifton, Lucille; Professional Organizations, African American

Manfred Berg

Department of History, University of Heidelberg, Germany

Amenia Conference of 1933; Civil Rights Act of 1957; Civil Rights Act of 1960; Grandfather Clause; King, Martin Luther, Jr.; Literacy Tests; National Association for the Advancement of Colored People; Voting Rights

Monica Berger

New York City College of Technology, City University of New York

Brown, James

Edward A. Berlin

Independent Scholar, Miller Place, New York

Joplin, Scott

Patricia Bernstein

Independent Scholar, Bellaire, Texas

Waco Lynching

Michael T. Bertrand

Department of History, Geography, and Political Science, Tennessee State University


Makeda Best

Harvard University

DeCarava, Roy

Patricia E. Bonner

North Carolina A&T State University

Elderly, The; Family

Jackie R. Booker

Department of Philosophy and Religion, Clafin University

Immigration to the United States, Black

Jean M. Borgatti

Independent Scholar, Shrewsbury, Massachusetts

Massachusetts; Saar, Alison

Wesley Borucki

Department of History, Palm Beach Atlantic University

Alabama; Baker, Ray Stannard;

Chicago Defender; Detroit Riots: Detroit Riots of 1943; Doby, Lawrence Eugene; Du Bois, W. E. B.: Literary Writing; Fraternal Organizations, African American; Gibson, Joshua; Golf; Hayes, Rutherford B.; Historiography; Keyes, Alan; Mayors; Moton, Robert Russa; Paige, Satchel; Rickey, Wesley Branch; Schmoke, Kurt; Thomas, Clarence

Stefan Bradley

Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville

Mosley, Walter

Kevin M. Brady

Tidewater Community College, Chesapeake, Virginia.

Space Program, U.S., African Americans in

Jennifer Bratyanski

University of North Carolina, Greensboro

Jackson, Michael; Jay-Z; Supremes, The

Samuel Brenner

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor

Judges and the Judiciary; Kennedy, Robert F.

Jamal Donaldson Briggs

University of North Carolina, Charlotte

Bradley, Tom; Bush, George W., Administration of; Johnson, John H.

Susan Love Brown

Department of Anthropology, Florida Atlantic University

Dymally, Mervyn; Economic Life

William H. Brown

North Carolina Office of Archives and History

Afro-American Council

Peter Brush

Vanderbilt University

African Liberation Support Committee; Black Liberation Army; Johnson, Eddie Bernice

Kissette Bundy

Scripps Howard School of Journalism and Communications, Hampton University

Bullins, Ed; Lewis, Reginald

Kimberly Burnett

Harris-Stowe State University

Hair and Beauty Culture; Jakes, T. D.; Morrison, Toni; Parks, Rosa; Sanchez, Sonia; Shange, Ntozake

Todd Steven Burroughs

Independent Scholar, Hyattsville, Maryland

Abu-Jamal, Mumia; Associated Negro Press; Comedians;

Ebony; Film and Filmmakers; Goode, Wilson; Jet; Johnson Publishing Company; Johnson, Lyndon B., Administration of; Martin, Louis; Martyrdom and Civil Rights; MOVE Bombing; National Newspaper Publishers Association; Newton, Huey P.;

Phylon; Pittsburgh Courier; Poitier, Sidney; Reagan, Ronald, Administration of; Smiley, Tavis; Television;

To Secure These Rights; Vann, Robert L.;

Washington Bee; Williams, George Washington

Tony Burroughs

Chicago State University


Melanie E. L. Bush

Department of Anthropology and Sociology, Adelphi University

McGruder, Aaron, and Boondocks

Candace Cardwell

The Children's Storefront School, New York City

Ailey, Alvin; Cleaver, Kathleen Neal; Marshall, Paule; Poussaint, Alvin; Pratt, Geronimo; Richards, Lloyd; Walker, Alice

Thomas E. Carney

Division of Legal, Ethical, and Historical Studies, University of Baltimore


Baltimore Afro-American; Baptist Church, African Americans and; Black Church; CME Church; Herskovits, Melville; Houston, Charles Hamilton; Jim Crow Laws; Jones, Nathaniel;

Missouri ex rel. Gaines v. Canada; Mitchell, Clarence; NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund; Progressive National Baptist Convention; Religion; Restrictive Covenants; Wilberforce University; Woodson, Carter G.

William Carney

Cameron University

Basie, Count; Gaye, Marvin; Jones, Roy; Muhammad, Elijah; Rollins, Sonny

Laura Renee Chandler

Department of History, Rice University

Journal of Negro Education; Owen, Chandler

Michael Chang

Independent Scholar, Oak Park, Illinois

Desegregation and Integration: Overview

Hal Chase

Des Moines Area Community College, Emeritus

Chase, W. Calvin; Iowa

Melinda Chateauvert

Department of African American Studies, University of Maryland, College Park

Marches on Washington, D.C.: 1941; Nixon, Edgar Daniel

Boyd Childress

Library of Architecture, Design, and Construction, Auburn University

Architects and Architecture;

Atlanta World; Bumstead, Horace; Carter, Robert; Desegregation and Integration: Professional Athletics; Dixiecrat Party; Espy, Michael; Hoover, Herbert, Administration of; Innis, Roy; Jones, K. C.; Logan, Rayford W.; Montgomery Conference;

Negro in the South,

The; Patton, Charlie; Sweet, Ossian; Tuskegee Institute

Garna L. Christian

Department of Social Sciences, University of Houston

Brownsville Raid; Houston Mutiny

Jamie Christy

Young-Sanders Center, Louisiana

Morial, Ernest and Marc

Brian Clancy

University of Western Ontario

Black Cabinets

Claude A. Clegg III

Department of History, Indiana University, Bloomington

Nation of Islam

Paula Cochran

Independent Scholar, Mifflinburg, Pennsylvania

Atlanta Riot; Boston Riot; Pennsylvania

Raymond Codrington

Independent Scholar, Los Angeles

Hip Hop

Ronald G. Coleman

Honors College, University of Utah


C. Ellen Connally

Cleveland Municipal Court

Hope, John; Keith, Damon; Powell, Adam Clayton, Sr.; Stokes, Carl B.; Stokes, Louis; Thurmond, Strom

Charles Orson Cook

University of Houston

Aptheker, Herbert; Arkansas; Bates, Daisy Lee; Benga, Ota;

Birth of a Race,


Brownies’ Book,

The; Charleston, Oscar; Clark, Septima; Clay, William, Sr.;

Colored American Magazine; Divine, Father; Grimké, Francis James; Highlander Folk School;

Houston Informer; Leonard, Buck; Little Rock, Arkansas; Longview Riot; Metcalfe, Ralph; Rustin, Bayard

Amanda Harmon Cooley

Department of Business Administration, North Carolina A&T University

Hightower, Dennis

Brittney Cooper

Graduate Institute of Liberal Arts, Emory University

Taylor, Susan

Sylvie Coulibaly

Department of History, Kenyon College

Committee of Twelve; Grimké, Archibald Henry; Miller, Kelly

Thomas H. Cox

Department of History, Sam Houston State University

Birmingham Campaign

Malachi D. Crawford

Department of History, University of Missouri

Insurance Companies, African American-Owned

Timothy J. Crimmins

Department of History, Georgia State University


Laura Crkovski

Independent Scholar, Pickering, Ontario

Banks, African American–Owned; Washington, Forrester; Williams, Samuel Laing

Valerie Cunningham

Independent Scholar, Portsmouth, New Hampshire

New Hampshire

Kimberly M. Curtis

Harris-Stowe State University

Fletcher, Arthur; Lucy, William

Maceo Crenshaw Dailey Jr.

University of Texas, El Paso

Scott, Emmett J.; Washington, Booker T.

Douglas Henry Daniels

Department of Black Studies and History, University of California, Santa Barbara

Edison, Harry; Urbanization

Bonnie Newman Davis

School of Mass Communications, Virginia Commonwealth University

Kirk, Ron; National Conference for Community and Justice

Dana-Ain Davis

Queens College, City University of New York

Snipes, Wesley

James Davis

Department of History, Brooklyn College, City University of New York

World's Columbian Exposition

Kenya Davis-Hayes

Department of History, California Baptist University

United Negro College Fund

Wayne Dawkins

Scripps Howard School of Journalism and Communications, Hampton University

Broyard, Anatole; Bush, George H. W., Administration of; Dinkins, David; Gibson, Bob; Hancock, Herbie; Journalism, Print and Broadcast; Julian, Percy; Marsalis Family; Paterson, David A.; Redman, Joshua; Russell, Bill; Shaw, Bernard

Donna M. DeBlasio

Youngstown State University

Ohio; Southern Christian Leadership Conference; Vaudeville, African Americans in

Lane Demas

Central Michigan University

Washington, Kenny

Lâle Demirtürk

Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey

Wright, Richard

Frank E. Dobson Jr.

Bishop Johnson Black Cultural Center, Vanderbilt University

Amos ’n’ Andy; Bo Diddley; Bond, Horace Mann; Crummell, Alexander; Ebenezer Church;

Indianapolis Freeman

Daniel Donaghy

Eastern Connecticut State University

Brown, Sterling; Cochran, Johnnie; Cullen, Countée; Dunbar, Paul Laurence; Evers, Charles; Fauntroy, Walter; Ferguson, Roger; Giovanni, Nikki; Goldberg, Whoopi; Graves, Earl G.; Hansberry, Lorraine; Harlem Globetrotters; Hastings, Alcee; Hill, Oliver W.; Hilliard, Earl; Hughes Brothers; Jackson, Samuel L.; Jackson, Shirley Ann; Johnson, James Weldon; Jones, James Earl; King, Don; Knight, Etheridge; Locke, Alain; Mays, Willie Howard; McKay, Claude

Daniel Douglas

Department of Sociology, City University of New York

Asante, Molefi; Dr. Dre; Knight, Suge; Mathis, Johnny; McCall, H. Carl; Middle Class; Murphy, Eddie; Rangel, Charles; Rock, Chris; Run DMC

Davison M. Douglas

William and Mary School of Law

Murray, Pauli

Bart Dredge

Department of Sociology, Austin College

Southern Regional Council

Melvyn Dubofsky

Binghampton University, State University of New York

Organized Labor

Debora Duerksen

Independent Scholar, New York City

Executive Order 9981; Harlem Hell Fighters

Jill Dupont

College of Saint Scholastica

Barbershops; Baseball: Negro Leagues; Chicago; Johnson, Jack; Jordan, Michael; Sports: College and Amateur Sports

Darius V. Echeverría

Department of Latino & Hispanic Caribbean Studies, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey

Brimmer, Andrew F.

Susan Edwards

Department of History and Humanities, Lone Star College, CyFair

Anderson, Marian; Bethune-Cookman College

Bill Egan

Independent Scholar, Aranda, Canberra, Australia

Blake, Eubie; Cook, Will Marion; Cotton Club; Europe, James Reese; Mills, Florence; Morton, Jelly Roll; Robinson, Bill; Sissle, Noble; Still, William Grant; Waller, Fats; Ward, Clara, and the Ward Singers; Waters, Ethel; Williams, Bert

Bertis English

Department of History and Political Science, Alabama State University

Alabama State University; Atlanta Exposition Address (Atlanta Compromise); Dexter Avenue Baptist Church; Montgomery Bus Boycott; Sixteenth Street Baptist Church

Ronald Eniclerico

Independent Scholar, Westbury, New York

Banks, Ernie; Black Star Line; Broadcast Industry, African Americans in the; Music Industry; Reggae

Jesse J. Esparza

Independent Scholar, Houston, Texas

Black Panther Party; Crown Heights Riot; King, Martin Luther, Jr., Assassination of; Paige, Rod

Onita Estes-Hicks

Independent Scholar, New York City

Apollo Theater

Charlene T. Evans

Texas Southern University

Harris, Joel Chandler; Toomer, Jean

Stephanie Y. Evans

Departments of African American Studies and Women's Studies, University of Florida

Bassett, Angela; Berry, Halle; Feminism; Height, Dorothy; hooks, bell; Lorde, Audre; Spelman College; Winfrey, Oprah

Theodore W. Eversole

Independent Scholar, Plympton, Devon, United Kingdom

Conductors and Bandleaders; Hate Groups; Lewis, Delano; Raines, Franklin

Michael Ezra

Department of American Multicultural Studies, Sonoma State University

Boxing; Louis, Joe

Hayward “Woody” Farrar

Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Black Press

Robert Farrell

Independent Scholar, New York City

Ice Cube; Notorious B.I.G.; Prince; Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture; Simmons, Russell

Jonathan B. Fenderson

University of Massachusetts, Amherst

O’Neal, Shaquille; Wu-Tang Clan

SallyAnn H. Ferguson

Department of English, University of North Carolina, Greensboro

Chesnutt, Charles W.

Rob Fink

McMurry University

Actors and Actresses; Bell, Cool Papa; Foster, Rube; Little Richard; Pickett, William; Pollard, Fritz; Robinson, Eddie; Tennis

Abigail Finkelman

Independent Scholar, Slingerlands, New York

Banks, Tyra; Models

Paul Finkelman

Albany Law School

Aaron, Hank;

Brown v. Board of Education; Civil Rights, State Actions and; Constitution, U.S.; Franklin, John Hope; Laws and Legislation; Riots and Rebellions: Overview; Robeson, Paul; Robinson, Jackie; Supreme Court;

Williams v. Mississippi

Curtis Fogel

Department of Sociology, University of Calgary

Track and Field

Charles H. Ford

Norfolk State University

Norfolk State University

Christopher Ian Foster

Graduate Center, City University of New York

Cooke, Sam

Lloren A. Foster

Department of English, Hampton University

Black Power Movement; Mayfield, Curtis; Pryor, Richard; Scott-Heron, Gil

Tikenya S. Foster-Singletary

Department of English, Vanderbilt University

McKinney, Cynthia; McMillan, Terry; Morehouse College

Gregory W. Fowler

Western Governors University

Evers, Medgar Wylie

Aisha X. L. Francis

John F. Kennedy Library Foundation

Bambara, Toni Cade; Childress, Alice; Clark Atlanta University

Zinga A. Fraser

Department of African-American Studies, Northwestern University

Dellums, Ronald V.; Lee, Barbara

Yvonne Davis Frear

Department of History, Sam Houston State University

Craft, Juanita

Tia L. Gafford

Department of English, Mercer University

Albany Movement; Price, Leontyne; Washington, Margaret James Murray

Larvester Gaither

Independent Scholar, Houston, Texas

Civil Disobedience; Civil Rights, International; Cleage, Albert and Pearl; Davis, Miles; Glover, Danny; Haywood, Harry; Malcolm X; Prisoners’ Rights and Reform Movements; Racial Profiling; Reparations; Roberts, Marcus; Sowell, Thomas; Sun Records

Julie Gallagher

Department of History, Pennsylvania State University, Brandywine

Chisholm, Shirley; Edelman, Marian Wright; Guinier, Lani; Motley, Constance Baker; Norton, Eleanor Holmes

Yunxiang Gao

Ryerson University, Toronto


Van G. Garrett

Department of African American Studies, University of Houston

Cortez, Jayne

Marybeth Gasman

Graduate School of Education, University of Pennsylvania

Higher Education

G. Mehera Gerardo

Department of History, Youngstown State University

Antilynching Campaign; Great Migration, Second

Jana María Giles

University of Cambridge

Holiday, Billie;

Negro: An Anthology

Bruce A. Glasrud

Independent Historian, Seguin, Texas

Griggs, Sutton E.; Minnesota; New Mexico; White Primary; Yerby, Frank

Rachelle Gold

Department of English, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill

Chamberlain, Wilt; Clark, Mamie Phipps and Kenneth; Deacons for Defense and Justice; Forman, James; Kincaid, Jamaical; Lee, Sheila Jackson; Naylor, Gloria; Queen Latifah; Riles, Wilson; Watts, Andre; Watts, J. C.; Wilder, Douglas; Young, Andrew

David A. Goldberg

W. E. B. Du Bois Department of Afro-American Studies, University of Massachusetts, Amherst

Coalition of Black Trade Unionists; Sanders, Barry

Maxine Gordon

Department of History, New York University

Coltrane, John; Gordon, Dexter; Mingus, Charles, Jr.; Monk, Thelonious

Lonnie Graham

School of Visual Arts, Pennsylvania State University, University Park

Saar, Betye

LaVerne Gray

University of Illinois, Chicago

Collins, Cardiss; Flake, Floyd; Moseley Braun, Carol

Charles D. Grear

Department of English, Prairie View A&M University

Brown, Clarence

Walter Greason

Ursinus College

Fortune, Timothy Thomas; Philadelphia; Segregation

Delano Greenidge-Copprue

Department of Humanities, Manhattan School of Music

Tyler, Ralph W.

C. Morgan Grefe

Rhode Island Historical Society

Rhode Island

Chelsea Griffis

University of Toledo

Guy, Rosa

Peter H. Halewood

Albany Law School


Roger Hardaway

Department of History, Northwestern Oklahoma State University

North Dakota; Oklahoma

Claudrena N. Harold

Corcoran Department of History, University of Virginia

Garvey, Marcus

Carmen V. Harris

Department of History, University of South Carolina

Agriculture and Agricultural Labor; Jackson, Jesse, Jr.; South Carolina

Sandra D. Harvey

Department of History, Lone Star College, CyFair

Coolidge, Calvin, Administration of; Drew, Charles Richard; Frank, Leo

Edward A. Hatfield

University of Georgia, Athens


Katrina Hazzard-Donald

Department of Sociology, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey


Joseph C. Heim

Department of History and Political Science, California University of Pennsylvania

Bunche, Ralph Johnson

Veronica C. Hendrick

Department of English, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, City University of New York

Fair Employment Practices Commission; Riots and Rebellions: Riots of 1919

Jason Hendrickson

W. E. B. Du Bois Department of Afro-American Studies, University of Massachusetts, Amherst

Bryant, Kobe

Tamara M. Cooke Henry

School of Communications, American University

Ifill, Gwen; National Association of Black Journalists

Idolina Hernandez

Lone Star College, CyFair

Slater Fund

Michelle S. Hite

Department of English, Spelman College

Ashe, Arthur; Gibson, Althea; Railroad Segregation; Rice, Jerry; September 11; Sports: Professional Sports; Williams, Serena; Williams, Venus

Graham Russell Gao Hodges

Department of History, Colgate University

Blues; Class; Work

Malaika B. Horne

College of Business, University of Missouri, Saint Louis

Brown, Willie; Drugs; Riggs, Marlon; Sims, Naomi; Waters, Maxine

Akil Houston

Department of African American Studies, Ohio University

Grandmaster Flash; Public Enemy; Shakur, Tupac

Ashley M. Howard

Department of History, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

Nebraska; Prohibition and Temperance

Ella Howard

Department of History, Long Island University


Kenneth Howell

Department of History, Prairie View A&M University

Miller, Dorie; Prairie View A&M University

Mary Ball Howkins

Department of Art, Rhode Island College

Savage, Augusta

Alexia Hudson

Great Valley School of Graduate Professional Studies, Pennsylvania State University, Abington

Fudge, Ann; O’Neal, Stanley

James S. Humphreys

Department of History, Murray State University


Stephen Inrig

Department of History, Duke University

Carson, Benjamin; Sullivan, Louis

Rochell Isaac

Department of African American Studies, Temple University

African Blood Brotherhood; Clarke, John Henrik; Reed, Ishmael; Universal Negro Improvement Association

Hope Jackson

North Carolina A&T State University

Carter, Betty; Moore, Harry T.

Miles M. Jackson

University of Hawaii, Manoa, Emeritus


Patrick D. Jackson

Department of History, Vanderbilt University

Ford, Harold, Sr.; Riots and Rebellions: Riots during World War II

Shantina Jackson

University of California, Berkeley

Houston, Whitney; Jackson, Janet

Shirley Jackson

Department of Sociology, Southern Connecticut State University

Equal Employment Opportunity Commission; Expatriates;

Loving v. Virginia; Martin Luther King Jr. Day

Rashauna R. Johnson

New York University

Church, Robert R.; Young, Whitney

Gene Jones

Independent Scholar, New York City

Cole, Bob; Musical Theater; Smith, Bessie

Jacqueline M. Jones

University of Massachusetts, Amherst

Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater; Jamison, Judith

James Thomas Jones III

Department of History, Prairie View A&M University

King, Martin Luther, Jr., Philosophy of; Robinson, Randall; Robinson, Ruby Doris Smith; Williams, Robert F.

Peter Carr Jones

College of William and Mary

Dash, Damon

Yollette Trigg Jones

Department of History, Vanderbilt University

Collectibles, Black; Johnson, Charles S.; Park, Robert E.

Miss Hale Joseph

Georgia Perimeter College


James Kates

Department of Communication, University of Wisconsin, Whitewater

Page, Clarence; Parsons, Richard

Ron J. Keller

Department of History, Lincoln College, Illinois

Chicago Riot; Lincoln, Abraham, in African American Memory; Springfield, Illinois, Riot; Virginia

Lauran Kerr

University of Houston

Franks, Gary

Donna Kilgore-Kimble

Department of English, Texas Southern University

Sororities, University and College

Otis H. King

Thurgood Marshall School of Law, Texas Southern University

Legal Profession

William M. King

Department of Ethnic Studies, University of Colorado, Boulder


Amy Helene Kirschke

Department of Art and Art History, University of North Carolina, Wilmington

Basquiat, Jean-Michel; Bearden, Romare; Biggers, John; Catlett, Elizabeth; Fuller, Meta Warrick; Hayden, Palmer; Jones, Lois Mailou; Prophet, Nancy Elizabeth; Tanner, Henry Ossawa; Visual Arts; Woodruff, Hale

Tracy E. K’Meyer

Department of History, University of Louisville

Louisville, Kentucky

Kwasi Konadu

City University of New York

Turner, Henry M.

Baruti N. Kopano

Morgan State University


Michael L. Krenn

Appalachian State University

Cold War; Eisenhower, Dwight D., Administration of; Foreign Policy; Gans, Joe; Korean War; Tyson, Mike; Wharton, Clifton; Woods, Tiger

Elon A. Kulii

Department of Folklore, North Carolina A&T State University

Wallace, George

Nita N. Kumar

Yale University

Neal, Larry

Peter A. Kuryla

Belmont University

American Dilemma, An

Tom Lansford

Department of Political Science, University of Southern Mississippi

Democratic Party; McKinley, William, Administration of; New Orleans; Republican Party; Roosevelt, Theodore, Administration of; Spanish-American War; Truman, Harry S., Administration of

Shawn Lay

Coker College

Ku Klux Klan

Niambi Lee-Kong

Kentucky State University

Chitlin Circuit; Congressional Black Caucus; Davis, Ossie; Jordan, Barbara

James N. Leiker

Johnson County Community College

Flipper, Henry Ossian;

Souls of Black Folk,


Theresa Leininger-Miller

School of Art, University of Cincinnati

Walker, A’Lelia; Walker, Madam C. J.

Kevin Allen Leonard

Department of History, Western Washington University


Jonathan Ira Levy

Department of History, University of Chicago

Washington–Du Bois Conflict

La TaSha B. Levy

Department of African American Studies, Northwestern University

Connerly, Ward; Conservatism and Conservatives, Black; Loury, Glenn

Martin L. Levy

Thurgood Marshall School of Law, Texas Southern University

Civil Rights Act of 1964; Desegregation and Integration: Public Education; Disfranchisement of African Americans; Thurgood Marshall Law School

Kerima M. Lewis

University of Iowa

Abyssinian Baptist Church; AME Church;


Church Review; AME Zion Church;

Plessy v. Ferguson

and Segregation;

Smith v. Allwright; Sweatt v. Painter

Deborah L. Lilton

Vanderbilt University


Diana Linden

Independent Scholar, Claremont, California

Choreographers; Mitchell, Arthur

Fred Lindsey

Department of Cultural Studies, John F. Kennedy University

Cruse, Harold Wright

Jeffrey L. Littlejohn

Department of History, Sam Houston State University

Massive Resistance

James W. Loewen

Catholic University of America

Buchanan v. Warley; Monuments, Museums, and Public Markers; Sundown Towns

Kathryn Lofton

Department of Religious Studies, Indiana University, Bloomington

Black Capitalism; Brookins, H. Hartford; Butts, Calvin; Chavis-Muhammad, Benjamin; Radicalism; Sharpton, Al

Bobby L. Lovett

Department of History, Tennessee State University

Tennessee State University

Charles L. Lumpkins

Department of African and African American Studies, Pennsylvania State University, University Park

Black Radical Congress; Black Workers Congress; Black Workers for Justice; Carnegie Hall Conference; Civil Rights and the Media; Congress of African People; National Alliance against Racist and Political Repression; Soul Food

Patricia Lynch

Xavier University of Louisiana

Xavier University of Louisiana

Jennifer R. Lyons

Independent Scholar, New York City

Educators and Academics; Jews, Black; King, Martin Luther, Sr.; Liberia

Dwayne Mack

Department of History, Berea College


Julian C. Madison Jr.

Southern Connecticut State University

Brown, Jim; War on Poverty

Sean E. Malone

Sonoma State University

Johnson, Michael; Robinson, Frank

Gordon Mantler

Department of History, Duke University

Marches on Washington, D.C.: 1963

Denell Marsh

Independent Scholar, Woodbridge, New Jersey

Murray, Albert L.

Qrescent Mali Mason

Department of Philosophy, Temple University

Adoption; Black Entertainment Television

Donald H. Matthews

Department of Philosophy and Religion, Central Michigan University

Liberation Theology; Social Sciences and Civil Rights

David McBride

Department of African-American Studies, Pennsylvania State University, University Park

Health and Medicine

Barbara McCaskill

Department of English, University of Georgia, Athens

Harper, Frances Ellen Watkins;

Up from Slavery

John H. McClendon III

Department of African American and African Studies, Michigan State University

Bass, Charlotta; Council on African Affairs; Freedomways; Harris, Abram, Jr.; Hunton, Alphaeus; Moore, Richard

Kent A. McConnell

Department of History, Wake Forest University

Peace Movements, International; Soul Music

Alexis D. McCoy

Moraine Valley Community College

Alcorn State University; Jordan, Vernon

Peyton McCrary

Civil Rights Division, United States Department of Justice

Voting Rights Act

Pellom McDaniels III

Department of History and American Studies, University of Missouri, Kansas City

Murphy, Isaac

Joy A. McDonald

Scripps Howard School of Journalism and Communications, Hampton University

American Negro Academy; Milner, Ron

Cassandra L. McKay

Jane Addams College of Social Work, University of Illinois, Chicago

Cobb, Charles Sr., and Charles Cobb Jr.; Congress of Racial Equality; Freedom Rides

Charles W. McKinney Jr.

Department of History, Rhodes College

Gillespie, Dizzy

Matthew McMurray

Independent Scholar, Baychester, New York

Kennedy, John F., Administration of; Riots and Rebellions: Riots during World War I

Glenn McNair

Department of History, Kenyon College

Nash, Diane; Political Parties and Civil Rights

Tanya M. Mears

Department of History, Norfolk State University


Claudine Michel

Department of Black Studies, University of California, Santa Barbara

Black Studies

Zebulon Miletsky

Department of Caribbean, Latino and Latin-American Studies, University of Massachusetts, Amherst

Hampton, Henry; Hudlin, Warrington and Reggie

Cynthia J. Miller

Emerson College

Crothers, Scatman; King, Mel; Roach, Max

Jason Miller

Independent Scholar, Nashville, Tennessee

Brooks, Gwendolyn; Executive Order 8802; Hayes, Isaac; New York City Riot; Parker, Charles

Keith D. Miller

Department of English, Arizona State University

Oratory and Verbal Arts

Darrell Millner

Department of Black Studies, Portland State University, Oregon


Anoop Mirpuri

University of Washington, Seattle

Race, Theories of

Patit Paban Mishra

Sambalpr University, Orissa, India

Brown, Tony

Carl H. Moneyhon

Department of History, University of Arkansas, Little Rock

Mosaic Templars

Maggi M. Morehouse

Department of History, University of South Carolina, Aiken

Juneteenth; Military, Racism in the; World War II

Maryam Sharron Muhammad

Department of History, Howard University

Political Participation

Maud C. Mundava

Robert W. Woodruff Library, Atlanta University Center

Bennett, Gwendolyn; Jabbar, Kareem Abdul

Martha Jane Nadell

Brooklyn College, City University of New York

New York City

Angela M. Nelson

Department of Popular Culture, Bowling Green State University

Stereotypes of African Americans

H. Viscount “Berky” Nelson

Center for Student Programming, University of California, Los Angeles

Public Assistance; Sharecropping

Brian F. Neumann

Texas A&M University

Davis, Benjamin O., Jr.; Davis, Benjamin O., Sr.; Desegregation and Integration: Armed Forces; White, Walter: Life and Career

Caryn E. Neumann

Miami University, Ohio

Baseball: Integrated Professional Baseball; Childhood; Dixon, Julian; Fraternities, University and College; Mitchell, Parren; Patrick, Deval; Powell, Colin; Towns, Edolphus

Steven J. Niven

W. E. B. Du Bois Institute for African and African American Research, Harvard University

Congress, African Americans in; Lewis, Carl; Obama, Barack

Jonathan R. Nolting

College of Design, Architecture, Art, and Planning, University of Cincinnati

Julius Rosenwald Fund

Akilah S. Nosakhere

Auburn Avenue Research Library, Atlanta, Georgia

Harvard, Beverly; Kennedy, Flo; Mays, Benjamin E.; Work, Monroe N.

Ernest Obadele-Starks

Department of History, Texas A&M University

Randolph, A. Philip

Robert M. O’Brien

Department of History, Lone Star College, CyFair

Campanella, Roy; Griffey, Ken, Jr.; Gwynn, Tony; Handy, W. C.; Hooker, John Lee; Hopkins, Sam Lightnin’; Jackson, Reggie; Winfield, Dave

Timothy J. O’Brien

University of Houston

Berry, Chuck; Blakey, Art; Carter, Ron; Fair Housing Act; Gordy, Berry, Jr.; Leland, Mickey; Peacock Records; Sun Ra; Wonder, Stevie

Jeffrey O. G. Ogbar

Department of History, University of Connecticut

Black Nationalism

‘BioDun J. Ogundayo

University of Pittsburgh, Bradford

Southern Politics and Race

Ted Olson

Regional Resources Institute, East Tennessee State University


Jeffrey E. Page

Awty International School

American Negro Labor Congress

Jennifer Palladino

College of Earth Science and Forestry, State University of New York


Annette Palmer

Department of History and Geography, Morgan State University

Association for the Study of African American Life and History; Education; West Indians in the United States

Stephanie C. Palmer

Department of American Culture and Literature, Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey

Dunbar-Nelson, Alice; Wells-Barnett, Ida B.

Louis J. Parascandola

Long Island University, Brooklyn

Briggs, Cyril; Rogers, Joel Augustus; Schomburg, Arthur A.

Abha Sood Patel

Department of English, Monmouth University

Cooper, Anna J.; Fisk University; Florida A&M University; Tuskegee Airmen; World War I and African American Women

William Pencak

Department of History, Pennsylvania State University, University Park


The: A Record of the Darker Races; Entertainment Industry and African Americans; Negro History Week/Month

Glenn O. Phillips

Independent Scholar, Silver Spring, Maryland

Morgan State University

Michael Phillips

Independent Scholar, Plano, Texas

Dallas; Intelligence Tests; Medical Profession; Southern Poverty Law Center; White Supremacy

Lydie Nadia Cabrea Pierre-Louis

Saint Thomas University School of Law

Farmers and Land Ownership

Sherrow O. Pinder

Department of Political Science and Center for Multicultural and Gender Studies, California State University, Chico

Journey of Reconciliation

Merline Pitre

College of Liberal Arts and Behavioral Sciences, Texas Southern University

Texas Southern University; White, Lulu

Nicole A. Plummer

Department of History and Archaeology, University of the West Indies, Mona, Jamaica

Harlem Riots: Harlem Riots of 1935

Dwain C. Pruitt

Morgan State University

Blaxploitation Films; France

Brian Purnell

Fordham University

Owens, Major; Sit-ins

Ronda Racha Penrice

Independent Scholar, Atlanta, Georgia


John W. Ravage

Department of Journalism and Mass Communication, University of Wyoming


Robert Reid-Pharr

Graduate Center, City University of New York


Joshua M. Rice

Department of History, University of Nebraska, Kearny

Jacob, John

Norman O. Richmond

Independent Scholar, Toronto

Edwards, Harry; Hampton, Fred; Jackson, George; League of Revolutionary Black Workers; NWA; Temptations, The; Young, Lester

Eric W. Rise

Department of Sociology and Criminal Justice, University of Delaware

Criminal Justice

Beatriz Rivera-Barnes

Pennsylvania State University, Worthington Scranton

Clemente, Roberto; Combs, Sean; Cruz, Celia; Latinos and Black Latinos

Frank León Roberts

Tisch School of the Arts, New York University

Harris, E. Lynn; Hemphill, Essex; Homosexuality and Transgenderism; Smith, Anna Deavere; Smith, Barbara

Kevin D. Roberts

Randolph School, Huntsville, Alabama


Karl Rodabaugh

Winston-Salem State University

Armstrong, Louis; Ellington, Duke; Gregory, Dick; Passing

Donald Roe

Department of History, Howard University

Basketball; Carter, Benny; Charles, Ray; Childress, Alvin; Cosby, Bill; East Saint Louis Riot; Film and Television Depictions of African Americans;

Guess Who's Coming to Dinner; Hampton, Lionel; Harris, Patricia Roberts; Howard University; Hunter, Alberta; James, Daniel, Jr.; Jones, Quincy; Kansas; Kitt, Eartha; Mabley, Moms; Modern Jazz Quartet; Moreland, Mantan; Nabrit, James M.Olympics; Port Chicago Naval Magazine Explosion; Robinson, Max; Rudolph, Wilma G.; Shakur, Assata; Simpson, O. J., Trial of; Terrell, Mary Church; Tulsa Riot; World War II and African American Women

Renee Romano

Department of History, Wesleyan University

Marriage, Mixed

Magda Romanska

Department of Performing Arts, Emerson College

Baraka, Amiri

Charles Rosenberg

Independent Scholar, Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Communism and African Americans; Davis, Benjamin J., Jr.; Haiti; New Left, The; Populist Party; Racism; Science and Scientists; Socialist Party; Technology and Engineering; Vermont; West Virginia; Wisconsin

Milla Rosenberg

Harper College

National Committee for the Advancement of the Negro; National Negro Conference

Martha J. Ross-Rodgers

Jireh Publishers, Norfolk, Virginia

Burnham, Louis

Robert A. Russell

Department of Music, University of North Carolina, Wilmington

Jefferson, Blind Lemon; Leadbelly

Marcy S. Sacks

Department of History, Albion College

Harlem; New Negro;

New York Age

John Saillant

Western Michigan University

Journal of Negro History

Frank A. Salamone

Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Iona College; University of Phoenix

Africa, Idea of;

Amsterdam News; Atlanta University; Bennett, Lerone; Boas, Franz; Dunham, Katherine; Frazier, E. Franklin; Negro World; Pan-African Conference, London; Pan-African Congresses, Paris and London; Rowan, Carl T.

Rhonda H. Saldivar

Department of English, Texas Southern University

Jordan, June; Meriwether, Louise

Crystal Renée Sanders

Department of History, Northwestern University

Franklin, C. L.; Historically Black Colleges and Universities

Rita Saylors

Department of English, Texas Southern University

San Francisco

Phil Schaap

WKCR-FM, New York City


Anja Schüler

Department of Foreign Languages, Heidelberg College of Education, Germany

Benevolent Societies; Bethune, Mary McLeod; Charitable Institutions, African American; General Education Board; Grimké, Angelina Weld; National Association of Colored Women; National Urban League; National Welfare Rights Organization; Philanthropy; Poor People's Campaign; Segregation in Federal Government; Single-Parent Households; Washington, D.C.; Women's Clubs

A. B. Christa Schwarz

Independent Scholar, Berlin

“Negro in Art” Symposium; Douglas, Aaron; Fisher, Rudolph; Larsen, Nella; Motley, Archibald J., Jr.;

New Negro,

The; Nigger Heaven; Schuyler, George Samuel; Thurman, Wallace

Nick J. Sciullo

Independent Scholar, Alexandria, Virginia

Alaska; McKinlay, Whitefield; Mitchell, Arthur W.; Nix, Robert N. C.

Tonya M. Scott

Department of Languages and Communications, Prairie View A&M University

National Council of Negro Women

Sayida Self

Graduate Center, City University of New York

Republic of New Afrika

Marc A. Sennewald

Department of Political Science, University of Houston

Chambers, Julius; Gantt, Harvey; Marshall, Thurgood; Waters, Muddy

Navneet Sethi

Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India

Bontemps, Arna; Domino, Fats; Gospel Music; Jackson, Mahalia; Primus, Pearl; Rainey, Ma

Courtney Q. Shah

Department of Social Sciences, Lower Columbia College

AIDS; Carroll, Diahann; Dandridge, Dorothy; Fitzgerald, Ella; Griffith-Joyner, Florence; Joyner-Kersee, Jackie; National Medical Association

Herbert Shapiro

University of Cincinnati, Emeritus

Violence against African Americans

Scott Sheidlower

York College, City University of New York

Beyoncé; Sutton, Percy

Vincent A. Shivers

Independent Scholar, Youngstown, Ohio

Jackson, Jesse; Sayers, Gale

Greg Sidberry

Technology Center, Nova Southeastern University

Hooks, Benjamin; Rice, Condoleezza

Dorsia Smith Silva

University of Puerto Rico, Río Piedras

Gillespie, Marcia; Gordone, Charles

David Simonelli

Youngstown State University

Caribbean, The

A. Kia Sinclair

Independent Scholar, Brooklyn, New York

Karenga, Maulana Ron; Kwanzaa

Amritjit Singh

Department of English, Ohio University

Black-Jewish Relations; Hughes, Langston; Immigrants and African Americans

James M. Smallwood

Department of History, Oklahoma State University

Dunjee, Roscoe; Roosevelt, Franklin D., Administration of; Southern Conference for Human Welfare

Dale Edwyna Smith

Department of Critical Studies, Massachusetts College of Art and Design

Du Bois, W. E. B.: Historical Writing; Gender; Horseracing; Lincoln University (Missouri); Missouri; Ruffin, Josephine St. Pierre; Saint Louis; Talented Tenth; Works Progress Administration Slave Narratives

Danielle Taana Smith

Rochester Institute of Technology


Jacqueline Smith

Graduate School, University of Texas, Austin

Photography and Photographers

John David Smith

University of North Carolina, Charlotte

Southern Workman

James M SoRelle

Department of History, Baylor University


Maboula Soumahoro

University of Alabama

Muslims, Black

Jawana O. Southerland

College of Arts and Sciences, North Carolina A&T State University

Blige, Mary J.; Smith, Will

David A. Spatz

Department of History, University of Chicago

Barnett, Ferdinand L.; De Priest, Oscar; Drake, St. Clair

Artemesia Stanberry

Department of Political Science, North Carolina Central University

Hedgeman, Anna A.; Hose, Sam, Lynching of; National Federation of Afro-American Women; Williams, Fannie Barrier

Patrick L. Stearns

Department of Communication Studies, Morgan State University

Fishburne, Laurence; Foreman, George; Leonard, Sugar Ray; Maryland

Kindra Steenerson

Department of Theatre and Women's Studies, University of North Carolina, Wilmington

Emperor Jones,

The; Krigwa Players; Minstrel Tradition

Marshall F. Stevenson Jr.

Department of History, Dillard University

Dillard University

Maria Stilson

Independent Scholar, Columbus, Ohio

Anderson, Eddie; Atlanta Life Insurance Company; Barthé, Richmond

Jennifer A. Stollman

Center for the Study of Southern Culture, University of Mississippi

Logan, Adella Hunt

Heather Marie Stur

University of Southern Mississippi

Antiwar Movement, Vietnam; Franklin, Aretha Louise; Hatcher, Richard; Illinois; Indiana; Industrialization and Deindustrialization; Johnson, Lyndon B.; Kerner Commission Report; Michigan; Motown; Nixon, Richard, Administration of; Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee; Vietnam War

Jon-Christian Suggs

John Jay College, City University of New York

Du Bois, W. E. B.: Life and Career; Literature

Lindsey Swindall

Department of History, Franklin College

Simone, Nina

Lessie B. Tate

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

Tuskegee Model Abroad

Quintard Taylor Jr.

Department of History, University of Washington

Washington State

Orion A. Teal

Department of History, Duke University

Anticommunism and Civil Rights; Herndon, Angelo, Case of; National Negro Congress; Patterson, William; Progressive Party (1948); Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

Asli Tekinay

Department of Western Languages and Literatures, Bogazici University, Istanbul

Baker, Josephine;

Fire!!; Identity; Theater

Jean Ballard Terepka

Saint Michael's Church, New York City

Brawley, Benjamin

Douglas Thomas

Independent Scholar, Magnolia, Arkansas

Church of God in Christ

Erin L. Thompson

Columbia University Law School

Black Migration; Branton, Wiley; Dance Theatre of Harlem; Delany, Hubert T.; Edwards, Harry; Jones, Elaine; National Bar Association; New York State; O’Leary, Hazel; Sampson, Edith

Kathleen Thompson

Independent Scholar, Chicago


Amy Tillerson

Department of History, Mary Baldwin College

Dove, Rita

Tyronne Tillery

Department of History, University of Houston


Emmett P. Tracy

Independent Scholar, New York City

Hendrix, Jimi; House, Son; Howlin’ Wolf; Johnson, Magic; North Carolina

Richard Brent Turner

University of Iowa

Religious Communities and Practices

Betti C. VanEpps-Taylor

Independent Scholar, Buhl, Idaho

Idaho; South Dakota

Michael A. Vieira

Department of History, Bishop Connally High School

Washington, D.C., Riot; Wilmington, North Carolina, Riot; Wilson, Woodrow, Administration of

Charles Vincent

Southern University

Louisiana; Southern University

Carl A. Wade

Faculty of Humanities and Education, University of the West Indies, Cave Hill, Barbados

Reid, Ira De Augustine

Terry Waldo

Independent Scholar, New York City


Christopher Waldrep

San Francisco State University

Lynching and Mob Violence

Yvette Walker

North Carolina State University, Raleigh

Federal Bureau of Investigation; Komunyakaa, Yusef; Last Poets; Lee, Don L.; No Child Left Behind; Poverty, Culture of; Powell, Adam Clayton, Jr.; Singleton, John; Washington, Denzel; Watts Riot; Wilson, August

Jennifer Jensen Wallach

Department of History, Geography, and Philosophy, Georgia College and State University

Abernathy, Ralph David; Baker, Ella; Bond, Julian; Brown, H. Rap; Carmichael, Stokely; Chase-Riboud, Barbara; Cole, Johnnetta; Du Bois, Shirley Graham; Elders, Joycelyn; Ellison, Ralph; Evers-Williams, Myrlie; Haley, Alex; Henry, Aaron; King, Coretta Scott; Lee, Spike; Lewis, John; Meredith, James H.; Moses, Robert P.; Petry, Ann;

Roots; Shabazz, Betty; Simmons, Ruth; Tuskegee Experiment; Walker, Margaret; West, Dorothy; Wideman, John Edgar; Wilson, William Julius

Peter Wallenstein

Department of History, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Desegregation and Integration: Higher Education; Miscegenation Laws

Ronald Walters

Department of Government and Politics, University of Maryland, College Park


Carolyn Wedin

University of Wisconsin, Whitewater, Emerita

Amenia Conferences: Amenia Conference of 1916; Anderson, Charles William; Angelou, Maya; Anna T. Jeanes Fund; Baldwin, James;

Birth of a Nation, The; Boston;

Boston Guardian; Brown, Charlotte Hawkins; Carver, George Washington; Commission on Interracial Cooperation; Dyer Antilynching Bill;

Encyclopedia of the Negro; Fauset, Jessie Redmon; Hampton Institute; Hampton Negro Conferences; Hastie, William Henry;


The; Hunter-Gault, Charlayne; Hutson, Jean Blackwell; Industrial Education Movement; Johnson, J. Rosamond; Lincoln University (Pennsylvania);


The; Mohonk Conferences on the Negro Question;

Moon Illustrated Weekly; Moore, Fred R.; North Carolina A&T State University;

Opportunity; Ovington, Mary White; Phelps-Stokes Fund; Radio and Television Stations, African American; Spingarn, Arthur Barnett; Spingarn, Joel Elias; Storey, Moorfield; Tuskegee Farmers’ Conference; Villard, Oswald Garrison; Young, Charles

Melinda R. Weidman

Department of History, University of Connecticut

Hamer, Fannie Lou; Higginbotham, A. Leon, Jr.; Jack and Jill of America, Inc.; Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party; Smith, Emmett; Wilkins, Roy O.

Simon Wendt

Department of History, University of Heidelberg, Germany

Civil Rights Movement

John R. Wennersten

Washington Independent Writers Group

Barry, Marion

Carroll Van West

Department of History, Middle Tennessee State University


Matthew C. Whitaker

Department of History, Arizona State University


Claytee D. White

Oral History Research Center, University of Las Vegas


George White Jr.

Department of History and Philosophy, York College at City University of New York

Brooke, Edward; Comer, James

E. Angelica Whitmal

Five Colleges, Incorporated, Amherst, Massachusetts

Parks, Henry

Ann Wilde

Department of History, Cornell University

Lawrence, Jacob; McCarthyism; Parks, Gordon, Sr.; Scottsboro Incident; VanDerZee, James A.; White, Walter: Novels and Other Writings

Regennia N. Williams

Department of History, Cleveland State University

Cleveland; National Baptist Convention; National Baptist Publishing Board; Spirituals

Yohuru Williams

Department of Black Studies, Fairfield University


Zachery Williams

Center for the Study of Culture, Race, and Ethnicity, Ithaca College

Davis, John P.; Farrakhan, Louis; Intellectuals; King, Woodie; Lowery, Joseph; Million Man March; Shuttlesworth, Fred L.; Walker, Wyatt Tee; West, Cornel

Joseph Wilson

Department of Political Science, Brooklyn College, City University of New York

Affirmative Action; Afrocentrism; Antiapartheid; Burns, Haywood; Conyers, John; Crockett, George; Detroit Riots of 1967; Diggs, Charles; Football; Glover, Savion; Riots and Rebellions: Riots and Rebellions of the 1960s; Rodney King Riots; Washington, Harold; Young, Coleman

Martha W. Wilson

Hampton University

Elder, Lee; Horne, Lena; Jackson, Maynard; Pride, Charley

Cary D. Wintz

Department of History, Texas Southern University

Braithwaite, William Stanley; Brown, Lee; Harlem Renaissance; Weaver, Robert C.; World War I

Kelley A. Woestman

Department of History, Pittsburg State University, Kansas

Roosevelt, Eleanor, and African Americans

Jeffrey Womack

Department of History, University of Houston

Black Coaches Association; Bonds, Barry

Clyde Woods

Department of Black Studies, University of California, Santa Barbara


Giles R. Wright

New Jersey Historical Commission

New Jersey

Margaret E. Wright-Cleveland

Florida State University

Micheaux, Oscar

Ben Wynne

Division of Social Sciences, Gainesville State College

Jackson State University; King, B. B.; Rhythm and Blues; Thornton, Willie Mae

Carly Womack Wynne

Gainesveille State College

Clinton, Bill, Administration of

Brittney L. Yancy

University of Connecticut

Davis, Angela; Dee, Ruby; Vaughan, Sarah

Courtney L. Young

Pennsylvania State University, Beaver

Astronauts; Butler, Octavia; Grier, Pam; Jemison, Mae; Porter, Dorothy

Donna Young

Albany Law School

Hurricane Katrina

Charles L. Zelden

Nova Southeastern University

Poll Taxes

Ann Ziker

Department of History, Rice University

Civil Rights, White Responses and Resistance to