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Directory of Contributors

Source:
International Encyclopedia of Linguistics

Directory of Contributors

Barbara Abbott

Michigan State University

Montague Grammar

Daniel Abondolo

University of London

Hungarian

Michel Achard

Rice University

Cognitive Grammar

Willem F. H. Adelaar

University of Leiden, The Netherlands

Quechuan Languages

Georges Aird

Université de Montréal

Schizophrenia and Language

Judith L. Aissen

University of California, Santa Cruz

Fieldwork, article on Fieldwork and Linguistic Theory

John Alderete

Rutgers University

Phonological Processes, article on Dissimilation

John Algeo

Athens, Georgia

Abbreviation

Keith Allan

Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia

Pragmatics and Contextual Semantics, article on Pragmatics: Cooperative Principle; Semantics, Overview and articles on Sense, Reference, Denotation, Extension, and Intension and Stereotype Semantics

Paul Kent Andersen

Linköpings Universitet, Sweden

Gradation

Stephen R. Anderson

Yale University

Morphology, Overview; Phonological Derivations, article on Rule-Ordering in Phonology; Phonology, article on Prosodic Phonology

Joseph Aoun

University of Southern California

Anaphora, article on Formal Grammar

Diana Archangeli

University of Arizona

Markedness, article on Markedness in Phonology

D. W. Arnott

School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London

Fula

Mark Aronoff

State University of New York, Stony Brook

Lexemes; Sentence Phonology, article on Juncture and Boundary; Stem and Root

Howard I. Aronson

University of Chicago

Bulgarian

Emmon Bach

University of Massachusetts, Amherst

Mathematical Linguistics, article on Generative Capacity

Lyle F. Bachman

University of California, Los Angeles

Language Testing

A. E. Backhouse

Hokkaido University, Japan

Componential Analysis; Semantics, article on Connotation

Mark Baker

Rutgers University

Incorporation; Polysynthesis

Richard B. Baldauf

University of Sydney, Australia

Language Planning, article on Education and Policy Issues

Mark R. Baltin

New York University

Transformations

Ann Banfield

University of California, Berkeley

Linguistics and Literature, article on Pragmatics and Literature

Andrew Barss

University of Arizona

Logical Form

Shari R. Baum

McGill University, Montreal

Aphasia, article on Psycholinguistic Approaches

Richard Bauman

Indiana University

Text, article on Anthropological Aspects

Robert Beard

Bucknell University

Number

Renée Béland

Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier, Montreal

Paragrammatism; Schizophrenia and Language

Alan Bell

Auckland, New Zealand

Register and Style

M. Lionel Bender

Southern Illinois University

Amharic

John Bendor-Samuel

Nairobi, Kenya

Niger-Congo Languages

David C. Bennett

University of London

Stratificational Grammar

Ruth A. Berman

Tel Aviv University

Hebrew, article on Modern Hebrew

Berndt, Rita Sloan

University of Maryland, Baltimore

Aphasia, Overview

Niko Besnier

Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand

Polynesian Languages

Tej K. Bhatia

Syracuse University

Punjabi

Douglas Biber

Northern Arizona University

Somali

Charles Bigelow

Stanford University

Typography

Robert L. Binnick

Scarborough College, University of Toronto

Mongolic Languages

Steven Bird

University of Pennsylvania

Computational Phonology

Juliette Blevins

University of California, Berkeley

Phonological Processes, article on Metathesis

Sheila E. Blumstein

Brown University

Aphasia, article on Psycholinguistic Approaches

Philip K. Bock

University of New Mexico

Linguistic Relativity, article on World View and Language

Geert E. Booij

Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam

Generative Morphology; Lexical Phonology, Overview

Hagit Borer

University of Southern California

Clitics, article on Pronominal Clitics

David Branner

University of Maryland, College Park

History of Linguistics, article on Eastern Traditions: Chinese Tradition

Donald Brenneis

University of California, Santa Cruz

Anthropological Linguistics, article on Social and Cultural Approaches to Language

Eric Brill

Microsoft Research, Redmond, Washington

Computational Linguistics, article on Part of Speech Tagging and Phrasal Chunking

Ellen Broselow

State University of New York, Stony Brook

Borrowing, article on Loanword Phonology

Whales Browne

Cornell University

Serbo-Croatian

Giorgio Buccellati

University of California, Los Angeles

Akkadian

Luigi Burzio

Johns Hopkins University

Grammatical Relations

Joan L. Bybee

University of New Mexico

Aspect; Mood; Tense, article on Definition; Verbs

Theodora Bynon

Loughton, Essex, England

Language Change, article on Phonological Change; Pott, August Friedrich

Lyle Campbell

University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand

Mayan Languages; Meso-American Languages

Garland Cannon

Texas A&M University

Jones, Sir William

David Caplan

Massachusetts General Hospital

Neurolinguistics, article on Neural Structures

George Cardona

University of Pennsylvania

Indo-Aryan Languages; Indo-Iranian Languages

John B. Carroll

Chapel Hill, North Carolina

Whorf, Benjamin Lee

Ronald Carter

University of Nottingham, England

Style

Wallace Chafe

University of California, Santa Barbara

Discourse, Overview; Information Structure, article on Information Flow; Writing and Written Language, article on Writing versus Speech

Kun Chang

University of California, Berkeley

Tibetan

Carol Chapelle

Iowa State University

Computer-Assisted Instruction

Jenny Cheshire

Queen Mary and Westfield College, London

Register and Style; Sociolinguistics, Overview; Speech Community

Donna Christian

Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, D.C.

Social Variation, article on Social Dialects

Guglielmo Cinque

Università degli Studi di Venezia, Italy

Predication

Miguel Civil

Oriental Institute, University of Chicago

Cuneiform

Eve V. Clark

Stanford University

Acquisition of Language, article on Meanings and Forms

Herbert Clark

Stanford University

Psycholinguistics, article on Production

Mary M. Clark

University of New Hampshire

Tone, article on Downstep and Downdrift

Robin Clark

University of Pennsylvania

Information Theory

Ross Clark

University of Auckland

Austronesian Languages

George N. Clements

Institut de Linguistique et Phonétique Générales et Appliquées, Paris

Autosegmental Phonology

Jennifer Coates

University of Surrey, Roehampton, England

Address

Michael Cole

University of California, San Diego

Literacy, article on Cognitive Consequences

Linda Coleman

University of Maryland, College Park

Semantics, article on Prototype Semantics

Robert G. G. Coleman

University of Cambridge

Italic Languages; Latin

Bernard Comrie

Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany

Causative; Siberian Languages

Heles Contreras

University of Washington

Parasitic Gaps

Eung-Do Cook

University of Calgary

Athabaskan Languages

Peter Coopmans

Universiteit Utrecht, The Netherlands

Stylistic Rules

Greville G. Corbett

University of Surrey, England

Agreement, Overview; Serbo-Croatian

Colleen Cotter

Georgetown University

Institutional Linguistics, article on Language and Media

Florian Coulmas

Gerhard Mercator University, Duisburg, Germany

Writing and Written Language, article on Writing Systems

Michael A. Covington

University of Georgia

History of Linguistics, article on Western Traditions: Medieval Scholastic Grammar

Fiona Cowie

Philosophy of Language, article on Philosophical Conceptions of Linguistic Theory

M. J. Cresswell

Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

Semantics, article on Formal Semantics

Alan Cruttenden

University of Manchester

Semantics, article on Prosody and Meaning

Jonathan Culpeper

University of Lancaster, England

Linguistics and Literature, article on Language of Drama

Christopher Culy

University of Iowa

Bambara-Maninka-Jula

Jim Cummins

Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, Toronto

Bilingualism and Multilingualism, article on Bilingual Education

Richard D. Cureton

University of Michigan

Linguistics and Literature, articles on Language of Poetry and Stylistics

Susan Curtiss

University of California, Los Angeles

Specific Language Impairment

Anne Cutler

Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen, The Netherlands

Speech Perception, articles on Phonetic Aspects and Psycholinguistic Aspects

Osten Dahl

Stockholms Universitet

Tense, article on Expression

M. E. Kropp Dakubu

University of Ghana

Historical Linguistics, article on Classification by “Descent”

Bill Darden

University of Chicago

Morphology, article on Morphology and Phonology

Regna Darnell

University of Western Ontario

Anthropological Linguistics, article on Early History in North America; Fieldwork, Overview

Anna Morpurgo Davies

Somerville College, Oxford

Adelung, Johann Christoph; Alexandrian Grammarians; Apollonius Dyscolus; Aristotle; Ascoli, Graziadio Isaia; Austin, John Langshaw; Bacon, Francis; Bakhtin, Mikhail; Baudouin de Courtenay, Jan Niecisław; Benveniste, Émile; Boas, Franz; Bréal, Michel; Brugmann, Karl; Bühler, Karl; Chrysippus; Condillac, Étienne Bonnot, Abbé de; Croce, Benedetto; Decipherment; Diogenes of Babylonia; Dionysius Thrax; Donatus, Aelius; “First Grammarian”; Firth, John Robert; Gesner (Gessner), Conrad; Gilliéron, Jules; Greenberg, Joseph H.; Grice, Herbert Paul; Hale, Kenneth Lock; Harris, James; Harris, Zelling Sabbetai; Herder, Johann Gottfried; Historical Linguistics, articles on Relative Chronology, and Western Traditions: Comparative-Historical Linguistics; Hjelmslev, Louis; Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm; Locke, John; Martinet, André; Mathesius, Vilem; McCawley, James; Meillet, Antoine; Modistae; Neogrammarians; Pānini; Paul, Hermann; Peirce, Charles Sanders; Pike, Kenneth Lee; Plato; Port Royal; Priscian; Rask, Rasmus; Robins, Robert Henry; Sanctius Brocensis, Franciscus; Scaliger, Joseph Justus; Schlegel, Karl Wilhelm Friedrich; Schleicher, August; Schuchardt, Hugo; Steinthal, Heymann; Stoics; Swadesh, Morris; Trubetzkoy, Nikolai Sergeyevich; Varro, Marcus Terentius; Verner, Karl Adolf; Vygotsky, Lev Semenovich; Wackernagel, Jacob; Whitney, William Dwight; Wittgenstein, Ludwig; Wundt, Wilhelm

Teresa Deeney

Elliott Pearson School, Tufts University

Dyslexia

Ennio De Renzi

Università degli Studi di Modena, Italy

Apraxia

Rudolf P. G. De Rijk

Universiteit Leiden, The Netherlands

Basque

Terrence Deacon

Boston University

Evolution and Language

Scott Delancey

University of Oregon

Sino-Tibetan Languages

Desmond C. Derbyshire

Bordon, Hampshire, England

Arawakan Languages

Madhav M. Deshpande

University of Michigan

Sanskrit

Gérard Diffloth

Cornell University

Austro-Asiatic Languages; Khmer

Anwar S. Dil

United States International University

Urdu

Anthony Diller

Australian National University, Canberra

Tai Languages; Tai-Kadai Languages; Thai

Gerrit J. Dimmendaal

University of Cologne, Germany

Nilo-Saharan Languages

R. M. W. Dixon

La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria, Australia

Australian Languages

Patricia Donegan

University of Hawai'i at Manoa

Natural Phonology

Robert A. Dooley

Laranjeiras do Sul, Brazil

Guaranian Languages

Nancy C. Dorian

Obsolescent Languages

Wolfgang Dressler

University of Vienna

Affixation; Morphology, Overview

Nina Dronkers

VA Northern California Health Care System

Aphasia, Overview

Matthew Dryer

State University of New York, Buffalo

Word Order

John W. Du Bois

University of California, Santa Barbara

Ritual Language

Mark Durie

University of Melbourne, Australia

Case, article on Case Alignment

Jane A. Edwards

University of California

Discourse, article on Transcription

John Edwards

St. Francis Xavier University

Bilingualism and Multilingualism, article on Multilingualism

Fred Eggan

University of Chicago

Sapir, Edward

Sheila Embleton

York University, Toronto

Historical Linguistics, article on Mathematical Methods

E. Nọlue Emenanjọ

University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Igbo

David E. Eskey

University of Southern California

Text, article on Applied Aspects: Reading Research

Norman Fairclough

University of Lancaster, England

Critical Linguistics

Ralph W. Fasold

Georgetown University

Sociolinguistics, article on Language Variation and Change

Charles J. Fillmore

University of California, Berkeley

Construction Grammar; Pronouns, Overview

Edward Finegan

University of Southern California

English

Wolfdietrich Fischer

University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany

Arabic

Cynthia Fisher

University of Illinois

Acquisition of Language, article on Syntax

Suzanne Fleischman

Romance Languages

William A. Foley

University of Sydney

New Guinea Languages

John G. Fought

Diamond Bar, California

Bloomfield, Leonard; History of Linguistics, article on Western Traditions: American Structuralism; Sapir, Edward

Roger Fowler,

deceased

Linguistics and Literature, article on Language of Prose Fiction; Power and Language

W. Nelson Francis

Brown University

Dialectology

William Frawley

George Washington University

Cognitive Science; Lexicography; Semantics, article on Semantics and Syntax; Text, Overview

Robert Freidin

Princeton University

Filters

Rhonda B. Friedman

Georgetown Institute for Cognitive and Computational Sciences

Alexia and Agraphia

Paul Friedrich

University of Chicago

Reconstruction, article on Semantic Reconstruction

James W. Gair

Cornell University

Sinhala

Robert Gaizauskas

Computational Linguistics, article on Architectures

P. Gardner-Chloros

Birkbeck College, London

Code-Switching

Gerald Gazdar

University of Sussex, England

Generalized Phrase Structure Grammar

Stefan Georg

University of Bonn, Germany

Altaic Languages

John Gibbons

University of Sydney, Australia

Sociolinguistics, article on Sociology of Language

Howard Giles

University of California, Santa Barbara

Language Attitudes

Ives Goddard

Department of Anthropology, Smithsonian Institution

Algonquian Languages

Grant Goodall

University of Texas, El Paso

Coordination

William Grabe

Northern Arizona University

Text, article on Applied Aspects: Writing Research

Delia Graff

Princeton University

Philosophy of Language, article on Descriptions

Gene Gragg

Oriental Institute, University of Chicago

Hurrian and Urartian

John N. Green

University of Bradford, England

Spanish

John A. C. Greppin

Cleveland State University

Armenian

Barbara Grimes

SIL International

Language lists appended to the articles on language families

Jane Grimshaw

Rutgers University

Logical Form; Subcategorization and Selection

Tom Güldemann

University of Leipzig, Germany

Khoisan Languages

Edmund Gussmann

University of Gdansk, Poland

Lexical Phonology, article on Morphophonemics

Peter Hagoort

Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen, The Netherlands

Neurolinguistics, article on Functional Brain Imaging

John Haiman

Macalester College

Functional Linguistics, article on Iconicity

Kenji Hakuta

Stanford University

Bilingualism and Multilingualism, Overview

Robert A. Hall, Jr., deceased

Bloomfield, Leonard

Morris Halle

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Jakobson, Roman; Phonological Features

Heidi E. Hamilton

Georgetown University

Institutional Linguistics, article on Overview of Institutional Discourse Analysis

Eric P. Hamp

Chicago

Etymology

W. J. Hardcastle

Queen Margaret University College, Edinburgh, Scotland

Articulatory Phonetics

Peter Harder

Engelsk Institut, Copenhagen

Semantics, article on Cognitive Semantics

Robert M. Harnish

University of Arizona

Pragmatics and Contextual Semantics, article on Pragmatics: Speech Acts

Alice C. Harris

Vanderbilt University

Georgian

Martin Harris

University of Essex, England

French

Martin Haspelmath

Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany

Adpositions

Einar Haugen, deceased

Borrowing, Overview; Scandinavian Languages

John A. Hawkins

University of Southern California

German

Bruce Hayes

University of California, Los Angeles

Metrical Phonology

K. M. Hayward

University of London

Bopp, Franz

K. M. Hayward

University of London

Grimm, Jacob

Shirley Brice Heath

Stanford University

Literacy, Overview

Bernd Heine

University of Cologne, Germany

African Languages

Eugénie Henderson,

deceased

History of Linguistics, article on Western Traditions: The London School

Caroline Henton

Santa Cruz, California

Speech Synthesis

Rebecca Herman

Indiana University

Intonation

Robert Hetzron

University of California, Santa Barbara

Semitic Languages

B. G. Hewitt

School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London

Caucasian Languages

Jane Hill

University of Arizona

Anthropological Linguistics, Overview

Thomas J. Hinnebusch

University of California, Los Angeles

Swahili

Leanne Hinton

University of California, Berkeley

Endangered Languages; Sound Symbolism

Robert D. Hoberman

State University of New York, Stony Brook

Aramaic

Susan Hockey

University College, London

Literary and Linguistic Computing

Jacob Hoeksema

Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, The Netherlands

Heads

Henry Hoenigswald

Department of Linguistics, University of Pennsylvania

Historical Linguistics, article on Obsolescence, Neologism, and Replacement; Language Change, article on Ancestry and Descent

B. J. Hoff

Universiteit Leiden, The Netherlands

Cariban Languages

Gary B. Holland

University of California, Berkeley

Reconstruction, article on Syntactic Reconstruction

Janet Holmes

Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand

Social Variation, article on Social Constructionism

Paul J. Hopper

Carnegie Mellon University

Grammaticalization; Historical Linguistics, article on Typology and Universals

Laurence Horn

Yale University

Pragmatics and Contextual Semantics, articles on Implicature and Presupposition

Elinor C. Horne

Dartmouth College

Javanese

Norbert Hornstein

University of Maryland, College Park

Minimalist Program

Susan M. Hoyle

Washington, D.C.

Scripts, Frames, and Schemas

Richard Hudson

University College, London

Word Grammar

Elizabeth Hume

Phonology, article on European Structuralist Phonology

Eugene S. Hunn

University of Washington

Ethnosemantics

James R. Hurford

University of Edinburgh, Scotland

Numerals; Semantics, article on Properties and Relationships

Larry M. Hyman

University of California, Berkeley

Tone, article on Phonology

Dell Hymes

University of Virginia

Ethnopoetics

Robert Ilson

London

Lexicography

David E. Ingram

Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia

Language Planning, article on Education and Policy Issues

Sharon Inkelas

University of California, Berkeley

Generative Phonology

Jean-Pierre Jaffré

Laboratoire d'Études sur l'Acquisition et la Pathologie du Language chez l’ Enfant, CNRS, Villejuif, France

Writing and Written Language, article on Orthography: Overview

Juha Janhunen

University of Helsinki, Finland

Uralic Languages

Cheryl J. Jensen

Summer Institute of Linguistics, Belem, Brazil

Tupian Languages

Brian D. Joseph

Ohio State University

Balkan Languages; Greek

Aravind K. Joshi

University of Pennsylvania

Mathematical Linguistics, article on Mildly Context-Sensitive Languages

Braj B. Kachru

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Emeritus

World Englishes

Yamuna Kachru

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Emerita

Hindi

Lawrence D. Kaplan

University of Alaska

Eskimo-Aleut Languages

Robert B. Kaplan

Port Angeles, Washington

Applied Linguistics, article on Concerns and Related Disciplines; Text, article on Applied Aspects: Contrastive Rhetoric

Ronald M. Kaplan

Xerox Palo Alto Research Center

Lexical-Functional Grammar

Fred Karlsson

University of Helsinki, Finland

Finnish

Annette Karmiloff-Smith

Institute of Child Health, London

Williams Syndrome and Down Syndrome: Cognitive Constraints on Language

Frances Karttunen

Nantucket, Massachusetts

Nahuatl

Gabriele Kasper

University of Hawai'i at Manoa

Pragmatics and Contextual Semantics, article on Pragmatics: Applied Pragmatics

Dieter Kastovsky

University of Vienna

Conversion

Ali Akhtar Kazmi

University of Calgary

Philosophy of Language, article on Propositions

Mary-Louise Kean

University of California, Irvine

Markedness, Overview

Elizabeth Keating

University of Texas, Austin

Ethnography of Speaking

Patricia A. Keating

University of California, Los Angeles

Coarticulation and Timing

John Kelly

University of York, England

Phonetics, article on History of the Field

Suzanne Kemmer

Rice University

Clause, Overview; Functional Linguistics, article on Usage-Based Grammar; Transitivity and Voice, Overview; Typology and Universals

J. Alan Kemp

Wallis, John

Gerard Kempen

University of Leiden, The Netherlands

Computational Linguistics, article on Generation

Adam Kendon

University of Pennsylvania

Sign Language, Overview

Michael Kenstowicz

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Phonology, article on American Structuralist Phonology

Mary Ritchie Key

University of California, Irvine

Nonverbal Communication

Ferenc Kiefer

Research Institute of Linguistics of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest

Case, Overview

Marianne Kilani-Schoch

University of Lausanne, Switzerland

Natural Morphology

Nam-Kil Kim

University of Southern California

Korean

Sara E. Kimball

University of Texas, Austin

Comparative Method; Historical Linguistics, Overview and article on TextualMethods

Margaret King

University of Geneva, Switzerland

Machine Translation

M. Dale Kinkade

University of British Columbia

Salishan Languages

Paul Kiparsky

Stanford University

Analogy; Generative Phonology

M. H. Klaiman

University of Minnesota

Bengali

Judith Klavans

Columbia University

Computational Linguistics, article on Applications of Language Technology

Harriet E. Manelis Klein

State University of New York

South American Languages

Bernard W. Kobes

Arizona State University

Philosophy of Language, article on Names and Natural Kinds

Jan G. Kooij

University of Leiden, The Netherlands

Dutch

Hilda Koopman

University of California, Los Angeles

C-Command

AndrÁs Kornai

Metacarta Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts

Mathematical Linguistics, Overview and article on Recognition:OpticalCharacter Recognition

Jaklin Kornfilt

Syracuse University

Turkish

Kimmo Koskenniemi

University of Helsinki, Finland

Computational Morphology

Maarten Kossmann

Leiden, The Netherlands

Berber Languages

Jan Koster

Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, The Netherlands

Levels of Representation

Claire Kramsch

Berkeley, California

Interlanguage

Bhadriraju Krishnamurti

Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, Stanford, California

Dravidian Languages; Telugu

Anthony Kroch

University of Pennsylvania

Language Change, article on Syntactic Change; Tree Adjoining Grammar

Peter Ladefoged

University of California, Los Angeles

Phonetics, Overview

Matti Laine

Paragrammatism

George Lakoff

University of California, Berkeley

Metaphor and Semantics

Robin Lakoff

University of California, Berkeley

Institutional Linguistics, article on Psychotherapy and Language

D. Terence Langendoen

University of Arizona

Mathematical Linguistics, article on Finite-State Languages

Diane Larsen-Freeman

School for International Training, Brattleboro, Vermont

Pedagogical Grammar

Howard Lasnik

University of Connecticut

Subjacency; Traces

Roger Lass

Deep River, South Africa

Reconstruction, article on Internal Reconstruction

John Laver

Queen Margaret University College, Edinburgh, Scotland

Voice Quality

Vivien Law

Trinity College, Cambridge

History of Linguistics, article on Western Traditions: Early Middle Ages

AndrÉ Roch Lecours

Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier, Montréal

Paragrammatism; Schizophrenia and Language

Geoffrey Leech

University of Lancaster

Corpus Processing

Geraldine Legendre

Johns Hopkins University

Optimality Theory, article on Syntax

Ilse Lehiste

Ohio State University

Syllables, article on Syllables and Stress in Phonetics; Tone, article on Phonetics

Christian Lehmann

Philosophische Fakultät, Erfurt, Germany

Relative Clauses

Adrienne Lehrer

University of Arizona

Componential Analysis

Giulio Lepschy

University of Reading, England, Emeritus

History of Linguistics, article on Western Traditions: Structuralism; Saussure, Ferdinand de

Willem Levelt

Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen, The Netherlands

Psycholinguistics, Overview

Jules F. Levin

University of California, Riverside

Baltic Languages

Samuel R. Levin

Graduate School and University Center of the City University of New York

Linguistics and Literature, article on Metaphor

Stephen Levinson

Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen, The Netherlands

Deixis; Linguistic Relativity, article on Language and Cognition: Linguistic Relativity in Modern Perspective

Charles N. Li

University of California, Santa Barbara

Chinese

Rochelle Lieber

University of New Hampshire

Percolation

David Lightfoot

Dean, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, Georgetown University

Formal Grammar

Charlotte Linde

Redwood City, California

Discourse, article on Narrative in Conversation

Per Linell

University of Linköping, Sweden

Writing and Written Language, article on Written Language and Linguistic Theory

Albert L. Lloyd

University of Pennsylvania

Germanic Languages

Anne Lobeck

Western Washington University

Deletion

Raphael Loewe

London

History of Linguistics, article on Eastern Traditions: Jewish Tradition

Michael H. Long

University of Hawai'i at Manoa

Acquisition of Language, article on Second-Language Acquisition

Antonio Loprieno

University of Basel, Switzerland

Egyptian

Donald MacAulay

University of Glasgow, Scotland

Celtic Languages

John J. McCarthy

University of Massachusetts, Amherst

Optimality Theory, Overview; Phoneme; Phonology, Overview

Ernest McCarus

University of Michigan

Kurdish

James McCloskey

University of California, Santa Cruz

Control

Sally McConnell-Ginet

Cornell University

Sociolinguistics, article on Language and Gender

D. N. Mackenzie

Llanfairpwll, Anglesley, Wales

Pashto

M. K. C. MacMahon

University of Glasgow, Scotland

International Phonetic Association

Brian MacWhinney

Carnegie Mellon University

Functional Linguistics, article on Emergentist Approaches to Language

Ian Maddieson

University of California, Los Angeles

Phonemic Systems; Phonetics, article on Phonetic Universals

Steven Mailloux

University of California, Irvine

Linguistics and Literature, article on Rhetoric and Literature

Graham Mallinson

Rumanian

William Marslen-Wilson

MRC-CBU, Cambridge, England

Psycholinguistics, article on Mental Lexicon

J. R. Martin

University of Sydney, Australia

Systemic Grammar

Marilyn Martin-Jones

University of Wales, Aberystwyth

Diglossia

Joan MascarÓ,

deceased

Phonological Derivations, article on Cycle

Colin P. Masica

University of Chicago, Emeritus

Areal Linguistics, Overview; South Asian Languages

James Matisoff

University of California, Berkeley

Southeast Asian Languages

Peter H. Matthews

St. John's College, Cambridge

Inflection; Morpheme; Word-and-Paradigm Model

Igor A. Mel'cuk

Université de Montréal

Lexicon, article on Form-Meaning Relationships; Suppletion

Lise Menn

University of Colorado, Boulder

Acquisition of Language, article on Phonology; Aphasia, article on Comparative Aphasiology; Neurolinguistics, Overview

Lavinia Merlini Barbaresi

University of Pisa, Italy

Diminutives

Floyd Merrell

Purdue University

Linguistics and Literature, article on Semiotics and Literature

Elizabeth Mertz

American Bar Foundation, Chicago

Institutional Linguistics, article on Law and Language

R. Armin Mester

University of California, Santa Cruz

Lexical Phonology, article on Morpheme-Structure Constraints

Piotr Michalowski

University of Michigan

History of Linguistics, article on Ancient World: Babylonian Tradition; Sumerian

Philip Miller

Brussels

Mathematical Linguistics, article on Generative Capacity

Roy Andrew Miller

University of Washington

History of Linguistics, article on Eastern Traditions: Japanese Tradition

Wick R. Miller,

deceased

Uto-Aztecan Languages

James Milroy

University of Michigan

Prescriptive Grammar

Lesley Milroy

University of Michigan

Prescriptive Grammar

P. J. Mistry

California State University, Fresno

Gujarati

Marianne Mithun

University of California, Santa Barbara

Borrowing, Overview; Iroquoian Languages; Writing and Written Language, article on Orthography: Planning

K. P. Mohanan

National University of Singapore

Malayalam

Roger K. Moore

Malvern Hills Science Park, Worcester, England

Mathematical Linguistics, article on Recognition: Speech Recognition

Edith A. Moravcsik

University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee

Questions; Reduplication

Wolfgang Motsch

Altkalen, Germany

Derivational Morphology

Salikoko Mufwene

University of Chicago

Lingala

Stephen Neale

Rutgers University

Anaphora, article on Logical Semantics

Jean-Luc Nespoulous

Universit of Toulouse-Le Mirail, France

Agrammatism

Paul Newman

Indiana University

Chadic Languages; Hausa

Frederick J. Newmeyer

University of Washington

History of Linguistics, article on Western Traditions: Generative Grammar

Elissa Newport

University of Rochester

Acquisition of Language, article on Critical Periods

Hermann Ney

Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule, Aachen, Germany

Hidden Markov Models

Dinh-Hoa Nguyen

Mountain View, California

Vietnamese

Nick Nicholas

University of Melbourne, Australia

Artificial Languages

Johanna Nichols

University of California, Berkeley

Areal Linguistics, article on Geographical Distribution of Linguistic Features; Predicate Nominals and Adjectives

Nancy Schweda Nicholson

University of Delaware

Translation and Interpretation

Ageliki Nicolopoulou

Lehigh University

Literacy, article on Cognitive Consequences

Jussi Niemi

University of Joensuu, Finland

Paragrammatism

Francis J. Nolan

University of Cambridge

Acoustic Phonetics; Speaker Recognition

Michael Noonan

University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee

Clause, article on Complementation

K. R. Norman

University of Cambridge

Pali

Rolf Noyer

University of Pennsylvania

Lexicon, article on Formal Grammar

Anita Nuopponen

University of Vaasa, Finland

Terminology

Loraine K. Obler

Graduate School and University Center of the City University of New York

Bilingualism and Multilingualism, article on Brain Structures in Multilingualism; Dementia and Language

Elinor Ochs

University of California, Los Angeles

Acquisition of Language, article on Communicative Competence

Richard Oehrle

Ashford, Connecicut

Categorial Grammar

Yuling Pan

United States Census Bureau

Institutional Linguistics, article on Language and Business

Rajeshwari Vijay Pandharipande

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

Marathi

Stephen Parkinson

University of Oxford

Portuguese

Sarah Paterson

Institute of Child Health, London

Williams Syndrome and Down Syndrome: Cognitive Constraints on Language

John R. Payne

University of Manchester, England

Iranian Languages; Negation

W. Keith Percival

Seattle, Washington

History of Linguistics, article on Western Traditions: The Renaissance

C. Raymond Perrault

SRI International, Menlo Park, California

Computational Linguistics, article on Pragmatics and Discourse

David Pesetsky

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Principles and Parameters

Susan U. Philips

University of Arizona

Institutional Linguistics, article on Law and Language

Colin Phillips

University of Maryland, College Park

Parsing, article on Psycholinguistic Approaches

Janet Pierrehumbert

Northwestern University

Intonation

Kenneth L. Pike

Summer Institute of Linguistics, Dallas

Tagmemics

Frans Plank

University of Constance, Germany

Adjacency

Livia Polanyi

FX Palo Alto Laboratory

Text, article on Text Understanding

George Poulos

University of South Africa, Centurion

Zulu

D. J. Prentice,

deceased

Malay and Indonesian

Alan Prince

Rutgers University

Optimality Theory, article on Phonology; Segments

Ellen F. Prince

University of Pennsylvania

Information Structure, article on Informational and Rhetorical Structure

Jaan Puhvel

University of California, Los Angeles

Hittite

Douglas Pulleyblank

University of British Columbia

Yoruba

Geoffrey Pullum

University of California, Santa Cruz

Learnability, article on Mathematical Aspects; Mathematical Linguistics, Overview and article on Context-Free Languages

Stephen G. Pulman

Computer Laboratory, University of Cambridge

Parsing, article on Computational Approaches

Janet H. Randall

Northeastern University

Inheritance

Erica Reiner

University of Chicago

Elamite

Tanya Reinhart

Tel Aviv University

Ellipsis

Philip Resnik

University of Maryland, College Park

Computational Linguistics, articles on Word-Sense Ambiguity and Applications of Language Technology

Richard A. Rhodes

University of California, Berkeley

Interjections

Mark Richard

Tufts University

Pragmatics and Contextual Semantics, article on Contextual Semantics:Indexicals

John Rickford

Stanford University

African American Vernacular English; Pidgins and Creoles

Donald Ringe

University of Pennsylvania

Historical Linguistics, article on Computational Methods

Eric Sven Ristad

Mnemonic Technology, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey

Mathematical Linguistics, article on Recognition: Complexity

Luigi Rizzi

University of Siena, Italy

Reanalysis Rules

Peter Roach

University of Reading, England

Phonetics, article on Phonetic Transcription

Stephane Robert

CNRS-LLACAN (Langages, Langues, et Cultures d'Afrique Noire), Villejuif, France

Wolof

Ian G. Roberts

University of Stuttgart, Germany

Adjunction

Roda P. Roberts

Bilingual Canadian Dictionary Project, Ottawa, Ontario

Translation and Interpretation

John S. Robertson

Brigham Young University

Yucatec Mayan

R. H. Robins,

deceased

History of Linguistics, articles on Ancient World: Ancient Greece and Rome and Western Traditions: The London School

Rosane Rocher

University of Pennsylvania

History of Linguistics, article on Ancient World: Ancient India

Suzanne Romaine

Merton College, Oxford

Sociolinguistics, article on Sociohistorical Linguistics

David S. Rood

University of Colorado, Boulder

North American Languages; Siouan Languages

Jerzy Rubach

University of Iowa

Lexical Phonology, Overview

William E. Rutherford

University of Southern California

Pedagogical Grammar

Jerrold Sadock

University of Chicago

Autolexical Syntax

John Saeed

Trinity College, University of Dublin

Somali

Nathan Salmon

University of California, Santa Barbara

Philosophy of Language, article on Temporality

Geoffrey Sampson

University of Sussex, England

Statistical Linguistics

Wendy Sandler

University of Haifa, Israel

Sign Language, article on Phonology

Hans-Jurgen Sasse

University of Cologne, Germany

Cushitic Languages

Muriel Saville-Troike

University of Arizona

Sociolinguistics, article on Communicative Competence

Sergio Scalise

University of Bologna, Italy

Generative Morphology

Janine L. Scancarelli

Folger Levin and Kahn LLP, San Francisco

Clause, article on Clause-Combining Constructions

Paul Schachter

University of California, Los Angeles

Parts of Speech; Tagalog

Harold Schiffman

University of Pennsylvania

Kannada

Deborah Schiffrin

Georgetown University

Discourse Markers

Lenhart K. Schubert

University of Rochester

Computational Linguistics, article on Semantics and Knowledge; Representation

Elisabeth Selkirk

University of Massachusetts, Amherst

Sentence Phonology, Overview

Peter Sells

Stanford University

Phrase Structure

Joel Sherzer

University of Texas, Austin

Ethnography of Speaking; Verbal Play

Masayoshi Shibatani

Kobe University, Japan

Japanese

Stuart M. Shieber

Harvard University

Computational Linguistics, article on Grammar Formalisms

David Short

University College, London

Czech and Slovak

Michael Sharwood Smith

University of Utrecht, The Netherlands

Interlanguage

Paul Simpson

Power and Language

Norval Smith

University of Amsterdam

Phonological Processes, article on Assimilation

Paul Smolensky

Johns Hopkins University

Connectionism; Optimality Theory, article on Phonology

James Sneddon

Malay and Indonesian

Scott Soames

Princeton University

Philosophy of Language, Overview; Pragmatics and Contextual Semantics

Rosana Sornicola

Università Federico II, Naples

History of Linguistics, article on Western Traditions: The Prague School

Karen SpÄrck Jones

Computer Laboratory, University of Cambridge

Computational Linguistics, Overview and article on Architectures

Bernard Spolsky

Bar-Ilan University, Israel

Educational Linguistics

Dominique Sportiche

University of California, Los Angeles

Pronouns, article on Pronominals

Richard Sproat

Lexicon, article on Formal Grammar

Jason Stanley

University of Michigan

Pragmatics and Contextual Semantics, article on Contextual Semantics: Domain of Quantification

Sanford B. Steever

New Canaan, Connecticut

Tamil

Richard C. Steiner

Yeshiva University

Hebrew, article on Ancient Hebrew

John Stephens

Macquarie University, North Ryde, Australia

Linguistics and Literature, article on Language and Literary History

Kim Sterelny

Philosophy of Language, article on Philosophical Conceptions of Linguistic Theory

Donca Steriade

University of California, Los Angeles

Syllables, article on Syllables in Phonology

Gerald Stone

PATH, Berkeley, California

Polish

Peter Strevens

Applied Linguistics, article on History

Roland Sussex

Centre for Language Teaching, Research University of Queensland, Australia

Russian

John M. Swales

University of Michigan

Language for Specific Purposes

Paul R. Sweet

Michigan State University

Humboldt, Wilhelm von

Pierre Swiggers

Catholic University of Louvain, Belgium

History of Linguistics, Overview and article on Western Traditions: Seventeenth- and Eighteenth-Century Europe

ZoltÁn Gendler SzabÓ

Cornell University

Pragmatics and Contextual Semantics, article on Contextual Semantics: Domain of Quantification

Sali Tagliamonte

University of York

Sociolinguistics, article on Language Variation and Change

Leonard Talmy

State University of New York, Buffalo

Nouns

Michael K. Tanenhaus

University of Rochester

Psycholinguistics, article on Comprehension

Deborah Tannen

Georgetown University

Discourse, article on Discourse and Interactional Sociolinguistics; Literacy, article on Sociolinguistic Aspects

Branca Telles Ribeiro

Arlington, Massachusetts

Scripts, Frames, and Schemas

Bruce Tesar

Rutgers University

Learnability, article on Learning Theory and Grammars

Sandra Thompson

University of California, Santa Barbara

Functional Linguistics, Overview

Alan Timberlake

University of California, Berkeley

Predicate Nominals and Adjectives

Jindřich Toman

University of Michigan

Compounding; Syntactic Features

Elizabeth Closs Traugott

Stanford University

Language Change, article on Semantic Change

Paula A. Treichler

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

Institutional Linguistics, article on Medicine and Language

Ovid Tzeng

National Yang-Ming University, Taiwan

Writing and Written Language, article on Neurological Aspects

E. M. Uhlenbeck

University of Leiden, The Netherlands

Words

Hiroyuki Ura

Kwansei Gakuin University, Nishinomiya, Japan

Syntactic Features

Greg Urban

University of Pennsylvania

Semiotics

Juan Uriagereka

University of Maryland, College Park

Case, article on Case Theory

Josef Vachek,

deceased

History of Linguistics, article on Western Traditions: The Prague School

Johan Van Der Auwera

University of Antwerp UIA, Belgium

Modality; Objects; Subjects

Jaap Van Marle

Free University, Amsterdam

Paradigms

Manindra K. Verma

University of Wisconsin

Nepali

Kees Versteegh

University of Nijmegen, The Netherlands

History of Linguistics, article on Eastern Traditions: Arab Tradition

Marilyn May Vihman

University of Wales, Bangor

Acquisition of Language, article on Phonology

Nigel Vincent

University of Manchester, England

Italian

Benji Wald

University of California, Los Angeles

Bantu Languages

Robert Wall

University of Texas, Austin

Mathematical Linguistics, article on Automata Theory and the Chomsky Hierarchy

Rex Wallace

University of Massachusetts, Amherst

Language Change, article on Sociohistorical Causes

Beatrice Warren

University of Lund, Sweden

Adjectives

Calvert Watkins

Harvard University

Historical Linguistics, article on Culture History and Historical Linguistics; Indo-European Languages; Reconstruction, article on Stylistic Reconstruction

Linda Waugh

University of Arizona

Phonology, article on European Structuralist Phonology

David Weir

University of Sussex, England

Mathematical Linguistics, article on Automata Theory and the Chomsky Hierarchy

Julian K. Wheatley

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Burmese

Henry G. Widdowson

Institut fur Anglistik und Amerikanistik, Vienna

Applied Linguistics, article on Concerns and Related Disciplines

Anna Wierzbicka

Australian National University, Canberra

Semantics, article on Semantic Primitives

Sherman Wilcox

University of New Mexico

American Sign Language (ASL)

Yorick Wilks

University of Sheffield, England

Parsing, article on Semantic Approaches

Kay Williamson

University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Igbo; Niger-Congo Languages

Gernot L. Windfuhr

University of Michigan

Persian

Arthur Wingfield

Brandeis University

Anomia

Ruth Wodak

Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna

Discourse, article on Critical Discourse Analysis

Maryanne Wolf

Tufts University

Dyslexia

Moira Yip

University College London

Phonological Processes, article on Long-Distance Processes

Andrzej Zaborski

Afroasiatic Languages

Annie Zaenen

Xerox Palto Alto Research Center, Europe, Meylan, France

Lexical-Functional Grammar

Norman Zide

University of Chicago

Austro-Asiatic Languages

Don H. Zimmerman

University of California, Santa Barbara

Discourse, article on Conversation Analysis

David A. Zubin

State University of New York, Buffalo

Agreement, article on Noun Classification

Arnold M. Zwicky

Stanford University

Clitics, Overview; Morphology, article on Morphology and Syntax