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date: 24 November 2017

Penutian Languages

Source:
International Encyclopedia of Linguistics
Author(s):

B. Grimes

Penutian Languages. 

A proposed language family of western North America.

Penutian LanguagesClick to view larger

Figure 1. Subgrouping of Penutian Languages

    LANGUAGE LIST

  • Alsea: also called Alséya. Formerly spoken in USA, in Oregon, on Alsea River and Bay. Dialects are Yaquina (Yakwina, Yakon, Yakona).

  • Chinook: also called Lower Chinook. 12 speakers remain in USA. Ethnic population: 300 possibly as of 1977. Formerly spoken along the lower Columbia River, Oregon and Washington. Dialects are Klatsop (Tlatsop), Clackama, Kiksht.

  • Coos: also called Hanis. 1 speaker remains in USA. Ethnic population: 250 possibly as of 1977. Formerly spoken on the southern Oregon coast. Bilingualism in English. In 1962, all speakers were over 50 years old. Possibly extinct.

  • Gitxsan: also called Gitksan, Gityskyan, Giklsan. 400 speakers in Canada, Gitxsan on middle Skeena River in west central British Columbia. Dialects are Gitxsan (Eastern Gitxsan), Gitsken (Western Gitsken). High degree of inherent intelligibility between Nisga'a and Gitxsan. About 1,500 speak Nisga'a as second or third language. Speakers consider Nisga'a and Gitxsan to be politically distinct.

  • Kalapuya: also called Santiam, Lukamiute, Wapatu. 1 elderly speaker remains in USA in northwestern Oregon. Bilingualism in English. All over 50 years old (1962).

  • Karkin: formerly spoken in USA, north central California. Became extinct in the 1950s.

  • Klamath-Modoc: 1 elderly speaker remains in USA. Ethnic population: 2,000 as of 1997. Formerly spoken in south central Oregon, around and to the east and north of Klamath and Agency Lakes; Modoc directly to the south. Closest to Molale and Sahaptian. Bilingualism in English. Active language programs and materials development in Modoc.

  • Maidu, Northeast: also called Mountain Maidu. 1 elderly speaker remains in USA. Ethnic population: 108 as of 1990. Formerly spoken in California, northern Sierras, Plumas and Lassen counties. A separate language from other Maidu varieties. Bilingualism in English. Teaching language materials.

  • Maidu, Northwest: also called Holólupai, Maiduan, Meidoo, Michopdo, Nákum, Secumne, Sekumne, Tsamak, Yuba, Konkow, Konkau, Concow. “Digger” is a derogatory name sometimes used. 3 elderly speakers remain in USA. Formerly spoken in the lower foothills of the Sierras, central California. The ethnic group is scattered. A separate language from other Maidu varieties. Bilingualism in English.

  • Maidu, Valley: formerly spoken in USA in California, between Sacramento and the Sierra foothills. A separate language from other Maidu varieties.

  • Miwok, Bay: also called Saclan, Saklan. Formerly spoken in USA, northern California, San Francisco Bay.

  • Miwok, Central Sierra: 12 speakers remain in USA. Formerly spoken in California, upper valleys of the Stanislause and Tuolumne. Dialects are Eastern Central Sierra Miwok, Western Central Sierra Miwok. A separate language from other Miwok varieties. Bilingualism in English.

  • Miwok, Coast: 1 speaker remains in USA. Formerly spoken in California, the coast from San Francisco Bay to Bodega Bay. Dialects are Bodega, Huimen, Marin Miwok. Bilingualism in English.

  • Miwok, Lake: 1 speaker remains in USA. Formerly spoken in California, Clear Lake basin. A separate language from other Miwok varieties. Bilingualism in English.

  • Miwok, Northern Sierra: 6 speakers remain in USA. Formerly spoken in California, upper valleys of Mokelumne and Calaveras Rivers. A separate language from other Miwok varieties. Bilingualism in English. Teaching materials. Computerized language program with schools being developed.

  • Miwok, Plains: also called Valley Miwok. 1 speaker remains in USA in California, deltas of the San Joaquin and Cosumnes Rivers. A separate language from other Miwok varieties. Bilingualism in English.

  • Miwok, Southern Sierra: also called Meewoc, Mewoc, MeWuk, Miwoc, Miwokan, Mokélumne, Moquelumnan, San Raphael, Talatui, Talutui, Yosemite. 7 speakers remain in USA. Formerly spoken in California, along headwaters of the Merced and Chowchilla Rivers and on Mariposa Creek. A separate language from other Miwok varieties. Bilingualism in English.

  • Molale: also called Molele, Molala, Molalla. Formerly spoken in USA. Not close to Cayuse as formerly thought.

  • Nez Perce: 100 speakers in USA. Ethnic population: 2,700 as of 1997. Spoken in northern Idaho. Bilingualism in English. In 1998, most speakers were elderly.

  • Nisenan: also called Southern Maidu, Neeshenam, Nishinam, Pujuni, Wapumni. 1 elderly speaker remains in USA. Formerly spoken in central California, scattered, foothills of the Sierras. A separate language from other Maidu varieties. Bilingualism in English.

  • Nisga'a: also called Nass, Niska, Nishka, Nisk'a, Nishga. 1,500 speakers in Canada. Ethnic population: 5,400 as of 1997. Variation within Nisga'a not great enough to be considered dialects. High degree of inherent intelligibility between Nisga'a and Gitxsan. Some older Nisga'a speak Tsimshian as second language; English mostly used. Fluent: 22 to 95. Children learn Nisga'a in School District #92. Many young adults prefer English. Some children speak the language but most prefer English. About 1,500 speak Nisga'a as second or third language. Speakers consider Nisga'a and Gitxsan to be ethnically distinct.

  • Ohlone, Northern: “Costanoan” is a derogatory name sometimes used. Formerly spoken in USA, north central California from the head of the San Pablo Bay branch of San Francisco Bay to Southern Costanoan. Dialects were East Bay, San Francisco, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, Soledad. Some Ohlones are collecting and studying language materials. Lost its fluent speakers in the 18th or early 19th century. Subdialects of East Bay were Huchiun (Juichun), Niles (Chocheño), San José, San Lorenzo. Soledad may be transitional between Northern and Southern Costanoan.

  • Ohlone, Southern: “Costanoan” is a derogatory name sometimes used. Formerly spoken in USA, north central California from Northern Costanoan down to 30 miles south of Salinas. Dialects are Monterey, Mutsun (San Juan Bautista), Rumsen (Runsien, San Carlos, Carmel). Some Ohlone are collecting and studying language materials. Lost its fluent speakers in the 18th or early 19th century.

  • Siuslaw: formerly spoken in USA, southern Oregon coast.

  • Takelma: also called Takilma, Lowland Takelma. Formerly spoken in USA, middle course of the Rogue River, Oregon. May be in a Takelma-Kalapuyan subgroup, but not conclusively yet.

  • Tenino: also called Warm Springs. 200 speakers in USA. Ethnic population: 1,000 as of 1977. Spoken on Warm Springs Reservation, Oregon. Bilingualism in English. Most or all speakers are middle-aged or older.

  • Tsimshian: also called Tsimpshean, Zimshian, Chimmezyan. 500 speakers in Canada and USA. In Canada: 432 speakers. Ethnic population: 3,200 as of 1995. Spoken on the northern coast of British Columbia. Southern Tsimshian is at the southern end on the coast at Klemtu. Dialects are Southern Tsimshian (Sguxs, Old Klemtu), Coast Tsimshian (Sm'algyax). Bilingualism in English. Speakers are middleaged or older. In USA: 70 speakers. Ethnic population: 1,300 as of 1995. Spoken on the tip of Alaska panhandle, (New) Metlakatla on Annette Island, some in Ketchikan. Bilingualism in English. Speakers are 60, 70, or older. Second language of Nisga'a speakers.

  • Umatilla: also called Columbia River Sahaptin. 50 speakers in USA. Ethnic population: 120 as of 1977. Spoken on the Umatilla Reservation, Oregon. Bilingualism in English. Most or all speakers are middle-aged or older.

  • Walla Walla: also called Northeast Sahaptin. 100 speakers in USA. Ethnic population: 700 as of 1977. Spoken on the Umatilla Reservation, Oregon. Bilingualism in English. Most or all speakers are middle-aged or older.

  • Wasco-Wishram: also called Upper Chinook. 69 speakers in USA. Ethnic population: 750 possibly as of 1977. Spoken in north central Oregon, south central Washington. Bilingualism in English.

  • Yakima: 3,000 speakers in USA. Ethnic population: 8,000 as of 1977 SIL. Spoken in Yakima valley, south central Washington. Dialects are Yakima, Klikitat. Bilingualism in English. In 1998, most speakers were elderly.

  • Yokuts: 78 speakers in USA. Ethnic population: 2,500 as of 2000. Spoken in California, San Joaquin River and the slopes of the Sierra Nevada, San Joaquin Valley. Dialects are Northern Foothill Yokuts, Southern Foothill Yokuts, Valley Yokuts. Many subdialects. Bilingualism in English. Southern Foothill and Valley Yokuts are extinct. Chukchansi trying to start language programs. Tachi has headstart language program.

B. Grimes

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