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Europe

Subject: Religion

The name originally stood for central Greece. It was soon extended to the whole Greek mainland and by 500 bc to the entire land mass behind it. The boundary between the European continent ...

Europe

Europe   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
106 words

... . The classical term ‘Europe’ was in the Middle Ages displaced by ‘Christendom’, and when ‘Europe’ was revived by the humanists in the late fifteenth century, it was a geographical term used to distinguish the land mass of Europe from those of Asia , Africa , and America rather than, as it became in the nineteenth century, a political and cultural term. The idea of a united Christendom was one of the ideals of the Holy Roman Empire . D. de Rougemont , The Idea of Europe (1966); Peter Burke , ‘Did Europe Exist before 1700?’, in History of European...

Europe

Europe (2)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Chaucer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

... (2) , One of the three continents of medieval cartography (HF 1339, II.161; see Maps 1,...

Europe

Europe   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Literature in French

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
19 words

... . Literary periodical created in 1923 by a group round Romain Rolland . Its editors have included Guéhenno and Cassou...

Europe

Europe   Reference library

John GILLIS

Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
History
Length:
3,615 words

...between western European nations and the regions to the east and south became accentuated. Autocratic Russia now became Europe’s “window on the East.” During the New Imperialism of the later nineteenth century, Europeans’ consciousness of their European-ness was again reinforced by encounters with non-European peoples, affirming the observation that “Europe did not simply expand overseas, it made itself through expansion” ( Asad 2002 , 220 ). European anthropology and ethnology supposedly gave scientific credence to Europeans’ heightened sense of...

Europe

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A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
308 words

... The world’s second-smallest but third most populous continent, with around 10 per cent of global population. Europe comprises some 50 nation states and principalities. Just over half are members of the European Union (EU) and most are representative democracies in a political sense. Economically, the countries of northern and western Europe remain the wealthiest per capita (Britain, France, Germany, Holland, Switzerland, Finland, Norway, Denmark, and Sweden). Except for Italy, Spain, Portugal, and the Czech Republic, those countries to the south and east...

Europe

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Charles Jones

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
124 words

... Europe remains powerful yet ill‐defined. Some of its members—Russia and Turkey—extend beyond its accepted geographical limits. Such unity as it possessed by the early twentieth century rested equivocally upon a shared though divisive Christianity and a rationalist philosophical and scientific tradition (both owing much to the Arab world), a common history of sustained internecine warfare, a fiction of racial homogeneity, and a claim to original responsibility for industrialization and modernity. This tense unity was first effectively projected beyond its...

Europe

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A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
528 words

...( see industrial revolution ). The modern history of Europe is largely that of its constituent nations. In the 20th century European history has been dominated by World War I and World War II . Since the end of World War II the European Community and its successor, the European Union , have brought an altogether more hopeful era to the peoples of Europe...

Europe

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World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
720 words

...world affairs. After World War 2, the countries of Europe divided into two ideological blocs: Eastern Europe, dominated by the Soviet Union; and Western Europe, closely aligned with the USA ( see Cold War ) The North Atlantic Treaty Organization ( NATO ) was established to act as a deterrent to the spread of communism ; the Warsaw Pact was its e European counterpart. Several economic organizations, in particular the European Community ( EC ), worked towards closer intra-national cooperation. The collapse of Soviet communism in 1991 added to the...

Europe

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The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Europe , The second smallest continent is said to be named after Europa. According to Greek mythology, she was the daughter of Agenor, King of Phoenicia, who was carried off to Crete by Zeus, the supreme ruler of the Greek gods. Geographically, it was first mentioned in a Greek poem in the 8th century bc . It applied only to the ‘mainland’, that is, the vast territory to the north of ancient Greek horizons. Around the turn of the first millennium ad , the name Europe was not often used. Indeed, it was rarely used until the late 17th century ; more...

Europe

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The Concise Oxford Companion to English Literature (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Literature
Length:
48 words

... : A Prophecy A poem by William Blake , printed 1794 at Lambeth, in which he portrays the oppression of Albion during the 1,800‐year sleep of Enitharmon, the female principle, and the approach of the French Revolution, symbolized by her son, the terrible Orc, the spirit of...

Europe

Europe   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to English Literature (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Literature
Length:
48 words

... : A Prophecy A poem by William Blake , printed 1794 at Lambeth, in which he portrays the oppression of Albion during the 1,800‐year sleep of Enitharmon, the female principle, and the approach of the French Revolution, symbolized by her son, the terrible Orc, the spirit of revolt....

Europe

Europe   Reference library

Eric Herbert Warmington and Simon Hornblower

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
530 words

... The name Εὐρώπη originally stood for central Greece ( Hymn. Hom. Ap. 251 , 291 , with N. Richardson's comm., 2010). It was soon extended to the whole Greek mainland, and by 500 bc to the entire land mass behind it. The boundary between the European continent and Asia was usually fixed at the river Don. Homer vaguely knew dark regions of the west and north, but his range of information hardly extended north of Greece or west of Sicily. The Mediterranean seaboard of Europe was chiefly opened up by the Greeks between 800 and 500 bc ( see ...

Europe

Europe   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...cover much of northern Asia. Northwest Europe has a humid temperate climate, but the southern rim of the continent has a Mediterranean climate characterized by mild winters and hot dry summers. The coldest European winters are found in northeastern Scandinavia and northern Russia; the warmest are in the Mediterranean peninsulas. July mean temperatures are above 10°C throughout Europe, except in the extreme north, and reach 20°C to 26°C over large parts of southern Europe. Atmospheric Circulation and Rainfall. European weather and climate develops downstream...

Europe

Europe   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History, 1619–1895: From the Colonial Period to the Age of Frederick Douglass

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,567 words

... European visitors to the United States were keenly interested in slavery, African Americans, and race relations in America. Few blacks lived in Europe, as slavery had been abolished there, and almost no black Americans visited the Continent. European visitors held a spectrum of opinions about Americans and their customs: some praised qualities like ingenuity and democracy, while others criticized a lack of good manners. Europeans, though, were almost universal in their condemnation of slavery, even as they held a variety of opinions about African...

Europe

Europe (1)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Chaucer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

... (1) . Europa the daughter of Agenor, king of Tyre, wooed by Zeus in the form of a white bull ( see also Taur ) and carried off to Crete. The story is told by Ovid in Metamorphoses 2.833–75. In Chaucer she is mentioned in Troilus's invocation to Jove in Troilus and Criseyde III.722, and, as ‘Agenores doghtre’ in an astronomical reference in the Prologue to the Legend of Good Women (F...

Europe

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A Dictionary of Buddhism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Religion
Length:
540 words

... . European interest in Buddhism first began to develop during the colonial period. The earliest Buddhist texts to be studied in Europe were Mahāyāna Sanskrit manuscripts collected in Nepal by the British Resident, B. H. Hodgson . Another British civil servant who made an outstanding contribution to the study of Theravāda Buddhism was T. W. Rhys Davids ( 1843–1922 ). Rhys Davids became interested in Buddhism during his residence in Sri Lanka and went on to found the Pāli Text Society in 1881 . The Society, based in Oxford, England, remains...

Europe

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A Dictionary of World Mythology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...first European civilization was pre-Greek, and certainly owed something to early contacts with Asia Minor, Syria, and Egypt. Even the legendary Minos, from whom Sir Arthur Evans coined the term Minoan when excavating his palace at Knossos, was remembered by the Greeks as the descendant of a West Asian king. His father, ‘cloud-gathering’ Zeus, had abducted his mother Europa from the court of Agenor, King of Tyre. The outstanding myth-makers of Europe, the Greeks themselves, superimposed their own Indo-European beliefs upon the heritage of ‘Old Europe’ some...

Europe

Europe   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
16,225 words
Illustration(s):
5

...western Europe were increasingly able to obtain cheaper and more diverse consumer goods, but these were often produced in Europe's overseas colonies by men and women working in horrific conditions. This essay will attempt to keep this variety in mind while making some generalizations about four realms of life that were especially important in shaping women's experiences in Europe during the long period from 1400 to 1800 : intellectual structures, legal systems, work, and religious life. Intellectual Structures and Notions of Gender. All women in Europe lived in...

Europe

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Oxford Essential Quotations (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Quotation
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Quotations
Length:
810 words

...23 November 1959 Europe des patries. A Europe of nations. widely associated with De Gaulle, 1962, and taken as encapsulating his views, although perhaps not coined by him Charles de Gaulle 1890 – 1970 French soldier and statesman , President of France 1959–69 J. Lacouture De Gaulle: the Ruler (1991) Europe des patries Europe of nations Europe of nations Without Britain Europe would remain only a torso. Ludwig Erhard 1897 – 1977 German statesman remark on West German television, 27 May 1962 Leave this Europe where they are never done...

Europe

Europe   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... European City of Culture A city in a member state designated by the European Union for a period of one calendar year, during which it showcases its cultural life and development. Designed to bring European peoples closer together and highlight Europe’s cultural richness and diversity, the event was launched in 1985 on the initiative of the late Greek Minister of Culture, Melina Mercouri , who felt that culture was not given the same prominence as politics and economics within the European Community. Athens was the first European City of Culture, in ...

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