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Europe

Subject: Religion

The name originally stood for central Greece. It was soon extended to the whole Greek mainland and by 500 bc to the entire land mass behind it. The boundary between the European continent ...

Europe

Europe   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
106 words

... . The classical term ‘Europe’ was in the Middle Ages displaced by ‘Christendom’, and when ‘Europe’ was revived by the humanists in the late fifteenth century, it was a geographical term used to distinguish the land mass of Europe from those of Asia , Africa , and America rather than, as it became in the nineteenth century, a political and cultural term. The idea of a united Christendom was one of the ideals of the Holy Roman Empire . D. de Rougemont , The Idea of Europe (1966); Peter Burke , ‘Did Europe Exist before 1700?’, in History of European...

Europe

Europe (2)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Chaucer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

... (2) , One of the three continents of medieval cartography (HF 1339, II.161; see Maps 1,...

Europe

Europe   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Literature in French

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
19 words

... . Literary periodical created in 1923 by a group round Romain Rolland . Its editors have included Guéhenno and Cassou...

Europe

Europe   Reference library

John GILLIS

Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
History
Length:
3,615 words

...between western European nations and the regions to the east and south became accentuated. Autocratic Russia now became Europe’s “window on the East.” During the New Imperialism of the later nineteenth century, Europeans’ consciousness of their European-ness was again reinforced by encounters with non-European peoples, affirming the observation that “Europe did not simply expand overseas, it made itself through expansion” ( Asad 2002 , 220 ). European anthropology and ethnology supposedly gave scientific credence to Europeans’ heightened sense of...

Europe

Europe   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
308 words

... The world’s second-smallest but third most populous continent, with around 10 per cent of global population. Europe comprises some 50 nation states and principalities. Just over half are members of the European Union (EU) and most are representative democracies in a political sense. Economically, the countries of northern and western Europe remain the wealthiest per capita (Britain, France, Germany, Holland, Switzerland, Finland, Norway, Denmark, and Sweden). Except for Italy, Spain, Portugal, and the Czech Republic, those countries to the south and east...

Europe

Europe   Quick reference

Charles Jones

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
124 words

... Europe remains powerful yet ill‐defined. Some of its members—Russia and Turkey—extend beyond its accepted geographical limits. Such unity as it possessed by the early twentieth century rested equivocally upon a shared though divisive Christianity and a rationalist philosophical and scientific tradition (both owing much to the Arab world), a common history of sustained internecine warfare, a fiction of racial homogeneity, and a claim to original responsibility for industrialization and modernity. This tense unity was first effectively projected beyond its...

Europe

Europe   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
508 words

...( see industrial revolution ). The modern history of Europe is largely that of its constituent nations. In the 20th century European history has been dominated by World War I and World War II . Since the end of World War II the European Community and its successor, the European Union , have brought an altogether more hopeful era to the peoples of Europe...

Europe

Europe   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
720 words

...world affairs. After World War 2, the countries of Europe divided into two ideological blocs: Eastern Europe, dominated by the Soviet Union; and Western Europe, closely aligned with the USA ( see Cold War ) The North Atlantic Treaty Organization ( NATO ) was established to act as a deterrent to the spread of communism ; the Warsaw Pact was its e European counterpart. Several economic organizations, in particular the European Community ( EC ), worked towards closer intra-national cooperation. The collapse of Soviet communism in 1991 added to the...

Europe

Europe   Quick reference

The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Europe , The second smallest continent is said to be named after Europa. According to Greek mythology, she was the daughter of Agenor, King of Phoenicia, who was carried off to Crete by Zeus, the supreme ruler of the Greek gods. Geographically, it was first mentioned in a Greek poem in the 8th century bc . It applied only to the ‘mainland’, that is, the vast territory to the north of ancient Greek horizons. Around the turn of the first millennium ad , the name Europe was not often used. Indeed, it was rarely used until the late 17th century ; more...

Europe

Europe   Reference library

Eric Herbert Warmington and Simon Hornblower

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
530 words

... The name Εὐρώπη originally stood for central Greece ( Hymn. Hom. Ap. 251 , 291 , with N. Richardson's comm., 2010). It was soon extended to the whole Greek mainland, and by 500 bc to the entire land mass behind it. The boundary between the European continent and Asia was usually fixed at the river Don. Homer vaguely knew dark regions of the west and north, but his range of information hardly extended north of Greece or west of Sicily. The Mediterranean seaboard of Europe was chiefly opened up by the Greeks between 800 and 500 bc ( see ...

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