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war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

military, the, And technology

military, the, And technology   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

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Current Version:
2006

...wars such as Korea and Vietnam. But these were strange wars of stalemate and even defeat for the formerly dominant European and North American powers. War was no longer modern. Postmodern War So what should war be called now? There is no real agreement. Over fifty terms have been used to relabel war since the end of World War II. Among the most interesting are “permanent war,” “pure war,” “perfect war,” “postmodern war,” “high-technology war,” “technological war,” “technowar,” “cyberwar,” “computer war,” “high modern war,” “hypermodern war,” “third-wave war,”...

Killian, James Rhyne, Jr.

Killian, James Rhyne, Jr. (1904–1988)   Reference library

Zuoyue Wang

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...of the Carnegie Commission on Educational Television and then of the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, devoted much of his energy to the establishment of public broadcasting in the United States. In 1973 , after President Richard Nixon abolished the PSAC over policy disagreements, Killian chaired a “blue ribbon” committee of the National Academy of Sciences, whose report was in part responsible for the establishment of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy in 1976 . [ See also Compton, Karl Taylor ; Higher Education and Science ; ...

Berkner, Lloyd

Berkner, Lloyd (1905–1967)   Reference library

Hugh Richard Slotten

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...leading member of their community. And as a government researcher, he was accepted as a leading statesman and policy maker. Berkner worked to maintain the involvement of the country’s scientists and engineers in military research and development after the war. He was instrumental in the establishment by the War and Navy Departments of the Joint Research and Development Board and served as the first chair. He also was involved in convincing the military services to operate “summer studies” that used the country’s elite technical experts to help define and solve...

War and Medicine

War and Medicine   Reference library

Dale Smith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...of 1782 ; two other professors and a medical school would follow in the winter and spring. The military medical establishment, like the entire army, was reduced following the war and then recreated in 1812 . American military physicians during the War of 1812 faced the same professional, mobilization, and command and control issues that existed during the Revolution. After the war the commanding general, Jacob Brown, and the secretary of war, J. C. Calhoun, convinced Congress to establish as part of the reorganization of the army a permanent medical...

Military, Science and Technology and The

Military, Science and Technology and The   Reference library

Michael Aaron Dennis

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...parts—arguably one of the most important economic innovations as well as one demonstrating the military’s central role in American economic development. World War I brought limited relations between researchers and the armed services, but save for the establishment of the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, D.C., these relations ended with the armistice. World War II and the long Cold War saw the emergence of a new political economy of knowledge as well as a military and nation-state dependent upon the products of the laboratory for both military...

Veterinary Medicine

Veterinary Medicine   Reference library

Susan D. Jones

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...through the 1930s (largely because of the Depression and the school closures), but this was reversed by the developments of the 1940s and 1950s: the establishment of new veterinary schools after World War II, the discovery of new therapeutics, and the rise of intensive animal production (also known as “factory farming”). Returning World War II veterans played a key role in demanding the establishment of new veterinary schools in state land-grant universities such as those in California, Georgia, Illinois, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, and Oklahoma and...

Hale, George Ellery

Hale, George Ellery (1868–1938)   Reference library

Hugh Richard Slotten

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...interested in the phenomenon of sunspots. Using instruments he helped design, he discovered the role of magnetic fields in sunspot structure. Hale was not only important for American astronomy but also played a leading role in the establishment of general institutions supporting science in the United States. After World War I, he worked to make the National Academy of Sciences more significant nationally through the construction of a permanent building in Washington, D.C. In an effort to link the federal government to the scientific expertise of the...

Science

Science   Reference library

Ronald L. Numbers, Simon Baatz, James Rodger Fleming, Judith R. Goodstein, and Michael Aaron Dennis

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...system became major players in the establishment of a national infrastructure supporting science in America. Early National and Antebellum Eras. In 1782 the new nation could boast of one scientist of international repute (Benjamin Franklin, whose 1751 Experiments and Observations on Electricity was widely translated and reprinted) and two scholarly societies (the American Philosophical Society, based in Philadelphia, and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, in Boston). Although the Revolutionary War stimulated domestic manufactures, science...

Science Journalism

Science Journalism   Reference library

Vincent Kiernan

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...Journalism The character of science and medical journalism has reflected the evolution of both media industries and the scientific establishment in the United States. From its start, American journalism included reporting on science and medicine. Publick Occurrences , which on 25 September 1690 became the first American newspaper, included two paragraphs describing a smallpox outbreak in Boston. Early science journalism was descriptive rather than interpretive or investigative. With the advent of the penny press in the 1830s, newspaper journalists...

Maury, Matthew Fontaine

Maury, Matthew Fontaine (1806–1873)   Reference library

Hugh Richard Slotten

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...was badly injured in a stagecoach accident in 1839 , and the Navy decided to limit his duties to shore assignments. In 1842 , the Secretary of the Navy placed him in charge of the Depot of Charts and Instruments, which had been acquiring scientific instruments since its establishment in 1830 . The Depot sought to advance navigation through the application of hydrography, meteorology, the study of magnetism, and especially astronomy. Congress agreed to fund an astronomical observatory building, and when it was finished in 1844 , the Secretary of the Navy...

Agriculture, U.S. Department of

Agriculture, U.S. Department of   Reference library

Richard C. Sawyer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...Act of 1914 , which formed the Extension Service as a cooperative program of the USDA and land-grant colleges. The USDA became a cabinet-level department in 1889 . Secretary James Wilson ( 1897–1913 ) oversaw the expansion of scientific work in the bureaus, the establishment of federal experiment stations in new territories such as Hawai‘i and Puerto Rico, and the introduction of new crops and varieties by the “plant explorer” David Fairchild. Henry C. Wallace ( 1921–1923 ) increased the department’s work in agricultural economics, recognizing...

Forest Service, U.S.

Forest Service, U.S.   Reference library

James G. Lewis

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...famine” and calls to protect watersheds for urban and agricultural water supplies. The agency’s research touted the questionable link of “forest influences” to climate moderation and water flow. Congress nonetheless passed the 1891 Forest Reserve Act, which authorized the establishment of forest reservations (renamed “national forests” in 1907 ) from public lands. The use of selective data to shape policy raised the question of the independence of research from administrators’ aims, an issue that remains today. The 1897 Forest Management Act’s declaration...

Physiology

Physiology   Reference library

M. S. Laas

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...medical establishment, his research did not spur further experimental work in the United States. A more significant response came from health reformers, who quickly adopted Beaumont’s tables on the speed of digestion of different foods to validate their own dietetic theories. Beaumont’s work was also integrated into hygiene and physiology textbooks for primary and secondary students from the 1830s to 1900 , so that most students were familiar with it ( Numbers and Orr, 1981 ). Professionalization of American Physiology. After the Civil War, scientists...

Physics

Physics   Reference library

Benjamin Wilson and David Kaiser

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...in the earliest decades were focused on subsistence and survival, the establishment of the first colleges and learned societies provided more formal platforms for the growth of natural philosophy in America. Dupree, A. Hunter . Science in the Federal Government: A History of Policies to 1940 . Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1957. A history of the halting growth of federal support of U.S. science, from the ratification of the Constitution until World War II. Dupree emphasizes the central place of science in the development of...

Social Sciences

Social Sciences   Reference library

Mark C. Smith and Mark Solovey

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...intuitions, and experiences based on fighting past wars had little relevance in the nuclear age. Now, securing the national defense and avoiding a catastrophic nuclear war depended on new techniques of scientific analysis that would ensure the rationality of strategic decision making. These scientific and instrumentalist commitments had roots in the pre–World War II decades and in the experiences of social researchers during World War II. The pervasive presence of those commitments following the war also owed much to the influence of powerful...

Oceanography

Oceanography   Reference library

Craig Biegel

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

.... 19, no. 1 (2000): 90–109. Weir, Gary E. An Ocean in Common: American Naval Officers, Scientists, and the Ocean Environment . College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 2001. Argues that the convergence of naval and scientific interests since World War I laid the foundation for the establishment of oceanography as a distinct discipline and its subsequent exponential growth. Williams, Frances Leigh . Matthew Fontaine Maury, Scientist of the Sea . New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1963. To date, the best biography of Maury, but lacks deep...

Office Technology

Office Technology   Reference library

Sharon Hartman Strom

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...and the Marshall Field department store in Chicago. Hollerith’s Computing Tabulating and Recording Company merged with the smaller International Business Machine (IBM) Corporation in 1924 and took its name. By leasing machines and selling keypunch cards to large business establishments, IBM became one of America’s most powerful and profitable corporations, eventually dominating the office-machine industry. Other office machines complemented this basic computing, typewriting, and tabulating technology. Mimeograph machines used typewritten stencils to...

Museums of Science and Natural History

Museums of Science and Natural History   Reference library

Karen A. Rader

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...materials, soon came to dominate the public image of most science and natural history museums. World War II and Beyond. During World War II, both natural history and science museums contributed to the war effort by offering scientific expertise of foreign territories and education to troops and citizens. Both science and natural history museum leaders envisioned an expanded role for their institutions in postwar education, but in the decades after the war, this shared vision soon gave way to differentiated institutional missions. Science museums—a broad...

Einstein, Albert

Einstein, Albert (1879–1955)   Reference library

Diana Kormos Buchwald

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...predictions of general relativity, Einstein’s name became known beyond the confines of his profession. In spring 1921 Einstein traveled for the first time to the United States. He accompanied a Zionist delegation to New York, Chicago, and Boston, raising funds for the establishment of a Hebrew University in Palestine. He also lectured widely on relativity, including at Princeton University. In the early 1930s, Einstein returned for three consecutive visits to the United States and spent three academic winter terms at the California Institute of...

Mathematics and Statistics

Mathematics and Statistics   Reference library

Karen Hunger Parshall

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Community. Many of the same factors that contributed to the emergence of research-level mathematics in the United States in the last quarter of the nineteenth century—the founding of new colleges and universities, the rise of a research ethos within higher education, the establishment of general scientific societies and publications, the creation within the federal government of loci of support for scientific inquiry—also affected the development of a statistical community, especially in the opening decades of the twentieth century. Although 5 men—a printer...

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