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war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

Wildlife Management

Wildlife Management   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...young, and seasonal closure of hunting was the principal form of wildlife management until the late 1800s, when these laws were augmented by the establishment of protected areas (led by the establishment of Yellowstone National Park in 1872 ). Some of the private sportsmen's clubs developed into the first official state fish and wildlife agencies. Concern with depletion of wild birds led to the establishment of several bird conservation organizations, notably the American Ornithologists’ Union ( AOU ) in 1883 , and the Audubon Society in 1886 , both of...

Wildlife Management

Wildlife Management   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...young, and seasonal closure of hunting was the principal form of wildlife management until the late 1800s, when these laws were augmented by the establishment of protected areas (led by the establishment of Yellowstone National Park in 1872 ). Some of the private sportsmen's clubs developed into the first official state fish and wildlife agencies. Concern with depletion of wild birds led to the establishment of several bird conservation organizations, notably the American Ornithologists' Union (AOU) in 1883 , and the Audubon Society in 1886 , both of...

Forestation

Forestation   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...forest area from which the trees have recently been harvested or removed by natural disturbance (e.g., fire, insects, wind, disease, or landslide). The term implies forest replacement by some means other than natural regeneration (natural seed-fall, germination, and seedling establishment). Afforestation is forestation on lands that have not previously supported forest plant communities, or not for a long time. Forestation is undertaken when the natural processes of forest renewal are not working, are expected to work unacceptably slowly, or will result in a...

Forestation

Forestation   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,839 words
Illustration(s):
1

...forest area from which the trees have recently been harvested or removed by natural disturbance (e.g., fire, insects, wind, disease, or landslide). The term implies forest replacement by some means other than natural regeneration (natural seed fall, germination, and seedling establishment). This term is similar to affore station , which refers to forestation on lands that have not previously supported forest plant communities, or not for a long time. A third term, reforestation , has the same meaning as forestation . Forestation is a practice that is...

Australia and Global Change

Australia and Global Change   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...mass. Yet settlement has affected the whole of the continent with ecological impacts ranging from near complete destruction of ecosystems to support intensive agriculture on less than 10% of the continent, logging of nearly all commercially valuable forest, damming of rivers, establishment of plantations of eucalyptus species or exotic conifers, to subtler ecological changes such as altered wild-fire regimes and the introduction of exotic organisms in uncleared landscapes. The great rate of these ongoing changes and imperfect knowledge of the pre-colonization...

Security and Environment

Security and Environment   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...sees certain environmental issues as new threats, or environmental security as a “greening” of their operations. Adding to the confusion are those specialists who often interpret “security” very differently from members of the international-relations community or the defense establishment. Conversely, the introduction of new terms (such as environmental scarcity or environmental refugees ) can frustrate researchers and policy makers for whom similar terms may have specific, important, and sometimes legal, meanings. Assessments of the nature of linkages...

Security And Environment

Security And Environment   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...military, which sees certain environmental issues as new threats, or environmental security as a “greening” of their operations. Adding to the confusion are specialists who interpret “security” differently from members of the international-relations community or the defense establishment. Conversely, the introduction of new terms (such as “environmental scarcity” and “environmental refugees”) can frustrate researchers and policy makers for whom similar terms may have specific, important, and sometimes legal, meanings. Relations between Environment and...

Information Technology

Information Technology   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...J. Watson Jr., was able to secure IBM's entry into the electronic computer market with the IBM 701, originally known as the Defense Calculator, in part by documenting that a single design for a general-purpose computer could meet many of the needs of the U.S. defense establishment for the Korean War. IBM's lack of foresight in the early years of computing would be repeated in its failure (along with other mainframe computer manufacturers) to recognize early on the importance of the personal computer, as well as in Micro soft Corporation's failure to recognize...

Urban Trends

Urban Trends   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...and transit-oriented development; (5) tripling of mileage standards for vehicles; (6) a moratorium on airport construction and expansion; (7) a moratorium on construction of coal-fired and nuclear power plants; (8) rapid construction of solar and wind-electric capacity; (9) establishment of organic farms in every city and town; and (10) planting of millions of trees ( www.newurbanism.org ). Table 1. Most Populous Urban Agglomerations, 2005 Rank Name   Estimated Population 1 Tokyo, Japan 35,197,000 2 Mexico City, Mexico 19,411,000 3 New York–Newark, U.S.A....

Elephants

Elephants   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
3,100 words
Illustration(s):
2

...of forestry, mining, mineral extraction, and other development activities on elephant habitat. Political support for existing protected-area systems containing elephants needs to be strengthened and requests for downgrading of the legal protection of such areas resisted. The establishment of new reserves in regions of low coverage, such as the central African forests, is to be encouraged. In addition to these habitat protection considerations, actions to control poaching and illegal trading in ivory must remain major objectives. There is a need for a review of...

Australia

Australia   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,844 words
Illustration(s):
1

...), buffalo ( Bubalus bubalis ), camels ( Camelus dromadarius ), horses ( Equus caballus ), donkeys ( Equus asinus ), and goats ( Capra hircus ) have become feral over large parts of Australia. During the nineteenth-century acclimatization, societies actively promoted the establishment of a variety of Northern Hemisphere species to give a European character to Australia's environment and to provide game for recreational hunting. Some of these species have become serious pests, most notably the fox ( Vulpes vulpes ) and rabbit ( Oryctolagus cuniculus ). Some...

Mangroves

Mangroves   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,529 words
Illustration(s):
1

...failed to regenerate on the worked-over terrain. The most extensive clearance of mangroves in recent decades has been made for the establishment of aquaculture (fish and prawn ponds) and salt pans in such countries as Ecuador and Brazil, and especially in southeastern Asia. [See Fish Farming .] Mangroves have also been damaged or destroyed by pollution, especially oil spills near port areas, and by pesticides, as during the war in Vietnam. Globally, mangrove losses have already been substantial. Spalding (see bibliography) noted that in Thailand, for...

Mangroves

Mangroves   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,495 words
Illustration(s):
1

...on the worked-over terrain. The most extensive clearance of mangroves in recent decades has been carried out for the establishment of aquaculture (fish and shrimp ponds) and salt pans in such countries as Ecuador and Brazil, and especially in southeastern Asia. Mangroves have also been damaged or destroyed by pollution, especially oil spills near port areas, and by defoliating herbicides such as Agent Orange, as during the war in Vietnam. Globally, mangrove losses have already been substantial. Spalding (see bibliography) noted that in Thailand, for...

Human Populations

Human Populations   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
7,227 words
Illustration(s):
5

...political cohesion of European and North American states from the eighteenth century was associated with the first formal national compilations of population data, and the state is now everywhere the prime agency for population enumeration. This takes two forms. First, the establishment of national registration systems for births, deaths and marriages, often as a direct derivative of ecclesiastical records of baptisms and burials. In most developed countries, registration has been a continuous source for monitoring population change, and in a few cases...

Human Populations

Human Populations   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
6,837 words
Illustration(s):
3

...cohesion of European and North American states from the eighteenth century was associated with the first formal national compilations of population data, and the state is now everywhere the prime agency for population enumeration. This takes two forms. The first was the establishment of national registration systems for births, deaths, and marriages, often as a direct derivative of ecclesiastical records of baptisms and burials. In most developed countries, registration has been a continuous source for monitoring population change, and in a few cases...

Fishing

Fishing   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
3,882 words
Illustration(s):
7

... Straddling and Migratory Stocks Agreement .] In defense, Canada established a two-hundred-nautical-mile exclusive fishing zone (in accord with new international law) in 1977 . This embraced most of the Grand Banks, but left three outlying shelf areas unprotected. After establishment of the exclusive zone, federal and provincial subsidies to fishermen encouraged the Canadian industry to expand: between 1974 and 1981 the number of licensed fishermen grew from 36,500 to 53,000, while processing capacity was more than doubled. Expansion of the fishing...

Erosion

Erosion   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
3,082 words
Illustration(s):
1

...factor contributing to the decline of the ancient civilizations in Mesopotamia and the Middle East. The remains of terracing from these times illustrate a very early understanding of erosion control. The foundation of soil conservation as a worldwide movement dates from the establishment in 1935 of the United States Soil Conservation Service, with H. H. Bennett as its first director. [See the biography of Bennett .] The basis of soil conservation is wise land use and good land management. The Soil Conservation Service pioneered a system of land...

Erosion

Erosion   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,952 words
Illustration(s):
1

...factor contributing to the decline of the ancient civilizations in Mesopotamia and the Middle East. The remains of terracing from these times illustrate a very early understanding of erosion control. The foundation of soil conservation as a worldwide movement dates from the establishment in 1935 of the United States Soil Conservation Service (now the Natural Resources Conservation Service), with H. H. Bennett as its first director. The basis of soil conservation is wise land use and good land management. The Soil Conservation Service pioneered a system of...

Human Dimensions of Global Change

Human Dimensions of Global Change   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...to developments taking place since the late fifteenth century. The Columbian Encounter The pivotal event was the abrupt Columbian Encounter: the mutual discovery by the inhabitants of the two hemispheres of the existence of the transoceanic other, resulting in the immediate establishment of close connections between the peoples and biotic and other resources of the Americas on the one hand, and Europe, Africa, and Asia on the other. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands were to enter this extended community two to three hundred years later. There is...

Global Change

Global Change   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...of the roles humans have played in global change. The Columbian encounter The pivotal event was the abrupt Columbian Encounter: the effective mutual discovery by the inhabitants of the two hemispheres of the existence of the transoceanic other, resulting in an immediate establishment of tight interconnections between the peoples, biotic, and other resources of the Americas on the one hand, Europe, Africa, and Asia on the other. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands were to enter this extended community some two to three hundred years later. We...

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