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war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

chip

chip   Quick reference

The Diner’s Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...call potato crisps —and they have always preferred the term French fries . Since the Second World War this has been making determined inroads into the British chip , particularly in fast-food outlets (in the late 1980s Buxted changed the name of their ready-meal ‘Chicken and Chips’ to ‘Chicken and Fries’). Meanwhile a minor outflanking move on British usage has been made by French pommes frites , or their abbreviation frites , in upmarket establishments where the chip would be infra dig ( see also pont-neuf potatoes ). To complicate matters further,...

Wildlife Management

Wildlife Management   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...young, and seasonal closure of hunting was the principal form of wildlife management until the late 1800s, when these laws were augmented by the establishment of protected areas (led by the establishment of Yellowstone National Park in 1872 ). Some of the private sportsmen's clubs developed into the first official state fish and wildlife agencies. Concern with depletion of wild birds led to the establishment of several bird conservation organizations, notably the American Ornithologists’ Union ( AOU ) in 1883 , and the Audubon Society in 1886 , both of...

Wildlife Management

Wildlife Management   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...young, and seasonal closure of hunting was the principal form of wildlife management until the late 1800s, when these laws were augmented by the establishment of protected areas (led by the establishment of Yellowstone National Park in 1872 ). Some of the private sportsmen's clubs developed into the first official state fish and wildlife agencies. Concern with depletion of wild birds led to the establishment of several bird conservation organizations, notably the American Ornithologists' Union (AOU) in 1883 , and the Audubon Society in 1886 , both of...

Forestation

Forestation   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...forest area from which the trees have recently been harvested or removed by natural disturbance (e.g., fire, insects, wind, disease, or landslide). The term implies forest replacement by some means other than natural regeneration (natural seed-fall, germination, and seedling establishment). Afforestation is forestation on lands that have not previously supported forest plant communities, or not for a long time. Forestation is undertaken when the natural processes of forest renewal are not working, are expected to work unacceptably slowly, or will result in a...

Forestation

Forestation   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,839 words
Illustration(s):
1

...forest area from which the trees have recently been harvested or removed by natural disturbance (e.g., fire, insects, wind, disease, or landslide). The term implies forest replacement by some means other than natural regeneration (natural seed fall, germination, and seedling establishment). This term is similar to affore station , which refers to forestation on lands that have not previously supported forest plant communities, or not for a long time. A third term, reforestation , has the same meaning as forestation . Forestation is a practice that is...

Emerging and Re-emerging Diseases

Emerging and Re-emerging Diseases   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...husbandry may therefore significantly influence, and even possibly accelerate, the evolution of influenza. Once introduced, the success of the pathogen in a new population depends on its establishment and dissemination within the population. Many zoonotic introductions are highly virulent and not readily transmissible from person to person, preventing their establishment. Both the evolutionary potential of the pathogen and chance will play a role in whether the infection will be able to establish itself. An analytic framework was developed by Anderson and...

Australia and Global Change

Australia and Global Change   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...mass. Yet settlement has affected the whole of the continent with ecological impacts ranging from near complete destruction of ecosystems to support intensive agriculture on less than 10% of the continent, logging of nearly all commercially valuable forest, damming of rivers, establishment of plantations of eucalyptus species or exotic conifers, to subtler ecological changes such as altered wild-fire regimes and the introduction of exotic organisms in uncleared landscapes. The great rate of these ongoing changes and imperfect knowledge of the pre-colonization...

Security and Environment

Security and Environment   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...sees certain environmental issues as new threats, or environmental security as a “greening” of their operations. Adding to the confusion are those specialists who often interpret “security” very differently from members of the international-relations community or the defense establishment. Conversely, the introduction of new terms (such as environmental scarcity or environmental refugees ) can frustrate researchers and policy makers for whom similar terms may have specific, important, and sometimes legal, meanings. Assessments of the nature of linkages...

Security And Environment

Security And Environment   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...military, which sees certain environmental issues as new threats, or environmental security as a “greening” of their operations. Adding to the confusion are specialists who interpret “security” differently from members of the international-relations community or the defense establishment. Conversely, the introduction of new terms (such as “environmental scarcity” and “environmental refugees”) can frustrate researchers and policy makers for whom similar terms may have specific, important, and sometimes legal, meanings. Relations between Environment and...

Warfare and Weather

Warfare and Weather   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,453 words
Illustration(s):
1

...at its height, and Spain exercised influence and control over much of the known world. Philip II of Spain ( 1527–1598 ) came to view England and its Queen, Elizabeth I ( 1533–1603 ), as Protestant heretics. One of Elizabeth's first acts as monarch had been to support the establishment of an English Protestant church. In a political context, Spain ruled the Low Countries, the regions which now constitute Belgium and the Netherlands. The populations of these areas strove to throw off the foreign Spanish occupation. England, concerned that a rival great power...

Information Technology

Information Technology   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...J. Watson Jr., was able to secure IBM's entry into the electronic computer market with the IBM 701, originally known as the Defense Calculator, in part by documenting that a single design for a general-purpose computer could meet many of the needs of the U.S. defense establishment for the Korean War. IBM's lack of foresight in the early years of computing would be repeated in its failure (along with other mainframe computer manufacturers) to recognize early on the importance of the personal computer, as well as in Micro soft Corporation's failure to recognize...

Urban Trends

Urban Trends   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...and transit-oriented development; (5) tripling of mileage standards for vehicles; (6) a moratorium on airport construction and expansion; (7) a moratorium on construction of coal-fired and nuclear power plants; (8) rapid construction of solar and wind-electric capacity; (9) establishment of organic farms in every city and town; and (10) planting of millions of trees ( www.newurbanism.org ). Table 1. Most Populous Urban Agglomerations, 2005 Rank Name   Estimated Population 1 Tokyo, Japan 35,197,000 2 Mexico City, Mexico 19,411,000 3 New York–Newark, U.S.A....

Eugenics

Eugenics   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...and left. Morgan, T. H. Evolution and Genetics . Princeton, 1925. Müller-Hill, B. Murderous Science: Elimination by Scientific Selection of Jews, Gypsies, and Others, Germany 1933–1945 . Translated by G. R. Fraser . Oxford, 1988. A study of how the German scientific establishment became an integral part of the racial and eugenic policies of the Nazi government. Paul, D. B. Controlling Human Heredity: 1865 to the Present . Amherst, N.Y., 1995. A brief history of eugenics, emphasizing its wide support among geneticists of the first half of the...

Elephants

Elephants   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
3,100 words
Illustration(s):
2

...of forestry, mining, mineral extraction, and other development activities on elephant habitat. Political support for existing protected-area systems containing elephants needs to be strengthened and requests for downgrading of the legal protection of such areas resisted. The establishment of new reserves in regions of low coverage, such as the central African forests, is to be encouraged. In addition to these habitat protection considerations, actions to control poaching and illegal trading in ivory must remain major objectives. There is a need for a review of...

Agricultural Extension and Climate Change Communication

Agricultural Extension and Climate Change Communication   Reference library

Linda S. Prokopy, Wendy-Lin Bartels, Gary Burniske, and Rebecca Power

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...the first entirely state-funded agricultural extension program in 1879 ( Jones & Garforth, 1997 ). European colonies in South Asia, the Caribbean, and West Africa also saw the early establishment of extension programs, especially in the form of demonstration gardens ( Jones & Garforth, 1997 ). With the initiation of international development after World War II, the delivery of agricultural technology utilized the models from the United States, where the outside experts possessed knowledge and the farmers were the recipients. Practices that worked...

Australia

Australia   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,844 words
Illustration(s):
1

...), buffalo ( Bubalus bubalis ), camels ( Camelus dromadarius ), horses ( Equus caballus ), donkeys ( Equus asinus ), and goats ( Capra hircus ) have become feral over large parts of Australia. During the nineteenth-century acclimatization, societies actively promoted the establishment of a variety of Northern Hemisphere species to give a European character to Australia's environment and to provide game for recreational hunting. Some of these species have become serious pests, most notably the fox ( Vulpes vulpes ) and rabbit ( Oryctolagus cuniculus ). Some...

Mangroves

Mangroves   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,529 words
Illustration(s):
1

...failed to regenerate on the worked-over terrain. The most extensive clearance of mangroves in recent decades has been made for the establishment of aquaculture (fish and prawn ponds) and salt pans in such countries as Ecuador and Brazil, and especially in southeastern Asia. [See Fish Farming .] Mangroves have also been damaged or destroyed by pollution, especially oil spills near port areas, and by pesticides, as during the war in Vietnam. Globally, mangrove losses have already been substantial. Spalding (see bibliography) noted that in Thailand, for...

Mangroves

Mangroves   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,495 words
Illustration(s):
1

...on the worked-over terrain. The most extensive clearance of mangroves in recent decades has been carried out for the establishment of aquaculture (fish and shrimp ponds) and salt pans in such countries as Ecuador and Brazil, and especially in southeastern Asia. Mangroves have also been damaged or destroyed by pollution, especially oil spills near port areas, and by defoliating herbicides such as Agent Orange, as during the war in Vietnam. Globally, mangrove losses have already been substantial. Spalding (see bibliography) noted that in Thailand, for...

Cooperation

Cooperation   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...corresponding evolutionary chronicles show that there is a distinct trend toward the emergence of a population that cooperates almost always. If 2 P < T + S (in particular, if the benefit, b , is more than twice the cost, c ), then the computer runs end often with the establishment of the Pavlov strategy. This strategy prescribes to cooperate in the first round, and from then on to cooperate if and only if the other player, in the previous round, has chosen the same move as oneself. Pavlov embodies a win-stay, lose-shift rule, and hence a rudimentary...

United States Federal Policy

United States Federal Policy   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...for example). Nevertheless, overarching federal regulations could promote adaptive capacity by altering floodplain development, management of coastal zones, and insurance practices to account for climate change impacts. Similarly, federal disaster relief efforts, the establishment and design of U.S. wildlife reserves, and management of water and agricultural resources could all account for vulnerabilities anticipated by climate change. In addition, U.S. federal policies may promote decentralized adaptation by providing a centralized source of: 1)...

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