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war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

Peninsular War

Peninsular War   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Brontës

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
400 words

...against tyranny. Although the war was over before the births of Charlotte and her surviving siblings, the Brontës' childhood reading and political attitudes were informed by these recent events and by Revd Patrick Brontë 's intense interest in military affairs. In particular they read about the exploits of the British forces under the Duke of Wellington (still ‘Arthur Wellesley’ at the time), who had been sent to support the Spanish in repelling the French invasion and overthrowing the establishment of Napoleon's brother, Joseph Buonaparte , on the...

‘History of the Young Men, The’

‘History of the Young Men, The’   Reference library

Victor Neufeldt

The Oxford Companion to the Brontës

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
349 words

...of the Young Men, The’ . In a hand-sewn booklet of eighteen pages (dated 7 May 1831 ; MS in BL), Captain John Bud (Branwell Brontë), in six chapters, details the establishment of the Glass Town Federation ( see glass town and angrian saga ) in the Ashantee territory of West Africa, and includes a map of the Federation. In the introduction Branwell describes how a set of toy soldiers became the Twelves who set sail for Africa . Among the crew were Arthur Wellesley (spelt Wellesly by Branwell; see wellington, duke of ); Sir W. E. Parry , ...

Napoleon Buonaparte

Napoleon Buonaparte (1769–1821) (historical)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Brontës

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
636 words

...Angrian saga despite his alliances with monarchy. Except in her earliest manuscripts, Charlotte sees Napoleon chiefly as the enemy, as the cause of the Peninsular War and the symbol of all that is antipathetic to her Tory hero Wellington. Whigs and radicals in Britain also saw Napoleon as a symbol of opposition to Tory government and, even after his aggressive imperialism and the establishment of his dynastic empire, Whigs like Byron and Hazlitt continued to admire him. Byron especially saw Napoleon as a model: in Don Juan he terms himself the...

Ireland

Ireland   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Brontës

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
583 words

...was varied by the bleaching-greens of the local linen weavers. To the south-east rise the mountains of Mourne. In 1777 Ireland was in a state of turbulence, when Volunteers raised during the time of the War of American Independence demanded political reform. In 1782–3 Ireland obtained legislative independence from Britain with the establishment of an Irish parliament. This gave more power to wealthy Protestant landowners, but greater misery to a mainly Catholic peasantry suffering from absentee landlordism, rackrenting, and eviction. In the 1790s...

Luddite riots

Luddite riots   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Brontës

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
980 words

...period Revd Patrick Brontë held curacies in areas affected by the risings: the Yorkshire woollen town of Dewsbury and Hartshead , 4 miles west of Dewsbury. Large numbers of those in the Rawfolds attack were among Mr Brontë 's parishioners and although he supported the establishment in condemning the attack, he did not answer the alarm with a sword in hand as did his friend Revd Hammond Roberson . However, it is thought that his lifelong habit of keeping a loaded pistol overnight in the house and discharging it each morning, stems from this troubled...

letters

letters   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to Hardy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
2,249 words

...earlier wars which throbbed ‘with enthusiasm & romance’ ( L iii 135). These words were written to Florence Henniker when memories of the Boer War were still fresh. A year later, Hardy writes again to Mrs Henniker that ‘politics have played me a shabby trick of coming to a crisis just at the moment when I meant to bring out Dynasts II . … I feel rather gloomy about it, as indeed about most things’ ( L iii 190). War, with its inhumanity and suffering, affected Hardy deeply. Thus he writes to Cockerell in December 1915 : ‘It is a gloomy time, in which...

Glass Town and Angrian saga

Glass Town and Angrian saga   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Brontës

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
3,011 words

...‘Wellesly’ for her ‘Wellesley’); Charlotte's version is the most often used by scholars and has been adopted in this Companion, with Branwell's version recorded in brackets. Wars and political upheavals dominate the events of the saga throughout its history, transposed from relatively recent real events such as republican uprisings, the Ashantee Wars , or the Peninsular War ( see also wellington, duke of ( fictional ) ; napoleon ( fictional ) ). They are chronicled in obsessive detail by Branwell ( see angria and the angrians ) and form the...

public readings

public readings   Reference library

Philip Collins

Oxford Reader's Companion to Dickens

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
2,591 words

...‘in these days of lecturing and reading’ ( 11 October 1846 ). Conditions were indeed propitious, and it is surprising that Dickens delayed so long, given his skills and delight in performance and the dramatic quality of his fiction. Mechanics' Institutes and such-like recent establishments provided suitable audiences and auditoria, respectable people for whom theatres were taboo yearned for more admissible stage performances, and steam transport facilitated such touring ventures. Literary men were more commonly giving lectures ( Coleridge , Hazlitt , and ...

health and medicine

health and medicine   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Brontës

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
1,739 words

...Tuke , who founded the York Retreat, opened in 1796 . Dr John Conolly ( 1794–1866 ) introduced humane treatment into Hanwell asylum from 1839 . An Act of 1808 made publicly funded psychiatric asylums possible, and an Act of 1845 made their provision compulsory. Other establishments were founded with the help of subscribers, or run by doctors such as Henry S. Belcombe of York, at whose Clifton House asylum Ellen Nussey 's brother George was cared for. Enlightened private homes might provide varied interest through music or gardening. Some private...

Time's Laughingstocks

Time's Laughingstocks   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to Hardy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
4,036 words

...to that city to receive an honorary degree, is another very competent occasional poem. Hardy's greatness as a poet writing about war had been shown in the poems about the *Boer War included in Poems of the Past and the Present . One war poem written too late to get into that volume is ‘The Man He Killed’. It is a dramatic monologue spoken by a bewildered ex-soldier, and a brilliant treatment of the stupidity and futility of war. Time's Laughingstocks can now be seen as a stepping-stone on the way to Satires of Circumstance , which followed five years...

Dickens, John

Dickens, John (1785–1851)   Reference library

Michael Allen

Oxford Reader's Companion to Dickens

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
2,618 words

...those whom he could serve and a most affectionate kind Husband and Father’ (quoted by Slater 1983 , p. 4). There was an excitement about John Dickens 's job in Portsmouth—he was part of a major naval establishment fighting against Napoleon and later against America. The port town was rough and dangerous, filled with men hardened by their experiences at war, bustling with those involved in the provisioning and maintenance of ships. John Dickens 's work included the paying of sailors and artificers, involving large sums, with hand-outs often made by...

religion

religion   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to Hardy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
4,328 words

...differences heightened Hardy's native tendency towards anticlericalism and hostility towards the established Church. The later novels, not least in their treatment of marriage, encountered (perhaps even courted) the disapproval of the Establishment. Tess sets out a natural law to contrast with that of the Establishment; the preface to Jude takes some pleasure at the novel having been burnt by a bishop. ‘A Refusal’ satirizes opposition to a memorial to *Byron in Westminster Abbey; Hardy himself was to be the subject of a similar debate, with a...

Wessex

Wessex   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to Hardy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
3,794 words

...his first taste of city life in the spring of 1862 he was indeed the complete provincial in social terms. His family background had no cultural, educational, or financial link with the gentry, no university sophistication or polish, no insight into the subtler codes of the Establishment. He had his innate talent, his own resolute pursuit of an education, and his recognition that for him what he called bohemian values were paramount. In Wessex he was secure: London was his challenge, and remained so for many years. He was of that first generation of ambitious...

Transport: roads, coaches, railways, omnibuses, cabs

Transport: roads, coaches, railways, omnibuses, cabs   Reference library

John Drew

Oxford Reader's Companion to Dickens

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
3,018 words

...advances were still being made in the development of road networks in the United Kingdom. In the period 1730–70 England and Wales had already seen a huge increase in the provision of well-maintained high-roads. Steady expansion of inland consumption and trade encouraged the establishment of numerous private turnpike trusts, and the parishes adjacent to highways such as the Great North and Great West Roads were no longer burdened with their maintenance. Tolls were charged to rich and poor alike, affording foreigners a notable example of the relatively...

Dickens, Charles

Dickens, Charles   Reference library

Paul Schlicke and John Drew

Oxford Reader's Companion to Dickens

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
5,443 words

...case the intense awareness which he possessed of his presence in the public eye, as transmitted by the medium of his writings and performances, was in many ways a defining influence. His remarks about the dignity of literature as a calling, and his emphasis as narrator on the establishment of intimate relations with his readers suggest a man whose ideal of public life was uniquely realized by his position as a popular periodical author, whose works were in circulation, month after month, for over thirty years. Nevertheless, the evidence which emerges from...

publishing, printing, bookselling: modes of production

publishing, printing, bookselling: modes of production   Reference library

Robert Patten

Oxford Reader's Companion to Dickens

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
4,699 words

...book publisher, Richard Bentley , combined a number of the advantages separately represented in earlier firms. Though by 1837 Bentley was only in publishing, from 1819 to 1829 he had been in partnership with his elder brother, Samuel , who owned a substantial printing establishment in Dorset Street. Samuel continued to print many of Bentley's publications, including the magazine he initiated in January 1837 , Bentley's Miscellany , and portions of the three-volume edition of Oliver Twist . That Richard Bentley owned a periodical gave him access to...

London

London   Reference library

Andrew Sanders, Andrew Sanders, Andrew Sanders, Andrew Sanders, Paul Schlicke, David Parker, Andrew Sanders, David Parker, Andrew Sanders, Andrew Sanders, Anne Humpherys, and David Parker

Oxford Reader's Companion to Dickens

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
12,596 words

...River’, ‘The Steam Excursion’). As the population of London burgeoned, so too did the variety and extent of its provision of entertainment. Although no new theatres were built in the metropolis between 1843 and 1866 , for most of Dickens's lifetime there were about 30 establishments licensed for theatrical entertainment—a figure which does not include private theatres, penny gaffs, song and supper clubs, and taverns in which entertainers performed. Dickens, who went to the theatre nearly every night as a young man, knew them all and wrote numerous drama...

History of the Young Men

History of the Young Men  

In a hand-sewn booklet of eighteen pages (dated 7 May 1831; MS in BL), Captain John Bud (Branwell Brontë), in six chapters, details the establishment of the Glass Town Federation ...
‘Crime of Partition, The’

‘Crime of Partition, The’   Reference library

Oxford Reader’s Companion To Conrad

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
454 words

...that the nature of the Polish national temperament and the nation’s political traditions, both strongly linked with the West, make its independence ‘a political necessity and a moral solution’ (128): ‘The only course that remains to a reconstituted Poland is the elaboration, establishment, and preservation of the most correct method of political relations with neighbours to whom Poland’s existence is bound to be a humiliation and an offence. Calmly considered it is an appalling task, yet one may put one’s trust in that national temperament which is so...

woman question, the

woman question, the   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to George Eliot

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
3,290 words

...Repentance’, the third of the Scenes , narrated its heroine's endurance of her husband's relentless beatings, thus recording from its own removed perspective precisely the kind of scandalous incident that was making for public outcry. And as feminists worked toward the establishment of a woman's college, George Eliot in The Mill on the Floss was exposing the agony of Maggie Tulliver , whose intelligence had been so badly neglected. Although the novels continually engage with the struggles of women, George Eliot was wary of more direct forms of...

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