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Protestant Reformation

Protestant Reformation noun   Reference library

The Canadian Oxford Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
9 words
Religion

Religion   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,549 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...problematical character of Warburton's analysis—which he had insisted was rooted in the order of nature—is underscored by the ways in which establishment elsewhere in Britain and Ireland was realized. The Presbyterian Church of Scotland, descending from the sixteenth-century Reformation, was governed (again under the King, who adhered to different religions north and south of the border) through a hierarchy of mixed lay and clerical bodies culminating in the General Assembly, an arrangement confirmed following the *Glorious Revolution of 1688–9 ; Scottish...

Popular Culture

Popular Culture   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Family and Local History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,613 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...for their mediation in ensuring future salvation for the individuals concerned or their forebears, were staple parts of worship down to the Reformation (see Oliver Padel , ‘Local Saints and Place‐Names in Cornwall’, in Alan Thacker and Richard Sharpe (eds), Local Saints in the Early Medieval West (2002) ; Graham Jones , Saints in the Landscape (2007) ; Robert Whiting , Local Responses to the English Reformation (1998) ). The parish churches themselves (or, in later times, church houses adjacent) were venues for church ales to raise money for the...

Family and Society

Family and Society   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Family and Local History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,021 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...them to exploit the opportunities presented by the market. How deeply the 16th‐century Reformation influenced the family is a much‐debated question. The reduction of the prohibited degrees of marriage was probably not a momentous development for most people. In England, expectations of major divorce law reform were disappointed; see E. J. Carlson , Marriage and the English Reformation (1994). In their teaching on the family, based firmly on the Bible, the Protestant reformers emphatically upheld the authority of husbands, fathers, and parents. It was...

Folklore, Customs, and Civic Ritual

Folklore, Customs, and Civic Ritual   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Family and Local History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,034 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...arrowheads or flakes were still being described in this way earlier in the 20th century. More broadly, it was the Church itself that, from the beginning, deliberately turned a blind eye to the overlap of the least objectionable pagan practices with Christian ideas. The pre‐ Reformation Church thus simply perpetuated an existing blend of magical and religious beliefs (see Keith Thomas , Religion and the Decline of Magic (1971) ). Even for the 19th century, James Obelkevich has been able to describe the surviving complementarities of paganism and...

Revolution

Revolution   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,734 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...deliberately sought by reformers, but from the winter of 1792–3 the common people also became the target for loyalist tracts, ballads, and broadsides. The task of addressing the people was subsequently taken up in 1794–5 by Hannah More and others concerned with the moral reformation of *popular culture [23] by means of the mass production and distribution of the *Cheap Repository Tracts . By the height of the *invasion scare in 1803 the mass dissemination of loyalist ballads and broadsides had become an unquestioned part of government strategy. One...

History

History   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,067 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...touchstone for Victorian medievalism, as James *Mill 's History of British India ( 1817 ) was to be for later writings on the colonization of South Asia. Histories were also produced by writers better known for work in other fields: William *Cobbett 's History of the Protestant Reformation in England and Ireland ( 1824–7 ), for example, or Robert *Southey 's historiographical rebuttals to Cobbett's radical account. Yet it remains one of the less appreciated paradoxes of this period that the writings to which we must look for the most convincing evidence...

25 The History of the Book in Switzerland

25 The History of the Book in Switzerland   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
1,936 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...decades; but the Geneva book trade would no doubt have remained in the shadow of that of Lyons if it had not been for the Reformation. Called to Geneva by Guillaume Farel , Jean Girard (from 1536 ; d. 1558 ) became the chief printer of the works of Calvin. As the Protestant Rome, Geneva saw the publication of many important works of reformed religion, particularly bibles and *psalters , although the first French Protestant translation of the Bible ( 1535 ), by Pierre-Robert Olivétan, was printed in Serrières (now part of Neuchâtel), by Pierre de...

31 The History of the Book in Hungary

31 The History of the Book in Hungary   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
2,942 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...during the Reformation and Counter-Reformation produced material aimed at serving and supporting Hungarian Protestantism. The most significant of these, Gál Huszár, established his printing office first in Magyaróvár (Mosonmagyaróvár), then in Kassa (Košice). He later settled in Debrecen to print and publish the works of the Reformed bishop Péter Juhász Melius ( 1532–72 ). In 1555 , Raphael Hoffhalter settled in Vienna, where his printing office produced 123 Latin and Hungarian publications during the following seven years. His Protestantism made him flee,...

30 The History of the Book in Austria

30 The History of the Book in Austria   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
1,528 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...was social unrest among the peasants, and religious life was shaken by the Reformation. The fear of Lutheranism led to *censorship being imposed as early as 1528 . Unlike in Germany, Protestant printing was never more than peripheral in Austria. The Counter-Reformation brought educational reform and renewal of intellectual life through the Jesuits, who also established printing presses (for example, in 1559 at Vienna), but it also meant the confiscation and burning of Protestant books (for example, 10,000 books at Graz in August 1600 ). Even in 1712 ,...

34 The History of the Book in the Baltic States

34 The History of the Book in the Baltic States   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
1,992 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and later the Soviet Union. Lithuania in turn has strong historical ties to Poland; the two countries formed a ‘Republic of two Nations’ (Rzeczpospolita Obojga Narodów) between 1569 and 1795 , and share a predominantly Catholic faith. Particularly in Estonia and Latvia, the Reformation played a major role in the spread of books and reading in the vernacular. Latvian and Lithuanian are both Baltic languages and form part of the Indo-European linguistic family, whereas Estonian is a Finno-Ugric language, which in part explains the traditionally strong ties...

20a The History of the Book in Britain, c.1475–1800

20a The History of the Book in Britain, c.1475–1800   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,011 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Gaelic. Attempts to foster the Protestant Reformation in Ireland through publications in the Irish language were less than convincing and met with little success. Elizabeth I provided funding for the casting of a *fount of Irish type in 1567 , but the first Irish printed work did not appear until 1571 , when a trial piece entitled Tuar Ferge Foighide (a religious ballad by Philip Ó hUiginn) was produced. Shortly afterwards, Seán Ó Cearnaigh ( John Kearney ) printed the Abidil Gaoidheilge agus Caiticiosma , a Protestant *primer . These proselytizing...

33 The History of the Book in Poland

33 The History of the Book in Poland   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
4,081 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...the Reformation and Counter-Reformation facilitated the spread of literacy and increased demand for print. Printing spread beyond the capital city to small towns and villages where Protestant printers operated presses under the protection of local landowners. In Poland-Lithuania, Lutheranism held sway in the north, whereas Calvinism, antitrinitarianism, and unitarianism took hold amongst the landed gentry, the magnates of Małopolska, the grand duchy of Lithuania, and even Europe’s largest landowners, the Radziwiłłs. At first, Polish-language Protestant...

26 The History of the Book in the Nordic Countries

26 The History of the Book in the Nordic Countries   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,145 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...particularly concerned with economics and science, were established with royal support. In the world of libraries, significant developments took place during the early modern period. Medieval clerical book collections were dissolved or destroyed after the Lutheran Reformation, and Protestant church libraries remained modest, although some cathedral libraries and cathedral schools could boast fine collections. From the late 16 th century, extensive libraries were built up by nobles ( *Rantzau , *De la Gardie , *Karen Brahe , Otto *Thott ), some of whom...

32 The History of the Book in the Czech Republic and Slovakia

32 The History of the Book in the Czech Republic and Slovakia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
3,050 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...locations in Ivančice and Kralice. Founded soon after 1500 , the Unity was among the first printers to spread Reformation ideas. Its imprints are characterized by fine typography and design, and by the high standard of their Czech language. The Unity’s six-volume *Kralice Bible ( 1579–94 ) crowns the impressive sequence of Czech bible printing in this era. 2.3 The 17 th and 18 th centuries The victory of the Catholic Habsburgs over the Protestants in 1620 had far-reaching consequences for the development of printing. The Czech language, regarded as a...

24 The History of the Book in Germany

24 The History of the Book in Germany   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,033 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...Although Vienna and Munich publishers effectively had a monopoly in the Catholic domains of the Habsburgs and the Wittelsbachs, the centre of gravity of the book trade shifted from the south to the centre and north. Even though the Lutheran Reformation had spent its force by the mid-16 th century, the Protestant book trade maintained its ascendancy over German intellectual life. The Frankfurt fair, however, lost its dominant role. Many dealers, especially foreigners, failed to resume their activities there after 1648 , the restrictions imposed by the...

7 The Book as Symbol

7 The Book as Symbol   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
1,981 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...was a material symbol of the purging of abstract ideas: Jan Hus was burned with his books at the Council of Constance in 1415 , and the same council ordered Wyclif’s bones to be exhumed and burned alongside his writings. Such practices survived the Reformation and transferred into nascent Protestantism: Michael Servetus was burned at Geneva in 1553 with several portions of manuscript and one of his printed works bound around his waist. In the new confessional divisions, the Bible itself came under threat: Tyndale’s New Testament was burned in England...

23 The History of the Book in the Low Countries

23 The History of the Book in the Low Countries   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,998 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
3

...and romance, new forms of poetry and prose, inspired by Italian and French Renaissance models, gained popularity, first in Latin, soon also in Dutch. The book trade eagerly tapped into these new trends. The Reformation provided an equally potent incentive to book production. From the 1520s onwards there was a growing demand for Protestant books, from treatises by Luther and other, often more radical reformers to editions of the Bible in the vernacular. The first complete Dutch edition of the Bible, which was partly based on *Luther ’s German...

Henry IV Part 1

Henry IV Part 1   Reference library

Michael Dobson and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,574 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...by calling him only Sir John in speech prefixes throughout this play and the subsequent Merry Wives of Windsor and 2 Henry IV . Sources: Shakespeare drew both the name and the reprobate character of Oldcastle from an anonymous play about Prince Harry’s wild youth, sudden reformation, and glorious kingship, The Famous Victories of Henry V , entered in the Stationers’ Register in 1594 and printed in 1598 : this work undoubtedly influenced not only 1 Henry IV but the rest of the Second Tetralogy , but the surviving text offered by the 1598 edition is...

21 The History of the Book in Ireland

21 The History of the Book in Ireland   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
3,994 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Act had less impact, and a number of developments in the early 19 th century provided a good deal of business for printers and publishers. From about 1810 onwards, and particularly in the 1820s and 1830s , a series of Protestant evangelical societies was active in rural Ireland, constituting what has been called ‘the Second Reformation’. Although they produced very few converts, these organizations had a major impact by establishing schools (for which they provided *textbooks ), and by subsidizing and distributing vast amounts of religious and moral...

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