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permanent establishment

Most tax treaties operate so that business profits are taxed in the country of the taxpayer’s residence, unless the taxpayer has a ‘permanent establishment’ in the other territory. In the ...

Transgender/Third Gender/Transsexualism

Transgender/Third Gender/Transsexualism   Reference library

Gwynn Kessler

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
5,535 words

...Stryker, 2006 , p. 7; Valentine, 2007 , p. 24). The reasons behind the relative success, establishment, institutionalization, and entrenchment of queer theory and queer studies relative to the “newness” of transgender theory and transgender studies in academic settings need to be interrogated. Transgender Studies. The publication of The Transgender Studies Reader , edited by Susan Stryker and Stephen Whittle, in 2006 marks an important step toward the establishment and institutionalization of transgender studies in academic settings. The compilation’s...

Religious Participation

Religious Participation   Reference library

Jo-Ann Scurlock, Jo-Ann Scurlock, Susan Ackerman, Lynn Lidonnici, Darja Šterbenc Erker, Alicia D. Myers, Ross S. Kraemer, and Lily Vuong

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
29,647 words

... (see also 27:2 ) stems from a strand in biblical thought that understands the tent of meeting not to be the place where Yahweh permanently resides, and where God’s presence is permanently manifest, but rather a place where Yahweh can appear as needed. So too are Iron Age Israel’s regional sanctuaries best understood as sites where Yahweh could be venerated, and where the deity might appear, but not where Yahweh permanently dwelt. These sanctuaries, which were scattered throughout ancient Israel and Judah at locations that were, say, within a 25–30 km...

Feminism

Feminism   Reference library

Claudia Setzer, Susanne Scholz, and Surekha Nelavala

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
14,515 words

...feminism in the United States is typically defined as the period from the Women’s Rights Convention in Seneca Falls, New York, in 1848 to the establishment of women’s voting rights in 1920 . Women’s rights, however, arose within a broad international network of relationships that accelerated in the nineteenth century, aided by increased travel, wider distribution of books and magazines, the establishment of telegraph links, reform movements like abolitionism that spanned the Atlantic, and Catholic and Protestant missionary and revival movements. ...

Religious Leaders

Religious Leaders   Reference library

Ilan Peled, Jonathan Stökl, Vanessa L. Lovelace, Ioanna Patera, David M. Reis, J. Brian Tucker, Tal Ilan, Outi Lehtipuu, Bronwen Neil, and Damien Casey

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
31,240 words

...leadership. On the one hand, there was the priestly leadership that oversaw the Jewish sacrificial rituals, first all over the country and later in the Jerusalem Temple. This leadership claimed its descent from Aaron the brother of Moses and represented the religious establishment in Israel and then in Judah. The priests, according to the Bible, received their authority from their descent: one could not become but was born a priest. In the Bible, the priesthood is a male office, and the Temple was rarely visited by women. Whether this picture is...

Legal Status

Legal Status   Reference library

Julye Bidmead, F. Rachel Magdalene, Lauren Caldwell, Robert N. Stegmann, Judith Hauptman, and David M. Reis

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
24,375 words

...continue to support the first one and keep her in his household for as long as she lives. LL 28 provides a similar safeguard for first wife who has become blind or paralyzed. Marriages could be terminated by the death of one of the spouses, desertion, and divorce. Just as the establishment of marriage was a legal proceeding, divorce required the legal dissolution of contractual agreements. The husband possessed the right to initiate divorce on any grounds. Declaring a formulaic statement, “you are/she is not my wife,” effectively dissolved the marriage. Some...

Race, Class, and Ethnicity

Race, Class, and Ethnicity   Reference library

Herbert Robinson Marbury, Denise Eileen McCoskey, Vassiliki Panoussi, Lynne St. Clair Darden, James K. Aitken, and Gay L. Byron

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
24,382 words

...that, although Romans show some prejudice against other somatic types, there is no consistent denigration of them or notion of permanent inferiority based on bodily features or skin color. He points out that blacks are slaves often but not always, belonged to different ethnicities, were dispersed in various localities, and were able to hold high-ranking posts. He presents evidence that ancestry and lineage were not considered permanently black, since offspring of mixed unions were considered white (e.g., Pliny, Natural History 7.51), and finally notes that...

Education

Education   Reference library

Heather D. D. Parker, Erin E. Fleming, Timothy J. Sandoval, Daniele Pevarello, Michele Kennerly, Pheme Perkins, Sarit Kattan Gribetz, and Lillian I. Larsen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
28,684 words

...amid the busy duties of running a Roman household, Jerome likewise advocates a geographical shift. Removing the locus of instruction from its urban household setting, he urges Laeta to send young Paula to Bethlehem, to be educated in her grandmother’s monastery. Here, in an establishment organized and administered by two aristocratic women (the elder Paula and her sister, Eustochium), Jerome offers his services as tutor. As Paula’s ideal instructor, a man of “approved years, life, and learning,” he likens his proposed role to that of Aristotle teaching...

Family Structures

Family Structures   Reference library

Laurie E. Pearce, Jon L. Berquist, Richard Hawley, Judith P. Hallett, Katherine A. Shaner, Shulamit Valler, and Helen Rhee

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
27,740 words

...maternal authority. For example, Emmelia, who bore nine children, including Macrina (the Younger), Basil the Great, and Gregory of Nyssa and outlived her husband by about thirty years, raised her children (with the help of wet nurses and Macrina), ensured their education and establishment in life, and shaped religious life and devotion at home. Her matriarchal role further included administering the family’s considerable possessions as she paid taxes in three different provinces, distributing them among her numerous children, and finally blessing each of her...

Children

Children   Reference library

Erin E. Fleming, Jennifer L. Koosed, Pierre Brulé, Christian Laes, Chris Frilingos, Karina Martin Hogan, John W. Martens, and Melvin G. Miller

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
25,560 words

...is for women to be betrothed by the age of twelve and married in their early teens, and for men to marry by the age of twenty ( b. Qidd. 29b). There were economic and cultural reasons for this difference. The Greco-Roman culture of the Mediterranean viewed marriage as the establishment of a new household with the goal of procreation, seen as a social good, and Palestinian Jewish sources share that ideology. The lower economic status of Jews in the Mediterranean world, which made it hard for young men to establish a household before they inherited property...

Wealth

Wealth   Reference library

Noam Maggor

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...social relations of dependence declined and property qualifications for voting were gradually eliminated, it appeared that no permanent concentration of wealth could safely endure for long. Despite this transformation, wealthy Americans have nonetheless been able to forge resilient fortunes and transfer them effectively across generations. Against political and legal challenges, they made lasting concentrations of wealth into a permanent feature of American society. The emergence of an affluent elite in an American republican context was nowhere more visible...

Jamestown

Jamestown   Reference library

Marion C. Nelson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Company was soon revoked. Subsequently the English prevailed over the Indians, but Jamestown still failed to thrive. Burned during Bacon’s Rebellion in 1676 , it never fully recovered. Jamestown has always stood for more than its on-the-ground realities would suggest. The establishment in 1619 of a representative legislative assembly inspired Jamestown’s later grand claims to be “cradle of the republic” and “birthplace of a nation.” These “Jamestown before the Mayflower” claims were always aimed straight at New England . Regional passions have mellowed,...

Feminist Reforms in the Progressive Era, Maternal

Feminist Reforms in the Progressive Era, Maternal   Reference library

Elisabeth Israels Perry

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Associations (YMCA and YWCA). Coalitions sent representatives to lobby state and federal officials on maternal feminist agendas. Some Results of Maternal Feminist Reform Campaigns. Maternal feminist reformers achieved a number of victories. Especially notable were the establishment of mothers’ pensions, laws forbidding child labor, and agencies for female and child welfare. They also won passage in 1921 of the Sheppard-Towner Maternity and Infancy Protection Act. Mothers’ Pensions. Along with temperance, “child saving,” as it was then called, held a...

Hospitals and Dispensaries

Hospitals and Dispensaries   Reference library

Bernadette McCauley

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...from hospital administrations, began to organize in the 1950 s. In 1974 , federal prohibitions on striking by hospital workers were lifted. Financial issues were central to further hospital development. Greater federal involvement in hospital finances resulted from the establishment in 1965 of the Medicare and Medicaid programs, which reimbursed hospitals for the care of the elderly and the poor. In the 1970 s and 1980 s, as hospital costs climbed, many voluntary hospitals merged in efforts to cut costs, creating regional and national chains. The...

Missions, Foreign

Missions, Foreign   Reference library

Stephen C. Dove

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...up more than half of all U.S. missionaries. As early as 1822 the ABCFM commissioned Betsey Stockton , a single woman and former slave, as a missionary to the Sandwich Islands ( Hawai ‘i). As an African American woman, Stockton was an exception among the white missionary establishment, but her desire to spread Christianity abroad was not unique among African Americans. Beginning in the 1820 s, African American churches, too, sponsored missionary efforts, especially to Africa, where many of the earliest African American missionaries were also part of...

Puerto Rican Americans

Puerto Rican Americans   Reference library

Arlene Torres

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...festivals, and commemorative events in honor of community leaders, activists, and organizations founded to address a wide array of sociopolitical concerns in both Puerto Rico and the continental United States . A history of social and political activism is reflected in the establishment of organizations including the Centro de Estudios Puertorriqueños (Center for Puerto Rican Studies, at Hunter College, City University of New York ), Aspira, Inc., the Puerto Rican Legal Defense and Education Fund, and the National Congress for Puerto Rican Rights. Puerto...

Philanthropy and Women, Contemporary and Historical

Philanthropy and Women, Contemporary and Historical   Reference library

Zeynep Şahin-Mencütek

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
2,498 words

...philanthropic activities possible. Since the early days of Islam, Muslim women's traditional philanthropic activities have involved caring for the poor, widows, and orphans; assisting marriages monetarily; freeing slaves; endowing religious foundations; donating sums to the establishment of mosques, religious schools, fountains, and soup kitchens; and undertaking other forms of charity. Women also play substantial roles in service provision of philanthropic organizations. The first well-known woman Muslim philanthropist is the first Muslim, Khadīja, the wife...

Colonial Era

Colonial Era   Reference library

Charles L. Cohen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...south of New England were not ethnically English. The religious structure differed markedly from Britain’s as well, most notably in its denominational diversity and the Church of England’s failure to achieve exclusive status. Pluralism diluted the power of religious establishments, facilitated the growth of religious liberty, and, combined with settlers’ tendency to move beyond clerical oversight, exploded the presumption that everyone in a vicinity had to (or would) join a particular faith. In the face of voluntary church membership, ministers...

Labor Movements

Labor Movements   Reference library

Robert H. Zieger

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...the campaign to reelect Roosevelt and to support Democratic candidates in industrial states, which reinforced its link to federal agencies. Especially after the Wagner Act’s validation by the U.S. Supreme Court in May 1937 , a friendly NLRB played a significant role in the establishment of industrial unionism in the nation’s industrial heartland. During World War II ( 1939 – 1945 ), government policies assumed an even larger role in the labor movement’s organizing and bargaining programs. By the time of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941...

Cities and Suburbs

Cities and Suburbs   Reference library

Margaret Pugh O’Mara

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...owners, managers, and professionals moved to more spacious, well-appointed houses located at some distance from their places of work. In New York City, the development of elite residential districts pushed urbanization north from the crowded tip of Lower Manhattan. The establishment by the 1830 s of regular ferry service to Brooklyn encouraged its development as a middle-class residential area—making Brooklyn the United States ’ first commuter suburb. Social Structure. The large-scale global migrations prompted by the Industrial Revolution brought new...

Antebellum Reform

Antebellum Reform   Reference library

Julie Holcomb

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...render the unruly, uneducated, and dangerous classes trustworthy. Of the “Sisterhood of Reforms,” education brought together the most diverse group of supporters—people who held out hope that human character could be shaped by a rational system of education. Prior to the establishment of public schools, education was a private, voluntary matter. In the early nineteenth century, Sunday schools, for example, were opened in larger cities such as New York and Philadelphia . These privately funded schools were open only on Sundays, when the factories were...

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