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permanent establishment

Most tax treaties operate so that business profits are taxed in the country of the taxpayer’s residence, unless the taxpayer has a ‘permanent establishment’ in the other territory. In the ...

Hale, George Ellery

Hale, George Ellery (1868–1938)   Reference library

Hugh Richard Slotten

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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2015

...he helped design, he discovered the role of magnetic fields in sunspot structure. Hale was not only important for American astronomy but also played a leading role in the establishment of general institutions supporting science in the United States. After World War I, he worked to make the National Academy of Sciences more significant nationally through the construction of a permanent building in Washington, D.C. In an effort to link the federal government to the scientific expertise of the country, Hale also was a driving force behind the creation of the...

Agriculture, U.S. Department of

Agriculture, U.S. Department of   Reference library

Richard C. Sawyer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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2015

...Act of 1914 , which formed the Extension Service as a cooperative program of the USDA and land-grant colleges. The USDA became a cabinet-level department in 1889 . Secretary James Wilson ( 1897–1913 ) oversaw the expansion of scientific work in the bureaus, the establishment of federal experiment stations in new territories such as Hawai‘i and Puerto Rico, and the introduction of new crops and varieties by the “plant explorer” David Fairchild. Henry C. Wallace ( 1921–1923 ) increased the department’s work in agricultural economics, recognizing...

Veterinary Medicine

Veterinary Medicine   Reference library

Susan D. Jones

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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2015

...through the 1930s (largely because of the Depression and the school closures), but this was reversed by the developments of the 1940s and 1950s: the establishment of new veterinary schools after World War II, the discovery of new therapeutics, and the rise of intensive animal production (also known as “factory farming”). Returning World War II veterans played a key role in demanding the establishment of new veterinary schools in state land-grant universities such as those in California, Georgia, Illinois, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, and Oklahoma and...

Tuskegee project, the

Tuskegee project, the   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

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2006

...from scientific pursuits that ignored human values” (Jones, p. 14). In sum, the Tuskegee study was a catalytic event in medical research history, the ramifications of which have not yet been thoroughly explored. The Tuskegee study created a deep-rooted mistrust of the medical establishment that still persists among African Americans. See also Human Subjects in Medical Experiments ; Medical Values and Ethics Bibliography Brandt, Allan M. , and Lara Freidenfelds . “Commentary Research Ethics after World War II: The Insular Culture of Biomedicine.” Kennedy...

Genetics and Genetic Engineering

Genetics and Genetic Engineering   Reference library

Melinda Gormley

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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2015

...for Biology for 15 years before losing his job because of Nazi laws, and in 1936 he moved permanently to the United States. German émigré geneticists Curt Stern and Ernst Caspari also relocated permanently to the United States, in 1932 and 1938 , respectively. Important to the growth and development of genetics was the small size and close ties between members of this international community. In addition to a number of foreign geneticists permanently relocating to the United States, many participated in exchange programs, spending extended periods...

Public Health

Public Health   Reference library

Jennifer Koslow

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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2015

...States in the 1860s. Understanding transmission altered civic strategies. Preventing an epidemic of cholera now appeared feasible. Based on this reorientation, the New York state legislature passed the New York Metropolitan Health Act of 1866 , which authorized the establishment of a permanent board of health for New York City and invested it with police powers. The resultant Metropolitan Board of Health provided an administrative model for other cities. Epidemics of yellow fever also resulted in thousands of deaths in the nineteenth century. Spread by...

Military, Science and Technology and The

Military, Science and Technology and The   Reference library

Michael Aaron Dennis

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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2015

...the telegraph, and the steamboat, found military applications, but attempts to harness science and technology for the conflict met with little immediate success. The establishment of the National Academy of Sciences as the official science advisor to the federal government created a new institution, but it did little to affect the conflict. Nor was the Navy’s Permanent Commission either permanent or effective. Iron-clad ships such as the Merrimac and Monitor foreshadowed a future of warfare between such vessels ( Mindell, 2000 ). Individual inventors, some...

Science

Science   Reference library

Ronald L. Numbers, Simon Baatz, James Rodger Fleming, Judith R. Goodstein, and Michael Aaron Dennis

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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2015

...and engineering. Religious conservatives’ resistance to such scientific theories as geological chronology and biological evolution had no lasting negative impact on science. Most notably, the federal government and a reformed university system became major players in the establishment of a national infrastructure supporting science in America. Early National and Antebellum Eras. In 1782 the new nation could boast of one scientist of international repute (Benjamin Franklin, whose 1751 Experiments and Observations on Electricity was widely translated...

War and Medicine

War and Medicine   Reference library

Dale Smith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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2015

...would follow in the winter and spring. The military medical establishment, like the entire army, was reduced following the war and then recreated in 1812 . American military physicians during the War of 1812 faced the same professional, mobilization, and command and control issues that existed during the Revolution. After the war the commanding general, Jacob Brown, and the secretary of war, J. C. Calhoun, convinced Congress to establish as part of the reorganization of the army a permanent medical service. In 1818 the Army Medical Department was...

military, the, And technology

military, the, And technology   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

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Current Version:
2006

...United States has made a massive commitment to new weapons, continual innovation, and carefully chosen interventions. The Cold War system seems to be continuing with somewhat new alignments and with much less stability than the Soviet-West stalemate. Meanwhile, the military establishments of all the industrial powers, from China to NATO, rush the latest technologies and their associated doctrines into action while researchers explore the military potential of dozens of new areas, including nanotechnology, biotechnology, lasers, small nuclear munitions,...

Anatomy and Human Dissection

Anatomy and Human Dissection   Reference library

Susan C. Lawrence

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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2015

...study in the United States. The discipline of anatomy most likely arrived in the British colonies in books imported from the United Kingdom and continental Europe. Such illustrated texts would have served apprentices, informal students, and the self-taught until the establishment of home-grown medical schools. At the same time, colonists brought British laws that allowed for the occasional dissection of the bodies of executed criminals for educational purposes. Thus, Massachusetts granted the privilege “to anatomize…some malefactor” to students of...

Race And Medicine

Race And Medicine   Reference library

Karen Kruse Thomas

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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2015

...doctors. Forty years after it began, the study was finally revealed publicly through the media and congressional hearings. Beyond the tragic consequences for its victims and their families, the Tuskegee Syphilis Study compromised blacks’ trust in both the health-care establishment and the government in general for decades afterward. Federal Health Programs and the Medical Civil Rights Movement. In contrast, black faith in the federal government and its eventual recognition of blacks as full citizens reached an all-time high during and after World War...

Foundations and Health

Foundations and Health   Reference library

Kevin A. Walters

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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2015

...But even prior to that reform movement, other legal interpretations had begun to pave the way for the creation of bigger, private foundations. In Massachusetts, for example, the capital accumulation of Boston merchants, combined with the evangelical spirit of the Protestant establishment, led to a groundswell of family trusts and religious charities. The State Supreme Court freed the hand of these organizations when it ruled in 1829 that trustees who acted within reasonable standards of prudence and discretion could not be held negligent if the market value...

Physics

Physics   Reference library

Benjamin Wilson and David Kaiser

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...and Technology in Colonial America . Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2005. A wide-ranging survey of the forms of natural knowledge and technical skill in colonial America. Whereas science and technology in the earliest decades were focused on subsistence and survival, the establishment of the first colleges and learned societies provided more formal platforms for the growth of natural philosophy in America. Dupree, A. Hunter . Science in the Federal Government: A History of Policies to 1940 . Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1957...

Gender and Technology

Gender and Technology   Reference library

Arwen P. Mohun

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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2015

...that gender identity could be performative , meaning that maleness or femaleness is communicated through behaviors ranging from subtle inflections of voice or gesture to choice of profession or leisure activities. Although they would not have put it this way at the time, establishment of a believable gender identity requires transgendered people to deftly deploy a wide range of everyday technologies. Psychologists’ efforts to distinguish between biological sex and gender coincided with a growing women’s movement intent on questioning claims about women’s...

Geology

Geology   Reference library

Paul Lucier

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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2015

...States ( Moore, 2006 ). All four surveys began topographical and geological maps of the West, and it was this overlap and competition that led Congress to consolidate them under the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 1879 . The establishment of the USGS marks a watershed in the history of American geology by creating a permanent government agency to support it ( Rabbitt, 1979 ). King became the first director and set a policy that focused research on western gold and silver mining. The USGS conducted detailed surveys of particular mining districts, and...

Rivers As Technological Systems

Rivers As Technological Systems   Reference library

Martin Reuss

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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2015

...will necessitate compromise at the operational level. Vertical and horizontal intergovernmental coordination. Local, state, and federal agencies coordinate with each other and with other agencies at all levels of government, as appropriate. Coordination includes the establishment of an administrative arrangement through existing or new legal agreements, which may include the creation of a centralized authority. Political sponsors agree on project purposes, project design, and general operating principles and delegate to administrative bodies sufficient...

Medicine

Medicine   Reference library

Ronald L. Numbers, Eric Howard Christianson, John Harley Warner, Harry M. Marks, Harry M. Marks, and Naomi Rogers

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

.... A Midwife’s Tale: The Life of Martha Ballard, Based on Her Diary, 1785–1812 . New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1990. Eric Howard Christianson From 1776 to the 1870s Of about 3,500 physicians in America at the time of the Revolutionary War, only one in ten held an MD degree. The establishment during the 1760s of the first medical schools, societies, and licensing laws had encouraged a growing sense of corporate identity. Yet male physicians played a modest role in the medical care of sick Americans, who more frequently turned to midwives and other women healers and...

Research And Development

Research And Development   Reference library

Steven W. Usselman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...The interplay between them constituted what would later be called the development process. Similarly, designers often coordinated their efforts with operators of the larger technical systems into which their inventions must be integrated. This might take place within a single establishment, as when a manufacturer looked to enhance a production line or when a railroad or utility company sought to refine the performance of its facilities. Or it might involve cooperating with customers through teams of sale representatives and field engineers, who helped purchasers...

Hospitals

Hospitals   Reference library

Bernadette McCauley

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...as the founder of modern gynecology without any acknowledgment of the circumstances in which he achieved his reputation ( McGregor, 1998 , pp. 214–218). Charity Hospitals. Interest in the plight of pregnant women and abandoned infants, referred to as foundlings, led to the establishment of lying-in, maternity and foundling homes, and hospitals. Like the mentally ill, these were especially vulnerable populations who often ended up in almshouses because of no other alternative. Many abandoned infants found and deposited at almshouses did not survive, and...

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