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permanent establishment

Most tax treaties operate so that business profits are taxed in the country of the taxpayer’s residence, unless the taxpayer has a ‘permanent establishment’ in the other territory. In the ...

germ plasm bank

germ plasm bank   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...plasm bank An establishment concerned primarily with the conservation of hereditary genetic material which may be lost through the process of genetic erosion . Germ plasm loss is a major concern in Asia, parts of Africa, southern Europe, and countries bordering the Mediterranean, where antiquated cultivars are rapidly replaced by new varieties. With the loss of older cultivars, qualities possessed by them may be lost permanently, and so cannot become incorporated in new varieties. Gene banks are an important source of germ...

United Nations

United Nations   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...The main UN decision-making body is the Security Council, comprising fifteen states, five of whom (China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States) are permanent members. The remaining ten are elected by the General Assembly for two-year terms. Decisions of the Security Council on nonprocedural issues require at least nine votes, including those of all permanent members, and are binding on all members. The United Nations is at the center of a network of fourteen specialized agencies and over thirty other bodies, which are international...

Marine Reserve

Marine Reserve   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...Reserve As ocean resources are declining in many places around the globe, diverse audiences are discussing whether the establishment of marine reserves can protect some of these resources and complement other efforts to protect marine ecosystems. Marine reserves are ocean areas that are fully protected from activities that remove animals and plants or alter habitats, except as needed for scientific monitoring. Examples of prohibited activities are fishing, aquaculture, dredging, and mining; activities such as swimming, boating, and scuba diving are usually...

World Heritage Sites

World Heritage Sites   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage. Its twenty-one members are elected for six-year terms on a rotating basis by all signatories at biennial General Assemblies. The Committee has no permanent members; all principal regions of the world are represented. Between meetings, its business is supervised by an elected chair, and conducted by a permanent staff, known as the “World Heritage Centre.” The work of the Committee is also assisted by three nongovernmental expert advisory bodies—the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and...

Forestation

Forestation   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...forest area from which the trees have recently been harvested or removed by natural disturbance (e.g., fire, insects, wind, disease, or landslide). The term implies forest replacement by some means other than natural regeneration (natural seed-fall, germination, and seedling establishment). Afforestation is forestation on lands that have not previously supported forest plant communities, or not for a long time. Forestation is undertaken when the natural processes of forest renewal are not working, are expected to work unacceptably slowly, or will result in a...

Inuit

Inuit   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...in 1988 . In 1996 , the ICC received the Environmental Award from the Nordic Council of Ministers. It is not widely known that IRCS had a strong influence on the shape of the Murmansk speech given by Mikhail Gorbachev in 1987 and in the subsequent establishment of AEPS. In summary, since its establishment more than three decades ago, the ICC has been very successful at ensuring that Inuit interests have gained the profile, recognition, and response required. The ICC has grown into a major international nongovernment organization, with Consultative Status...

Forestation

Forestation   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,839 words
Illustration(s):
1

...forest area from which the trees have recently been harvested or removed by natural disturbance (e.g., fire, insects, wind, disease, or landslide). The term implies forest replacement by some means other than natural regeneration (natural seed fall, germination, and seedling establishment). This term is similar to affore station , which refers to forestation on lands that have not previously supported forest plant communities, or not for a long time. A third term, reforestation , has the same meaning as forestation . Forestation is a practice that is...

Antarctic Ice Sheet

Antarctic Ice Sheet   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
1,411 words
Illustration(s):
3

...with field research, have established an adequate understanding of the principal physical characteristics and the important climate role of the ice sheet. Origins. Ice appears to have been present on the high-latitude Antarctic continent since 50 million years ago. The establishment of circum-Antarctic ocean circulation led to progressive refrigeration of the continent and build-up of high-altitude ice fields (for example within the interior Gamburtsev Mountains). Large, continental-scale ice sheets developed about 34 million years ago. Glacial geological...

Urban Trends

Urban Trends   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...the United States: (1) a permanent moratorium on major road construction and expansion; (2) increased funding for railways, especially AMTRAK; (3) a moratorium on additional sprawl; (4) a focus by federal, state, and local governments on smart growth and transit-oriented development; (5) tripling of mileage standards for vehicles; (6) a moratorium on airport construction and expansion; (7) a moratorium on construction of coal-fired and nuclear power plants; (8) rapid construction of solar and wind-electric capacity; (9) establishment of organic farms in every...

Ice Ages

Ice Ages   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
3,162 words
Illustration(s):
4

...small Antarctic ice sheets is likely in the course of the late Oligocene to the middle Miocene (∼17 My ago), though the global ice volume was reduced, as is mapped from the δ 18 O record. Beginning 15 My ago, a renewed cooling trend in the Earth's climate forced the re-establishment of a permanent, large-scale ice sheet in East Antarctica by 10 My ago. A warming in the Early Pliocene caused a retreat of the smaller west Antarctic and Arctic ice sheets that developed 6 My ago. From 3.2 My ago onward, the Earth has experienced a new, colder, climate regime marked...

Quasi-biennial Oscillation

Quasi-biennial Oscillation   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,319 words
Illustration(s):
2

...series of balloons and thus discovered that there were winds that come from the west at an altitude of about 20 kilometers. At that time, only permanent winds coming from the east were assumed to exist in the equatorial stratosphere, a theory confirmed by the observations of winds from the east, moving aerosol clouds to the west after the 1883 eruption of Krakatau, a volcanic island of Indonesia. After the establishment of a global, regularly reporting radiosonde observation network, Reed et al. ( 1960 ) and Veryard and Ebdon ( 1961 ) independently...

Tundra

Tundra   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
4,840 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Change in the Tundra Tundra ecosystems are becoming increasingly threatened by human activity. Greater accessibility and awareness of vast natural resources have resulted in increased settlement in the Arctic. The development of transport routes and oil pipelines and the establishment of extractive industries have sometimes produced large impacts on the tundra, fragmenting wilderness areas. Slow-growing, long-lived plants with low replacement rates, which often already experience the multiple stresses of severe climates and limited resources, are...

Genomic Imprinting

Genomic Imprinting   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
3,273 words
Illustration(s):
4

...This allows the pattern of methylation to be perpetuated through cell division. A = adenine. C = cytosine. G = guanine. T = thymine.Courtesy of Andrew Pomiankowski. Imprinting is reset in the germ line of both sexes. Genome-wide demethylation occurs soon after embryonic establishment of the germ line. This removes the preexisting maternal or paternal marks. As the germ cells start to differentiate into sperm and eggs, a process of de novo methylation begins. Unfortunately, little is known about the enzymes involved, how sites are identified for...

Heathlands

Heathlands   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...to be a useful grazing plant where the more palatable and nutritious grasses were scarce, particularly in winter when other forage was unavailable. The herbivores themselves tended to stimulate the production of edible green shoots by the heather plants and to prevent the establishment of tree seedlings. Where grazing intensity was insufficient for these purposes, recourse was made from time to time to the use of fire as a means of management. Hence the origin of most heathlands in western Europe was anthropogenic. Although only a few have an unbroken...

Heathlands

Heathlands   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...to be a useful grazing plant where the more palatable and nutritious grasses were scarce, particularly in winter when other forage was unavailable. The herbivores themselves tended to stimulate the production of edible green shoots by the heather plants and to prevent the establishment of tree seedlings. Where grazing intensity was insufficient for these purposes, fire was sometimes used. Hence most heathlands in western Europe were anthropogenic. Although only a few have an unbroken history extending over 3,000 years or more, the process of forest clearance...

Mediterranean Environments

Mediterranean Environments   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...and pollen evidence reveals the part played by humans in determining the characteristic vegetation patterns of the region from about 6,000 bp on. Deciduous oak woodland is known to have become degraded and replaced by evergreen oak, juniper, and pine as a result of the establishment of agriculture and livestock. In eastern Spain, pine forest is replaced by oak scrub following clearance. In the eastern Mediterranean, the domestication and widespread introduction of the triad of wheat, olive, and vine, along with the cultivation of other trees such as...

Ozone

Ozone   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...using the TOMS ( Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer ); these show increases in UV-B fluxes at latitudes above 35°, in agreement with the observed ozone decreases. As a result of such observations, public interest in UV exposure has been addressed in many countries by the establishment of a standardized UV index to provide daily information about the intensity of UV radiation based on ozone measurements and weather forecasting. Tropospheric Ozone Until the 1970s, photochemical production of ozone in the troposphere was considered to be important only in...

Language

Language   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
6,265 words
Illustration(s):
1

...have been resolved to a greater or lesser extent, depending on the data available, the existence of historical texts, and the amount of borrowing and convergence that has gone on in the family. The work of classification depends on what is known as the comparative method: the establishment of a core of vocabulary and, particularly, of inflectional patterns that show not just similarity but regular patterns of sound correspondence. These forms are identified as “cognate” (deriving from a common ancestor), and an ancestral form may be reconstructable by deduction...

Nuclear Industry

Nuclear Industry   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
5,102 words
Illustration(s):
1

...have an accurate inventory of its nuclear waste and does not know where all of it is. A “best guess” is that in 1996 there were approximately 610 million cubic meters of solid waste, of different activity levels, much of it poorly stored on open ground or at radiochemical establishments. Meanwhile, thousands of nuclear weapons are being decommissioned and metric tons of plutonium and weapons-grade uranium added to existing stocks. There is a chronic shortage of facilities for the interim storage of spent nuclear fuel, and the explosion of a tank at Tomsk...

Boreal Forests and Climate Change

Boreal Forests and Climate Change   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
6,309 words
Illustration(s):
3

...). Temperature increases of 1–2°C during the growing season at treeline increase the growth of white spruce on favorable sites ( Danby and Hik , 2007a ). If problems of long-distance transport of seed and the low receptivity of tundra as a tree seedbed are overcome, forest establishment and treeline movement occur suddenly where moisture is not limiting ( Danby and Hik , 2007b ). But even at some cold treeline sites, moisture is limiting, and the growth of many populations of trees is decreasing as the temperature increases ( Wilmking and Juday , 2005...

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