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permanent establishment

Most tax treaties operate so that business profits are taxed in the country of the taxpayer’s residence, unless the taxpayer has a ‘permanent establishment’ in the other territory. In the ...

LADD, William

LADD, William (1778–1841)   Reference library

Michael Ziser

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... illustrates, he always retained his pragmatic orientation to the problem of organizing against violence. By virtue of his 1831 pamphlet calling for the establishment of a Congress of Nations and a Court of Nations, Ladd became a leader of the movement to provide international bodies for the settlement of disputes between countries. Support for such plans was high in New England, where the establishment still grumbled about the disruptions caused by the War of 1812 , and the farcical Aroostook War of the late 1830s made clear the mischief that could thrive...

LATHROP, John Hiram

LATHROP, John Hiram (1799–1866)   Reference library

Kevin P. S. Tanner

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...John Hiram ( 1799–1866 ) John Hiram Lathrop was a leading educator during the nineteenth century, playing vital roles in the establishment of the University of Missouri and the University of Wisconsin. As the first leader of both institutions, he helped modernize higher education by emphasizing secular thought and organizing the schools around colleges of arts and science that emphasized the liberal arts tradition. Lathrop was born in Sherburne, New York on 22 January 1799 . He attended Hamilton College in Clinton, New York from 1815 to 1817 ,...

BRANAGAN, Thomas

BRANAGAN, Thomas (1774–1843)   Reference library

Alexandra Perry

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...their homelands. Branagan collected two volumes of his writings before he died: The Guardian Genius of the Federal Union ( 1837 ), and The Beauties of Philanthropy ( 1839 ). The body of Branagn’s work deserves to be recognized as one of the most prominent sources for the establishment of a link between colonization and the abolitionist movement in the early nineteenth century, which to a significant extent contributed to the formation of later nineteenth century abolitionist thought and policy. Bibliography A Preliminary Essay on the Oppression of the...

Cooper, Myles

Cooper, Myles (1737–1785)   Reference library

Derek C. Hatch

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Relative to an American Episcopate” ( 1774 ). This document was signed by eight persons, but it is likely that most of it came from Cooper. Ultimately, though, it also failed to persuade the Virginia clergy (and consequently, other southern clergypersons) to support the establishment of an American episcopate, a proposition that gradually lost support as tensions mounted between the American colonies and England. Cooper went to England to obtain aid for the college in 1771 , but he returned to New York near the onset of the American Revolution in 1775 ....

WALKER, James

WALKER, James (1794–1874)   Reference library

Robin Vandome

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Charlestown, Massachusetts, where he spent twenty-one years and gained a reputation as an eloquent and stirring preacher. Walker’s most significant legacy lay in his contribution to the development of Unitarianism as a religious movement. Walker played an active role in the establishment of the American Unitarian Association in 1825 , the group which formalized the independent identity of the Unitarian church. As editor of the Christian Examiner from 1831 to 1839 , Walker contributed many theological articles, and opened the journal’s pages to a broad...

Douglass, Frederick

Douglass, Frederick   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
2,131 words
Illustration(s):
1

...black republic. Douglass believed that the United States would do well to invest in Haiti, since it was committed to the establishment and maintenance of democracy and free trade, and that the relationship would serve the two republics well. Unfortunately, that belief would not manifest into a concrete reality, as Douglass was unsuccessful in persuading American economic and political powerbrokers to work toward the establishment of meaningful diplomatic relations and trade with Haiti. This lack of American recognition and support of black statehood...

Pan-Africanism

Pan-Africanism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
2,198 words
Illustration(s):
1

...collective security and early-warning arrangement to facilitate timely and efficient responses to conflicts and crisis situations in Africa” (Protocol, 2002 ). In addition, the AU’s new development strategy, the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD), includes the establishment of a new African peer review mechanism. It is designed to promote good governance within African countries, seen as one of the best ways to prevent domestic political conflicts from leading to coups, insurgency, or civil war. In conclusion, the idea(l) of pan-Africanism has...

CHASE, Salmon Portland

CHASE, Salmon Portland (1808–1873)   Reference library

Alexandra Perry

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...on the matter follow: “Congress was right in not limiting, by its reconstruction acts, the right of suffrage to whites; but wrong in the exclusion from suffrage of certain classes of citizens and all unable to take its prescribed retrospective oath, and wrong also in the establishment of despotic military governments for the States and in authorizing military commissions for the trial of civilians in time of peace. There should have been as little military government as possible; no military commissions; no classes excluded from suffrage; and no oath except...

asylums: a historical survey

asylums: a historical survey   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,039 words
Illustration(s):
1

...be insane and that the nation was much moved by his sufferings. During the latter part of his reign the lunacy reform movement got under way. From the beginning of the 19th century parliamentary reports on the condition of lunacy followed one another in steady succession. The establishment of county lunatic asylums was prompted partly by moral outrage felt upon the discovery of the revolting and inhuman conditions of the insane and partly by the newly found faith in the possibility of cure. The committees submitting these reports consisted of well-meaning people...

HOSACK, David

HOSACK, David (1769–1835)   Reference library

Eric v.d. Luft

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Other Plants of the State of New York into an Herbarium (New York, 1795). An Introductory Lecture on Medical Education (New York, 1801). Observations on the Surgery of the Ancients (New York, 1807). Observations on the Ballston Waters (New York, 1810). Observations on the Establishment of the College of Physicians and Surgeons in the City of New York (New York, 1811). Plan of Study Adopted in the Private Medical School (New York, 1812). Sketch of the Origin and Progress of the Medical Schools of New York and Philadelphia (New York, 1812). An Introductory...

Craft

Craft   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,452 words

...in the prestige of painting and sculpture from the Renaissance to the seventeenth century, most painters or sculptors continued to belong to craft guilds and to turn out functional products from workshops on commission, and most composers labored in great houses or religious establishments under restrictive contracts that often made them little better than servants. This lack of a sharp practical differentiation between artists and craftspeople was reflected semantically in the fact that the primary reference of the term artist down to the mid-seventeenth...

Anti-Art

Anti-Art   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,938 words

...were formed, and Dada is responsible for some of the confusion that still surrounds—and is perhaps inevitably a part of—anti-art. A complex alchemy in which antiauthority protest was distilled from a romantic, even Expressionist impatience with the stolidity of the art establishment, transmuted through chance operations, and sublimated by a poetic anarchist philosophy, the ‘pataphysical argument of Dada might be schematized as an attempt at total rejection of the culture that led to the massive devastation of World War I: if logic led to such lunacy,...

Models, Artists'

Models, Artists'   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
5,287 words

...of human proportion and musculature, which for many artists entailed a far more thorough examination of the body's capacity for movement than either cadavers or casts could provide. Most important, the increasing rationalization of the fine arts brought about the establishment of arts academies, and with them the institution of life class. Although the earliest academies were formed for the purposes of establishing and debating theoretical precepts, they soon became sites of organized practical study. The Carracci started their academy in 1582 ...

African Aesthetics

African Aesthetics   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
4,423 words

...and in principle universal in scope, it is difficult to reconcile this with the fact that they did not award masterpiece status to such objects from the very beginning. Although the status of the connoisseur remains relatively secure at the apex of the Western aesthetic establishment, such problems have inspired a growing number of critics to challenge the notion of an aesthetic overlord. Connoisseurs are said to be a product of Western cultures, and as such their aesthetic sensitivities must also be products of Western acculturation (Clifford, 1988 ). If...

Fashion

Fashion   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
13,281 words
Illustration(s):
1

...or of such effects as tooth filing and the stretching of lips, necks, and earlobes, and some of which is created by permanent body dyeing and impermanent body painting. Applied ornaments often accompany such arrangements: metal, ceramic, shells, gourds, feathers, pebbles, animal bones and teeth, fur, plant fibers, or modern synthetic versions of all these, as well as woven fabric. Such ornaments may be attached fairly permanently, inserted through holes or slits in parts of the body, or worn and removed the way garments are. Some indeed are garments, of...

neurotransmitters and neuromodulators

neurotransmitters and neuromodulators   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
8,888 words
Illustration(s):
16

...presynapse. The synaptic pathway was thought to be a rectifier, and allow only one-way traffic of the stimulus. It has since been established that there is a parallel increase in the pre-synaptic release of the excitatory neurotransmitter, glutamate, which occurs during the establishment of the LTP. Moreover, LTP was prevented by agents (antagonists) which blocked the synaptic action of glutamate at its post-synaptic receptors, showing that these receptors were somehow involved in LTP. Fig. 14. Theories of how the retrograde gaseous neurotransmitter nitric...

Attitude

Attitude   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
6,664 words

...attitude was Arthur Schopenhauer ( 1788–1860 ). [ See Schopenhauer .] His theory of the Will as a domineering and negative force that enslaves all, a force brought about by worldly desire, led him to look for escape. His escape took two forms, one permanent, one transitory but more accessible. The permanent escape was to deny desire, to adopt asceticism and take up the life of pure contemplation. The second escape was through art. Through art, the individual could understand not just the phenomenal world, but also the world of Platonic Ideas, the world of...

Locke, Alain Leroy

Locke, Alain Leroy (1886)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
4,499 words

...community and African-American artists. In a voice directed toward the community, Locke expressed his concern about the lack of support for the work of African-American art, lamenting that the African-American community had not assumed responsibility for the establishment of a permanent collection. In the Bronze Booklets , Locke acknowledged that the African-American artist had not yet completely “recaptured his ancestral gifts or recovered his ancient skills.” He believed that this recovery of a lost African tradition in the plastic arts would occur...

Ricoeur, Paul

Ricoeur, Paul (b. 1913)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
4,333 words

...separate stages in the process of interpretation: explanation, understanding, and appropriation. Explanation is concerned with elucidating textual structure, understanding with the clarification of meaning (understood as the author's intention), and appropriation with the establishment of the text's significance for a particular reader. These three stages are passed through in succession, and the success of each depends on the correctness of what has been determined in the earlier stages. Only on the basis of an accurate explanation of textual structure can...

Art Market

Art Market   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
6,524 words

...market. Many of them were princely collections made public and did not depend on the market for acquisitions. In the United States, however, unlike Europe, a connection was established in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries between collectors who worked for the establishment of museums and bought works to give them outright or who willed them their collections. Museums asserted the prestige of art and increasingly set the terms for its historical and aesthetic evaluation. The shift in modes of organizing information associated with collections...

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