You are looking at 1-20 of 28 entries  for:

  • All : peace establishment x
clear all

View:

Overview

peace establishment

The authorized size, composition, and organization of a nation's armed forces in peacetime.

Mujerista Criticism

Mujerista Criticism   Reference library

Leticia Guardiola-Saenz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
3,558 words

...Particular biblical and theological presuppositions undergird mujerista criticism. First, the God of the Gospels is understood to have a preferential option for the poor and the marginalized. Second, the main message that Jesus preaches in the Gospels is understood as the establishment of the Kin-dom of God, where the hungry are fed, the homeless receive shelter, and the naked are clothed. This focus on kin-dom rather than king-dom is central to mujerista understanding. While during the first-century Jewish world the metaphor of kingdom was probably the...

Feminism

Feminism   Reference library

Claudia Setzer, Susanne Scholz, and Surekha Nelavala

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
14,515 words

...to continue the work. The establishment of institutions that foster such emancipatory alternatives in biblical studies and in the world remains foremost on the agenda of feminist biblical studies in the twenty-first century. Such institutions, broadly conceived, are much needed so that the field of feminist biblical interpretation will continue producing innovative and important scholarship that contributes to eliminating structures of domination and to nurturing religious, societal, political, and economic forces of justice and peace. [ See also Gender ; H...

Religious Leaders

Religious Leaders   Reference library

Ilan Peled, Jonathan Stökl, Vanessa L. Lovelace, Ioanna Patera, David M. Reis, J. Brian Tucker, Tal Ilan, Outi Lehtipuu, Bronwen Neil, and Damien Casey

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
31,240 words

...leadership. On the one hand, there was the priestly leadership that oversaw the Jewish sacrificial rituals, first all over the country and later in the Jerusalem Temple. This leadership claimed its descent from Aaron the brother of Moses and represented the religious establishment in Israel and then in Judah. The priests, according to the Bible, received their authority from their descent: one could not become but was born a priest. In the Bible, the priesthood is a male office, and the Temple was rarely visited by women. Whether this picture is...

Family Structures

Family Structures   Reference library

Laurie E. Pearce, Jon L. Berquist, Richard Hawley, Judith P. Hallett, Katherine A. Shaner, Shulamit Valler, and Helen Rhee

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
27,740 words

...role was to protect his household, ensure its peace and harmony, and keep it in the right order with his potestas and Christian principles as a miniature state and church (Chrysostom, Homiliae in epistulam ad Ephesios ). The patriarchal structure of Christian family is shown in this pivotal role and significance of the paterfamilias . As already reflected in the deutero-Pauline writings ( Eph 5:22—6.9 ; Col 3:18—4.1 ; 1 Tim 3:4—5 , 12 ), Augustine emphasizes that domestic peace leads to civic peace, that is, maintaining household harmony and order...

Political Leadership

Political Leadership   Reference library

Saana Svärd, Rachel Havrelock, Gillian Ramsey, Kristina Milnor, Susan E. Hylen, and Robert M. Royalty Jr.

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
23,198 words

...their marriages served to cement strategic alliances. However, whereas the Neo-Assyrians married foreign kings, the Neo-Babylonian kings used their daughters to solidify internal alliances, perhaps because of the relative turbulence of the Neo-Babylonian period. The establishment of Nabonidus’s daughter as the ēntu of Ur can be seen as part of the same trend. Neo-Assyrian Queens and Mothers of Kings. The Neo-Assyrian Empire was led by the king, the vice regent of the national god Aššur. Ideologically at least, all political power flowed from the king...

Legal Status

Legal Status   Reference library

Julye Bidmead, F. Rachel Magdalene, Lauren Caldwell, Robert N. Stegmann, Judith Hauptman, and David M. Reis

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
24,375 words

...primary goal was to maintain the “peace of the gods” ( pax deorum ), a concept that relied on a well-regulated social order. Because this idea undergirded the legitimacy of the empire, how administrators preserved the peace was less important than their success in ensuring that it was a palpable reality. To gain the gods’ favor, Roman officials insisted on fidelity to the time-honored religious traditions of their ancestors ( mos maiorum ). The performance of sacrificial rites was the primary mechanism to ensure peace, and thus these practices constituted ...

Children

Children   Reference library

Erin E. Fleming, Jennifer L. Koosed, Pierre Brulé, Christian Laes, Chris Frilingos, Karina Martin Hogan, John W. Martens, and Melvin G. Miller

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
25,560 words

...is for women to be betrothed by the age of twelve and married in their early teens, and for men to marry by the age of twenty ( b. Qidd. 29b). There were economic and cultural reasons for this difference. The Greco-Roman culture of the Mediterranean viewed marriage as the establishment of a new household with the goal of procreation, seen as a social good, and Palestinian Jewish sources share that ideology. The lower economic status of Jews in the Mediterranean world, which made it hard for young men to establish a household before they inherited property...

military and militarism

military and militarism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
674 words

... investigated by Stouffer and his colleagues). By far the best overview of this literature, and still probably the best introduction to the field as a whole, is Janowitz's Sociology and the Military Establishment (3rd edn., 1974). A good overview of the field and update is Martin Shaw and Colin Creighton (eds.), The Sociology of War and Peace (1988). See also imperialism...

Islam and Peacebuilding

Islam and Peacebuilding   Reference library

S. Ayse Kadayifci-Orellana

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
3,665 words

...of his or her gender, is furnished with reason and has the potential to be good and choose to work for the establishment of harmony. Moreover, this principle recognizes the goodness that inheres in each and every human being at birth, regardless of different religious, ethnic, racial, or gender backgrounds. As Tawakkul Karman, Nobel Peace Prize Laureate for 2011 , noted in her acceptance speech, the Qurʾān urges “O you who believe, enter into peace, one and all,” and includes the warning, “Whosoever kills a human being for other than manslaughter or...

Jamestown

Jamestown   Reference library

Marion C. Nelson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Company was soon revoked. Subsequently the English prevailed over the Indians, but Jamestown still failed to thrive. Burned during Bacon’s Rebellion in 1676 , it never fully recovered. Jamestown has always stood for more than its on-the-ground realities would suggest. The establishment in 1619 of a representative legislative assembly inspired Jamestown’s later grand claims to be “cradle of the republic” and “birthplace of a nation.” These “Jamestown before the Mayflower” claims were always aimed straight at New England . Regional passions have mellowed,...

Benezet, Anthony

Benezet, Anthony   Reference library

Maurice Jackson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...fight against slavery and the slave trade. Benezet’s descriptions of Africa proved to be so central that William Wilberforce quoted Benezet at length in the great 1792 parliamentary debates on ending the slave trade. In 1775 , Benezet and others called for the establishment of the Society for the Relief of Free Negroes Unlawfully Held in Bondage. This was one of the first abolitionist societies dedicated to ending slavery and the slave trade. In 1784 , a few months before his death, the society was reformed as the Pennsylvania Society for...

UN Development Fund for Women

UN Development Fund for Women   Reference library

Roja Fazaeli

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
627 words

...Iran also made another pledge, of the same amount, toward an International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women (INSTRAW), which was to be established in Tehran. However, as a consequence of the fall of the Pahlavi dynasty ( 1925–1979 ) and the establishment of the Islamic Republic of Iran in 1979 , INSTRAW was ultimately located in the Dominican Republic. The mandate of the Voluntary Fund was extended in 1985 at the end of the UN Decade for Women, at which point it became UNIFEM, an autonomous organization associated with the UN...

International Laws and Treaties on Women's Status

International Laws and Treaties on Women's Status   Reference library

Roja Fazaeli

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
2,844 words

...The declaration, modeled on the U.S. Declaration of Independence ( 1776 ), moved beyond its predecessor in demanding equal rights for women and men. Women's participation in the 1919 Paris Peace Conference is an important point in the history of international women's movements and the development of international law. The conference, which led to the establishment of the League of Nations ( 1920–1946 ), included women in some provisions and decisions. Consequently some aspects of women's rights were enshrined in the Covenant of the League of Nations. For...

Counterculture

Counterculture   Reference library

Christopher Gair

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...of Reference, a store providing free clothing and other items, while also offering a free medical center and distributing free acid, housing, and legal services. The Diggers’ form of street theater provided a wider and more lasting legacy for the counterculture through the establishment of inseparable ties between artistic and political practice, a combination that was later imitated most famously by the Yippies. The Yippies were created as an East Coast equivalent to the Diggers, but they adopted a fundamentally different agenda. Whereas the Diggers...

Trade

Trade   Reference library

Elias Tuma

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
1,171 words

...are determined largely by underdevelopment, poverty, tradition, and the shortage of development capital. Technological advance is neither contradictory to Islam, nor has it been seriously attempted. The OIC has tried to promote trade between its members by encouraging the establishment of Islamic chambers of commerce. Those effects have been limited. This lasting traditional pattern may also result from restrictions on women's role in economic development and business. Islam does not put any restrictions on women's economic and business activities. But,...

Fāṭimid Dynasty

Fāṭimid Dynasty   Reference library

Farhad Daftary, D. S. Richards, and Farhad Daftary

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
2,511 words

...ʿAbd Allāh. In June 909 Abū ʿAbd Allāh set off at the head of his Kutāma army to Sijilmāsa, to hand the reins of power to the Ismāʿīlī imam. ʿAbd Allāh al-Mahdī entered Qayrawān on 4 January 910 and was immediately proclaimed caliph. The Ismāʿīlī daʿwah finally led to the establishment of a dawlah , or state, headed by the Ismāʿīlī imam. The Shīʿī caliphate of the Fāṭimids commenced in Ifrīqiyah and came to be known as the Fāṭimid dynasty or Fāṭimīyah, named for the Prophet's daughter and ʿAlī's wife, Fāṭimah, to whom al-Mahdī and his successors traced...

Political Activism, Women's

Political Activism, Women's   Reference library

Sarah Fischer and Valentine M. Moghadam

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
4,792 words

...Early-twentieth-century nationalist movements tended to equate women's seclusion and illiteracy with national backwardness or stagnation. Progress and national integration were advanced via social and educational reforms, the promotion of a national language, and the establishment of a modern nation-state ( Moaddel, 2005 ) . Muslim women (as well as non-Muslims) responded enthusiastically to the reform agendas of nationalist, constitutionalist, and revolutionary movements in Egypt, Iran, and Turkey, as well as in the Soviet republics ( Jayawardena, ...

Women's Movements

Women's Movements   Reference library

Sherifa Zuhur

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
3,490 words

...of elite and middle-class women actually formed the basis for the Egyptian state's social services and demonstrated women's managerial expertise. In Palestine, after the dispersal of the Palestinian people in 1948, middle-class women conducted relief efforts until the establishment of UNRWA refugee camps and facilities. In exile and at home, charitable associations formed the major focus for Palestinian women's organized activities until the 1967 war. Women's interest in social services later translated into participation in developmental programs, such...

Egypt

Egypt   Reference library

Lisa Pollard

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
3,734 words

...at home because of her taboo-breaking discussions of women's sexuality. Journalist Safinaz Kazim ( b. 1937 ) joined ranks with al-Ghazali who, after her release from prison in 1971 , once again took up the training of female preachers and continued to call for the establishment of an Islamic state in Egypt. Kazim promoted the idea that women had the right to work, both in and outside the home, suggesting that it is the West, and not Islam, that promotes the idea that the home is women's proper place. The Sadat administration made women's issues...

Nineteenth-Century Westward

Nineteenth-Century Westward  

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

... Up to the Louisiana Purchase. With the close of the Revolution, the attention of many Americans—now citizens of a new, independent nation—turned westward, to the rich lands of the Ohio valley and the Garden of Eden known as Kentucky . From the peace treaty that ended the revolution ( 1783 ) to the peace treaty that ended the War of 1812 ( 1814 ), this period of westward expansion was dominated by continuing struggles with Indian peoples over the lands between the Appalachians and the Mississippi . The military dimensions of this conflict included...

View: