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peace establishment

The authorized size, composition, and organization of a nation's armed forces in peacetime.

United Nations

United Nations   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...(XXIII)] to convene the 1972 United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, which itself resulted in the creation of UNEP [by Resolution 2997 (XXVII)]. In 1988 , the General Assembly first recognized the significance of possible global climate change and endorsed the establishment of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Resolution 43/905). It convened the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (where the Rio Declaration, Agenda 21, the Convention on Biological Diversity, the FCCC, and a Statement of Forest Principles...

Inuit

Inuit   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...in 1988 . In 1996 , the ICC received the Environmental Award from the Nordic Council of Ministers. It is not widely known that IRCS had a strong influence on the shape of the Murmansk speech given by Mikhail Gorbachev in 1987 and in the subsequent establishment of AEPS. In summary, since its establishment more than three decades ago, the ICC has been very successful at ensuring that Inuit interests have gained the profile, recognition, and response required. The ICC has grown into a major international nongovernment organization, with Consultative Status...

Agricultural Extension and Climate Change Communication

Agricultural Extension and Climate Change Communication   Reference library

Linda S. Prokopy, Wendy-Lin Bartels, Gary Burniske, and Rebecca Power

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...program, under a tripartite agreement between the Guatemalan National Forestry Institute (INAFOR), CARE, and the Peace Corps (ICCP) began pioneering climate-smart agricultural practices in 1974 ( FAO, 2013 ) by encompassing agroforestry and soil conservation on smallholder land throughout Guatemala ( Nations, Burwell, & Burniske, 1987 ). The program was initiated with centralized municipal forest nurseries run by INAFOR promoters trained by Peace Corps volunteers. These nurseries distributed tree seedlings to smallholder farmers in the highlands of Guatemala...

Information Technology

Information Technology   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...Thomas J. Watson Jr., was able to secure IBM's entry into the electronic computer market with the IBM 701, originally known as the Defense Calculator, in part by documenting that a single design for a general-purpose computer could meet many of the needs of the U.S. defense establishment for the Korean War. IBM's lack of foresight in the early years of computing would be repeated in its failure (along with other mainframe computer manufacturers) to recognize early on the importance of the personal computer, as well as in Micro soft Corporation's failure to...

Nuclear Industry

Nuclear Industry   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
5,102 words
Illustration(s):
1

...have an accurate inventory of its nuclear waste and does not know where all of it is. A “best guess” is that in 1996 there were approximately 610 million cubic meters of solid waste, of different activity levels, much of it poorly stored on open ground or at radiochemical establishments. Meanwhile, thousands of nuclear weapons are being decommissioned and metric tons of plutonium and weapons-grade uranium added to existing stocks. There is a chronic shortage of facilities for the interim storage of spent nuclear fuel, and the explosion of a tank at Tomsk...

Climate Change Communication in Denmark

Climate Change Communication in Denmark   Reference library

Mikkel Fugl Eskjær

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
9,759 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the majority of climate change reporting ( O. Danielsen, 2015a , pp. 62, 78). This change coincided with another development. As climate change gradually became absorbed by the UN system, first in 1987 with the report “Our Common Future” and later in 1992 with the establishment of UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), climate change coverage became more politicized. Scientific questions on whether and how the climate was changing increasingly gave way to questions of how to respond to climate change. Thus, from the late 1980s and early...

Celebrities and Climate Change

Celebrities and Climate Change   Reference library

Julie Doyle, Nathan Farrell, and Michael K. Goodman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...of their audiences to a range of social and/or environmental concerns. They seek, instead, to determine the cultural, political, economic, and institutional factors that facilitate this and determine its form. One factor is the celebrity’s status as outsider to political establishments ( Cooper, 2008 ). This is particularly the case when considering the decline in trust of traditional politicians and institutions, and the suspicion among the electorate that “politicians are in it for themselves and that they serve special interests” ( West, 2008 , p. 79)....

Climate Change Communication in Belgium

Climate Change Communication in Belgium   Reference library

Yves Pepermans and Pieter Maeseele

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
7,483 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Climate), 4 which regularly posts articles on the small conservative news website De Bron (The Source). In addition, libertarian and authoritarian–rightwing political parties 5 occasionally use climate skepticism to further differentiate themselves from the (European) establishment. However, except for the occasional op-eds or interviews, mainstream news media hardly pay any attention to these voices for their reporting on climate change. As a result, they are confined to conservative and libertarian websites. In accordance with an international trend, the...

Climate Change Communication in India

Climate Change Communication in India   Reference library

Jagadish Thaker

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...partly due to advocacy from Indian business groups that saw an opportunity to find global investments to take up mitigation so long as it was financially supported by developed countries ( Dubash, 2013 ). A major shift in this policy took place in 2007 with the establishment of the Prime Minister’s Council of Climate Change, with a focus on eight national missions, including sustainable agriculture, energy efficiency, sustainable habitat, sustaining Himalayan ecosystem, solar, water, and strategic knowledge missions ( NAPCC, 2008 ; INCCA, 2010...

Climate Change Communication in Japan

Climate Change Communication in Japan   Reference library

Midori Aoyagi

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
7,124 words
Illustration(s):
12

...in demonstrations in front of the polluting companies’ headquarters in Tokyo. This made those victims visible to the mass media, and the mass media covered these events and issues, causing the public to become more aware of the “disease” aspect of pollution. This led to the establishment of the Environmental Agency in the early 1970s. One reason why people were slow to take action or express support for the victims of pollution is unique to Japan’s culture. McKean ( 1981 , p. 15) wrote in her book, “Japan’s cultural heritage—a carry-over from the ‘subject’ culture...

Climate Change Communication in the Netherlands

Climate Change Communication in the Netherlands   Reference library

Art Dewulf, Daan Boezeman, and Martinus Vink

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
14,430 words
Illustration(s):
2

...and the will of the ordinary people, particularly with respect to immigration issues. Fortuyn invoked a clash between the views and issues of the establishment (left and right) and the views and issues of the people ( Van Holsteyn & Irwin, 2003 ; Mudde, 2004 ). Environmental issues were framed within this strong societal polarization, with climate change portrayed as an elitist concern of the establishment. The national shock provoked by the assassination of Fortuyn in 2002 amplified the polarization and his party LPF won the elections. Most established...

Communicating About Climate Change with Journalists and Media Producers

Communicating About Climate Change with Journalists and Media Producers   Reference library

John Wihbey and Bud Ward

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...the scientific community and journalists around climate change issues might also be characterized as a healthy, and natural, dynamic. In the United Kingdom, there has been substantial discussion of whether or not journalists have perhaps deferred too much to the scientific establishment generally and produced insufficiently challenging stories based on press releases and other promotional materials ( Murcott et al., 2013 ). Much of the public work to build bridges between these two communities over the past decade has focused on the issue of mutual understanding...

Climate Change Communication in Norway

Climate Change Communication in Norway   Reference library

Marianne Ryghaug and Tomas Moe Skjølsvold

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
11,108 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Duarte’s studies concerns whose voices were present in the climate-related press coverage. She indicates that those voicing opinions about climate change in the Norwegian press are a relatively homogenous group. Typically, they tend to represent the scientific and political establishment: politicians, public spokespersons, and scientists. Thus, the share of visible “skeptics” has become relatively small, and voices from grassroots organizations and other realms of civil society are largely absent. Similarly, Duarte discovered a highly gendered dynamic to the...

Global Warming

Global Warming   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
10,264 words
Illustration(s):
13

...of only about 250 kilometers, which is sufficient to simulate major atmospheric processes but too coarse to allow the incorporation of processes that operate at a local or regional scale. The latter requires the use of parameterization, a technique that involves the establishment of statistical relationships between grid-scale variables of the basic model and the smaller-scale processes. Calculations at the grid scale can then provide estimates for the local or regional conditions. Cloudiness, net surface radiation, various elements of the hydrologic...

Climate Change Communication in Italy

Climate Change Communication in Italy   Reference library

Lorenzo Beltrame, Massimiano Bucchi, and Enzo Loner

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
9,432 words
Illustration(s):
7

...policymaking compared to other contexts. Studies have highlighted, among other things, the early mobilization and significant international networking activity of Italian elites and social movements. Examples include the role played by the entrepreneur Aurelio Peccei in the establishment of the Club of Rome ( 1968 ), with its influential reports; the relevance of environmental issues in terms of social movements’ engagement ( Della Porta, 1995 ; Diani, 1995 ); the role of culture, identity, and meaning construction in environmental collective action (...

Communicating about Nuclear Energy and Climate Change

Communicating about Nuclear Energy and Climate Change   Reference library

Shirley S. Ho

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...& Bhanthumnavin, 2014 ). Variations in Public Support for Nuclear Energy One crucial factor for the establishment of a nuclear energy program in most countries is public acceptance of nuclear power. Historically, public opposition has resulted in stalled plans for local siting of nuclear power plants in many parts of the world, partly due to the not-in-my-backyard (NIMBY) syndrome. For instance, in Canada, a plan to build a nuclear power plant outside Peace River, Alberta, was dropped in December 2011 due largely to the resistance from residents about the...

Effects of TV and Cable News Viewing on Climate Change Opinion, Knowledge, and Behavior

Effects of TV and Cable News Viewing on Climate Change Opinion, Knowledge, and Behavior   Reference library

Lauren Feldman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
14,880 words
Illustration(s):
3

.... Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Iyengar, S. , & Kinder, D. R. (1987). News that matters: Television and American opinion . Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Jamieson, K. H. , & Cappella, J. N. (2008). Echo chamber: Rush Limbaugh and the conservative media establishment . New York: Oxford University Press. Kahlor, L. , & Rosenthal, S. (2009). If we seek, do we learn? Predicting knowledge of global warming. Science Communication , 30 (3), 380–414. Kaplan, R. L. (2002). Politics and the American press: The rise of objectivity, 1865–1920 ....

Armed Conflict and the Environment

Armed Conflict and the Environment   Reference library

Dennis Saturno ERASGA

Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Social sciences
Length:
2,704 words

...Human Rights Legislation ; International Court of Justice ; International Law ; New Zealand Nuclear Free Zone, Disarmament, and Arms Control Act ; Refugees, Environmental ; Water Security Further Readings Brock, Lothar . (1991). Peace through parks: The environment on peace research agenda. Journal of Peace Research , 28 (4), 407–423. Brooks, Rosa Ehrenreich . (2004). War everywhere: Rights, national security law and the law of armed conflict in the age of terror. University of Pennsylvania Law Review , 153 (2), 675–761. de Nevers, Renée . (2006)...

African Union (AU)

African Union (AU)   Reference library

J. Manyitabot TAKANG and Caroline Muthoni NJUKI

Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Social sciences
Length:
2,797 words

...Union. Article 3 of the Constitutive Act of the AU gives the objectives as regional integration, peace and security, and the protection of human rights. In contrast to the OAU’s focus on sovereignty and nonintervention, the AU reserves the right to intervene in a member-state’s internal affairs in instances such as war crimes, genocide, and crimes against humanity and to restore peace and stability. This focus clearly recognizes the interlinkages between peace and security, political stability, respect for human rights, and cooperation as the preconditions...

Boundary Ecotones

Boundary Ecotones   Reference library

William K. SMITH

Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Social sciences
Length:
1,930 words

...flagging of taller trees lower in the ecotone). Detecting early changes in this boundary ecotone is possible through the study of tree seedling occurrence and age class distribution as an indication of which particular year’s seedling germination and establishment took place. Ultimately, the establishment and growth of new seedlings and saplings, along with the distorted mature tree forms, will provide enough protection (facilitation) for trees to grow to maturity, forming a new subalpine forest with forest-stature trees. In other words, forest-like trees...

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