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peace establishment

The authorized size, composition, and organization of a nation's armed forces in peacetime.

LADD, William

LADD, William (1778–1841)   Reference library

Michael Ziser

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

..., the Garrisonians split from the American Peace Society to form the New England Non-Resistant Society, marking the end of a unified peace movement. Ladd died on 9 April 1841 in Portsmouth, New Hampshire. Although Ladd came to personally adopt some of the more radical tenets of nonresistance, as his essay series in The Christian Mirror from 1836–37 illustrates, he always retained his pragmatic orientation to the problem of organizing against violence. By virtue of his 1831 pamphlet calling for the establishment of a Congress of Nations and a Court of...

FISHER, William Logan

FISHER, William Logan (1781–1862)   Reference library

Michael Ziser

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...of wood, they want and ostensible God, idols that they can bow down to. They worship images in neglect of that small voice within that teaches perfection” (“Memoir” 1975 , 103). Bibliography An Examination of the Principles of Peace and War as connected with Religion and Morality, particularly in reference to the Formation of Peace Societies (Philadelphia, 1821). The Light of Truth in the Mind of Man, the only rule of Faith and Practice: with some observations upon the Formality and Idolatry of Religious Sects (Philadelphia, 1824). An Examination of the...

Pan-Africanism

Pan-Africanism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
2,198 words
Illustration(s):
1

...World Nationalism , p. 33. London: I. B. Tauris, 1994. Olisanwuche Esedebe, P . Pan-Africanism: The Idea and Movement, 1776–1991 . 2d ed. Washington, D.C.: Howard University Press, 1994. Protocol Relating to the Establishment of the Peace and Security Council of the African Union, http://www.africa-union.org/root/AU/organs/psc/Protocol_peace%20and%20security.pdf , 2002. Jeffrey...

DAVIES, Samuel

DAVIES, Samuel (1723–1761)   Reference library

John Fea

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Davies was careful to defend a rational Presbyterian evangelicalism by rejecting the antinomian tendencies of his more radical religious neighbors. By promoting a Calvinism that was concerned with producing moral citizens for Virginia, Davies won the respect of the political establishment in the colony. He used this influence to defend the right of religious toleration for Protestant dissenters when it was threatened by the Anglican government. Davies’s commitment to this kind of social religion was evident in all of his writings, both his sermons and his...

SCHMUCKER, Samuel Simon

SCHMUCKER, Samuel Simon (1799–1873)   Reference library

John R. Shook

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...was ordained and began ministering small congregations formerly led by his uncle in the vicinity of New Market in Shenandoah County, Virginia. As the most highly educated Lutheran minister of his generation, he was soon promoting the unification of Lutheran churches and the establishment of institutions for training Lutheran ministers in America. In 1820 he and his father participated in the organization of the General Synod of the Lutheran Church in America. Schmucker composed its constitution and its hymnal. Schmucker then led the effort to found the first...

BUCHANAN, Joseph Rodes

BUCHANAN, Joseph Rodes (1814–1899)   Reference library

Judith A. Wiener

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...and the ability to unlock mental abilities and prevent and cure disease through the practice of both disciplines. In his various works and speeches, Buchanan expressed his strong views on the prevention of disease and his distrust of traditional medicine and the medical establishment. In an article in the periodical The Arena , Buchanan chastised physicians for getting carried away with enthusiasm for the germ theory of disease and instead, urged physicians to look towards healthful living as the way to prevent disease and ensure the restoration of health...

Scientists, African

Scientists, African   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,330 words
Illustration(s):
1

...published in 1967 in the journal Science , arguing that African societies should make scientific attitudes part of their own worldview. The essay attracted considerable attention in Africa, Europe, and America and eventually led to Odhiambo’s central role in the establishment of the International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE) in Nairobi in 1969 . The ICIPE remains one of the most successful scientific institutions on the continent, drawing support from a large group of external donors. Odhiambo went on to help in the creation of...

BLAND, Richard

BLAND, Richard (1710–1776)   Reference library

Karen D. Hoffman

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...of the general assembly’s power to enact laws, though Bland’s argument appealed primarily to the rights granted to Englishmen by the English constitution rather than to universal principles. Couching his argument in the appeals to the historical circumstances surrounding the establishment of the Virginia colony, Bland noted that Virginians were not a conquered people but were the free descendants of Englishmen and, as such, were “only subject to laws made with their own consent” (Bland 1965 , 319). Moreover, laws concerning the internal governance of the...

WILLARD, Samuel

WILLARD, Samuel (1640–1707)   Reference library

Harry Clark Maddux

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

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Current Version:
2013

...Colony’s identity as a bulwark of Puritan belief. He was also among those in the 1680s who advocated submission to the crown’s attempt to re-establish control over the colonies by its insistence on religious toleration. However, after the loss of the charter in 1684 and the establishment of the Dominion of New England, he increasingly found himself opposed to the policies of the crown. It was during this period (in 1688 ), that he began to preach his famous series of sermons explicating the Westminster Catechism. He would do so for the remainder of his life....

FRANKLIN, Benjamin

FRANKLIN, Benjamin (1706–1790)   Reference library

Cornelis de Waal and Monica Morrison

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... offered him employment as a shopkeeper. Denham died not long after, and Franklin returned to working as a printer with Keimer. He continued working with Keimer until 1728 , when he began his own printing business with Hugh Meredith , an apprentice of Keimer. Along with the establishment of his own printing press, Franklin also created Junto (or the “Leather Apron Club”), a private club, whose members were young men interested in political and social theory, general philosophy, and business. Franklin continued to publish small essays and pamphlets that...

asylums: a historical survey

asylums: a historical survey   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,039 words
Illustration(s):
1

...be insane and that the nation was much moved by his sufferings. During the latter part of his reign the lunacy reform movement got under way. From the beginning of the 19th century parliamentary reports on the condition of lunacy followed one another in steady succession. The establishment of county lunatic asylums was prompted partly by moral outrage felt upon the discovery of the revolting and inhuman conditions of the insane and partly by the newly found faith in the possibility of cure. The committees submitting these reports consisted of well-meaning people...

CAREY, Henry Charles

CAREY, Henry Charles (1793–1879)   Reference library

Marc-William Palen

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

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Current Version:
2013

...and natural science. Man was but the “molecule of society … the subject of social science,” and “the great law of molecular gravitation” was “the indispensible condition of the being called man” (vol. 1, 41, 42). The protective tariff was therefore a force that “tends to the establishment of decentralization, and to the production of local employment for time and talent, tends to give value to land, to promote its division, and to enable parents and children to remain in closer connection with each other” (vol. 1, 45). Money advanced financial progress....

CHASE, Salmon Portland

CHASE, Salmon Portland (1808–1873)   Reference library

Alexandra Perry

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

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Current Version:
2013

...its reconstruction acts, the right of suffrage to whites; but wrong in the exclusion from suffrage of certain classes of citizens and all unable to take its prescribed retrospective oath, and wrong also in the establishment of despotic military governments for the States and in authorizing military commissions for the trial of civilians in time of peace. There should have been as little military government as possible; no military commissions; no classes excluded from suffrage; and no oath except one of faithful obedience and support to the Constitution and...

WARREN, Josiah

WARREN, Josiah (1798–1874)   Reference library

Raymond James Krohn

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...The novelty of Warren’s business model took place from what followed such simple dealings. As payment to the store proprietor for the number of minutes employed in customer service, as measured by reference to a displayed clock, hence the popular designation of Warren’s establishment as a “time store,” the customer provided a labor note, which entailed to the shopkeeper a reciprocal amount of time in whatever the customer’s chosen trade, profession, or means of employment, such as needlework, carpentry, blacksmithing, legal counsel, and so on. In that way,...

Portraiture

Portraiture   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
2,185 words
Illustration(s):
1

...in a confessional mode or with pseudo-third person distance, but has the great advantage of speaking in his or her own voice, however contrived. What, of course, separates the literary from the visual portrait is the space and time available to the writer, permitting the establishment of the changing contours of the subject's presence over the years and revealing the transformation of body and spirit. In this regard, the literary portrait is surely more rounded, the multivalent interaction between the subject and his or her contemporaries more fully...

BACKUS, Isaac

BACKUS, Isaac (1724–1806)   Reference library

Stephen A. Wilson

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

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Current Version:
2013

...the church. His conception of separation did not go so far as that of Roger Williams , for instance, who insisted that the forming and breaking up of individual churches would not affect civic peace. Nor did Backus object to enforced sabbatarianism or the insistence upon a Protestant oath for all public office holders. He was against the idea of a religious establishment, but not against the idea of religion having a strong and officially encouraged public role. Chris Beneke suggests that “His failure to end the colony’s system of compulsory taxation was due,...

WILLIAMS, Roger

WILLIAMS, Roger (1604–1683)   Reference library

James Calvin Davis

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...He disagreed that the Bible assigned any responsibility for defending religious authority to civil magistrates, and he denied that religious uniformity was necessary to the health of either church or civil society. Rather than helping its cause as the Massachusetts establishment assumed it would, state force imperiled the church, because assimilation of the sinful means of power politics threatened the church’s integrity. To Williams, the success of the church did not require assistance from the state; its success required that it distance itself from...

MADISON, James

MADISON, James (1751–1836)   Reference library

Shane J. Ralston

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...writings have had an undeniably lasting effect on American political thought. Bibliography Memorial and Remonstrance, Presented to the General Assembly, of the State of Virginia, at Their Session in 1785, in consequence of a Bill Brought into that Assembly for the Establishment of Religion by Law (Worcester, Virginia, 1786). With Alexander Hamilton and John Jay . The Federalist: A Collection of Essays, Written in Favour of the New Constitution, As Agreed upon by the Federal Convention , 2 vols. (New York, 1788). Letters of Helvidius: Written in...

Fashion

Fashion   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
13,281 words
Illustration(s):
1

...own taste was the only thing reflected in every aesthetic detail of her costume. Her income, of course, was reflected in its materials. Charles Frederick Worth ( 1825–1895 ), an Englishman who worked for a Parisian dry-goods shop before opening his innovative dressmaking establishment in 1858 , is acknowledged to be the founder of haute couture. This was a new French system whereby the design, construction, and embellishment of a woman's garment and its accessories would be undertaken as a single creation by a named artist. Such an artist would thus...

Literature and Criticism

Literature and Criticism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
13,550 words

...century, colonial rule had become fairly well established across the continent, and with it came an infrastructural and institutional base just wide enough to support the dissemination of literacy. The introduction of standard orthographies for many indigenous languages, the establishment of schools and printing presses by the missionaries, and the missionaries’ organization of writing competitions and their encouragement of transcriptions and translations of oral traditions lay the groundwork for the steady stream of translations and some creative writing,...

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