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Overview

establishment fee

A charge levied by a lender to establish a loan. See front-end fee.

Family Structures

Family Structures   Reference library

Laurie E. Pearce, Jon L. Berquist, Richard Hawley, Judith P. Hallett, Katherine A. Shaner, Shulamit Valler, and Helen Rhee

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
27,740 words

...the nursing of his children in the event that the mother does not nurse them. In exchange for fulfilling these obligations to his offspring, the father is given several rights that pertain mainly to his daughters. He is entitled to annul their vows and to receive their betrothal fee and the profits that have accrued through their handiwork. In addition to the father’s special rights regarding his daughters, both parents are entitled to receive honor and care even when this involves monetary expenditures from both sons and daughters ( y. Qidd. 61:3 and Peʾah ...

Children

Children   Reference library

Erin E. Fleming, Jennifer L. Koosed, Pierre Brulé, Christian Laes, Chris Frilingos, Karina Martin Hogan, John W. Martens, and Melvin G. Miller

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
25,560 words

...is a lamp and the teaching a light, and the reproofs of discipline are a way of life, To preserve you from the wife of another, from the smooth tongue of the adulteress. Do not desire her beauty in your heart, and do not let her capture you with her eyelashes; For a prostitute’s fee is only a loaf of bread, but the wife of another stalks a man’s very life. Can a fire be carried in the bosom without burning one’s clothes? Or can one walk on hot coals without scorching the feet? So is he who sleeps with his neighbor’s wife; no one who touches her will go...

Zāwiyah

Zāwiyah   Reference library

Beverly Mack

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
660 words

...the colonial establishment of public schools, which often favored boys’ enrollment, the zāwiyah has continued to function as a venue for women's education in which they attend small, informal classes several times a week. The zāwiyah offers secure space for women to meet to discuss a wide range of topics from current politics to theological issues. They address their questions to the senior woman who is the designated leader, their teacher. In this way, the zāwiyah functions as a local educational center without the formalities of school fees, degree...

Coffeehouses and Coffee

Coffeehouses and Coffee   Reference library

Michelle Craig McDonald

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...If gender was a clear dividing line in coffeehouses’ clientele, class was less so. Most required a small admission fee, but rather than being meant as a fiscal barrier, such charges were used to offset the cost of the periodicals and newspapers that members could freely peruse. Indeed, because of the exchange of ideas and opinions, coffeehouses became known as “penny universities,” a term that was first invented for London establishments but that applied equally well to their American counterparts. But if coffeehouses were sites of social, cultural, and...

Hospitals and Dispensaries

Hospitals and Dispensaries   Reference library

Bernadette McCauley

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...the treatment of accident victims accounted for 60 percent of hospital admissions. By 1935 , a third of Americans were born in and died in a hospital, but regional and class differences persisted. Rural areas and the South had relatively few hospitals. In an ironic twist, high fees now increasingly excluded hospitals’ traditional patients, the poor. Proposals for compulsory national health insurance stirred powerful opposition, but voluntary hospital-insurance plans, such as Blue Cross, flourished. Although hospital lobbyists were unsuccessful in efforts to...

Rural Life and Society

Rural Life and Society   Reference library

Ginette Aley

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...matters like credit, squatters, and preemption. Many revisions later, the ultimate land act was passed as the Homestead Act ( 1862 ): having paid the small filing fee, adult citizens who were heads of household (male or female) could file a claim on 160 acres after living on and improving the land for five years; prospective landowners could skip the requirements and pay the commutation fee. Although imperfect, the act motivated many Americans and immigrants to take up farming in the West and perpetuate the Jeffersonian vision. In promoting agriculture,...

Labor Movements

Labor Movements   Reference library

Robert H. Zieger

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...of the World (IWW; 1905 ), put forth alternative visions of a just and efficacious social order. Although the AFL regarded itself as the voice of all wage earners, in fact it privileged the concerns of relatively skilled, white, male workers. Its craft unions charged high entry fees and adopted high dues structures, in part because they typically provided members with union-funded training, job referral, and sometimes health care and death benefits. These organizations sought to limit the supply of skilled workers through advocacy of immigration restriction,...

Immigration

Immigration   Reference library

Rudolph J. Vecoli and Donna R. Gabaccia

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...and regulation were taken during these years. After 1819 , Congress limited the number of immigrants to a fixed relation to trade goods (“tonnage”) on Atlantic ships. Beginning already in the 1830 s, states attempted to limit the number of poor people admitted by requiring fees of them or the captains of the ships on which they traveled. After 1860 the federal government gained firm control over immigration and began to plan for the erection of immigration stations to replace state-run facilities in port cities. In the 1880 s, Congress prohibited the...

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