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establishment fee

A charge levied by a lender to establish a loan. See front-end fee.

Global Environment Facility

Global Environment Facility   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...for Environmental Aid: Pitfalls and Promise , edited by R. Keohane and M. Levy . Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1996, pp. 55–87. Analyzes the interests and interactions of the GEF's key stakeholders during the GEF's establishment, pilot phase, and restructuring negotiations. Global Environment Facility. Instrument for the Establishment of the Restructured Global Environment Facility . Washington, D.C.: Global Environment Facility, 1994. As the GEF's “constitution”, the Instrument defines the roles and responsibilities of the GEF Assembly, Council,...

United States Federal Policy

United States Federal Policy   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...1) cap-and-trade, in which policy makers set a limit on the overall quantity of emissions but let sources buy and sell permits so that they achieve the cap at least cost, and 2) emission fees (or taxes), in which policy makers set the price sources must pay when they emit. Under cap-and-trade the market determines the price emitters must pay. Under an emission fee the market determines the quantity of pollution that results. Critically, both approaches help correct a market failure (i.e., an economically suboptimal outcome) that arises because emitters...

Waste Management

Waste Management   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...generally pay an average amount for the collection and disposal of their waste, which is unrelated to the quantity of waste that they dispose of. The fee is often included in a general local tax and not separately identified. Variable charging relates the amount paid to the amount of waste produced, excluding materials separated for recycling. This is also known as “pay by the bag,” “volume-based fees,” or “unit pricing.” A variety of methods are used, the most common being the purchase of distinctive refuse bags by the householder, the cost of which...

Climate Policies

Climate Policies   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
5,898 words
Illustration(s):
1

...and WCI's use of auctions as an allowance distribution mechanism. The auction policies are slightly more ambitious than WCI calling for approximately a third of allowances to be auctioned initially ( World Resources Institute, 2009b ) and for the rest to be sold at a “modest fee.” The Final Recommendations initially call for the auction of: 100% of transportation and merchant generator allowances, 5% of industrial allowances, and 5% of electric generator allowances. Through parallel processes, the Midwest has also developed a robust group of complementary...

Psychological, Social, and Cultural Barriers to Communicating about Climate Change

Psychological, Social, and Cultural Barriers to Communicating about Climate Change   Reference library

Nathaniel Geiger, Brianna Middlewood, and Janet Swim

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...allergies and asthma rates ( Shea, Truckner, Weber, & Peden, 2008 ). Further, the heat-trapping gases that cause climate change also negatively impact global food systems and marine biodiversity through dissolving into the oceans and causing the oceans to acidify ( Doney, Fabry, Feely, & Kleypas, 2009 ; Orr et al., 2005 ). Failure to consider the full range of effects of climate change and, more generally, the systemic changes caused by human alteration of carbon cycle may lead to individuals underestimating the degree to which climate change will have...

Climate Change Communication in Belgium

Climate Change Communication in Belgium   Reference library

Yves Pepermans and Pieter Maeseele

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
7,483 words
Illustration(s):
1

.... Standard & Poor . (2014). Climate change is a mega trend for sovereign risk. Standard & Poor. Retrieved from, https://www.globalcreditportal.com/ratingsdirect/renderArticle.do?articleId=1318252&SctArtId=236925&from=CM&nsl_code=LIME&sourceObjectId=8606813&sourceRevId=1&fee_ind=N&exp_date=20240514-20:34:43 . Swyngedouw, E. (2010). Apocalypse forever? Post-political populism and the specter of climate change. Theory, Culture & Society , 27 (2–3), 213–232. Thaler, R. , & Sunstein, C. (2008). Nudge: Improving decisions about health, wealth and...

Climate Change Communication in China

Climate Change Communication in China   Reference library

Ji Li and Luo Dan

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...and limiting greenhouse gas emissions undoubtedly has an impact on fields related to industry. Therefore, in some cases, fossil fuel companies are bound to prevent the media from reporting on human-induced climate issues by providing a media company with considerable advertising fees it needs to ensure the company’s normal operation. If the market-oriented media accepts the conditions set by their sponsoring enterprises, this will no doubt affect the reports pertaining to climate change issues. Ross Gelbspan ( 2005 ) , a senior American environmental...

Climate Change Communication in Hong Kong and Taiwan

Climate Change Communication in Hong Kong and Taiwan   Reference library

Tsung-Jen Shih

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...( Hsu & Shih, 2015 ; Hsu & Yang, 2011b ). In response to policies aimed at mitigating climate change, people strongly supported the development of energy-efficient cars and renewable energy technology ( Hsu & Shih, 2015 ). Most people were even willing to pay higher utility fees to substantiate the development of renewable energy or to pay higher taxes for environmental protection ( Taipei Times , 2015 ). The majority of people also thought that the government should take action against energy-intensive, highly polluting industries, either by imposing...

Dentistry

Dentistry   Reference library

Daniel M. Fox

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...access to preventive and restorative dental care became an activity of government as a result of the hiring of dentists by state health departments early in the twentieth century and the establishment in 1919 of a dental division of the U.S. Public Health Service (PHS). The scope and influence of public-health dentistry expanded considerably after the establishment and validation by the PHS in the mid-1940s of a pilot program in Grand Rapids, Michigan, to fluoridate the public water supply to reduce the incidence of dental caries. The use of fluoride in...

Veterinary Medicine

Veterinary Medicine   Reference library

Susan D. Jones

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...through the 1930s (largely because of the Depression and the school closures), but this was reversed by the developments of the 1940s and 1950s: the establishment of new veterinary schools after World War II, the discovery of new therapeutics, and the rise of intensive animal production (also known as “factory farming”). Returning World War II veterans played a key role in demanding the establishment of new veterinary schools in state land-grant universities such as those in California, Georgia, Illinois, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, and Oklahoma and...

Traditional Knowledge (India)

Traditional Knowledge (India)   Reference library

Vaneesha JAIN

Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Social sciences
Length:
1,391 words

...Gardens Research Institute then used the plant to develop a scientifically validated and standardized herbal drug named Jeevani. The research institute transferred the production technology to the pharmaceutical firm Arya Vaidya Pharmacy, and it agreed to share the license fee and royalty equally with the tribal community. At the same time, the wide implementation of benefit-sharing arrangements remains problematic. Systems for benefit sharing are incomplete without the recognition of rights to self-determination, to territories and resources, and to prior...

Waste Management

Waste Management (Ecosystems Management and Sustainability)   Reference library

Michael K. HEIMAN

Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Social sciences
Length:
3,754 words

...more) per ton generated for treatment or disposal of hazardous waste than for solid waste—currently thirty to ninety dollars per ton in the United States ( van Haaren, Themelis, and Goldstein 2010 ). (Exact fees vary by region. Most data are proprietary and available via subscription from sources such as the Waste Business Journal .) Hazardous waste fees vary greatly depending on the actual waste composition, size of the generator, and the method of disposal. The high cost of disposing of the hazardous waste is the main incentive for hazardous waste...

Shipping and Freight Indicators

Shipping and Freight Indicators   Reference library

Claude COMTOIS

Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Social sciences
Length:
2,818 words

...and regions that have environmental problems are not competitive at the global scale. The operations of ships and ports will become increasingly affected by countries implementing complex systems of differential charging for environmental purposes, such as congestion fees as well as fines and fees for polluting emissions, waste management, and energy efficiency—all of which will be built into shipping costs. Nonetheless, shipping remains the most ecological mode of transport, and to exploit its sustainability assets as competitive advantages, it must...

Fast Food Industry

Fast Food Industry   Reference library

Jay FRIEDLANDER

Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Social sciences
Length:
2,145 words

... There are financial, operations, and marketing benefits to adopting these new practices. Financially, companies save money or increase sales through their use. For example, reducing energy needs or eliminating packaging saves costs; composting food waste reduces trash-hauling fees. On the sales side, start-up companies and industry giants such as McDonald’s opened new markets or reinvigorated same-store sales by bringing new or lapsed customers into the store. Today, based on sales of natural and organic products in the grocery segment, it is estimated that...

Recreation, Outdoor

Recreation, Outdoor   Reference library

Laura ANDERSON and Robert MANNING

Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Social sciences
Length:
1,875 words

...transportation. The commission focused on the importance of having recreational opportunities close to home and encouraged local, in addition to national, action on outdoor recreation. Parks in other parts of the world are funded primarily by central governments and by entrance fees. Outdoor Recreation Activities With the creation of the ORRRC came the beginning of a series of national surveys to better understand recreation participation in the United States. The original National Recreation Surveys ( NRS ) were replaced with the National Survey on Recreation...

Environmental Law—East Asia

Environmental Law—East Asia   Reference library

Jeffrey BROADBENT, Koichi HASEGAWA, Dowan KU, Taehyun PARK, Yu-Ju CHIEN, and Jun JIN

Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Social sciences
Length:
5,233 words

...has a seriously negative impact on the environment or there is concern of endangering the environment, the protection of the environment shall prevail.” It adopted concepts such as civil participation, collecting fees from beneficiaries or users, setting appropriate lawyer fees paid by the defendant agency, and returning detection and appraisal fees and other litigation costs to plaintiffs. In May 2010 , the Environmental Education Act was passed, making Taiwan one of few countries that legally require public officials and students to complete environmental...

education: theory and practice

education: theory and practice   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
3,123 words

...provide that education. If it were illegal to allow a child to go uneducated, demand would produce schools which could be inspected for efficiency by government servants, and the pupils of which could be publicly examined. Government could also subsidize those too poor to pay the fees. In this way he thought universal literacy at least would be ensured, while freedom to conduct educational experiments would also be preserved. Mill's arguments were not accepted. But the goal of universal education gained ground, along with the conviction that the state must...

Journals In Science, Medicine, and Engineering

Journals In Science, Medicine, and Engineering   Reference library

Daniel Goldstein

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...practice of escalating subscription prices that had been pioneered by commercial science journal publishers in Germany in the 1930s. For a number of reasons, libraries were more resistant than individuals to canceling subscriptions in response to higher prices. Combined with page fees, high institutional subscriptions meant that for the first time in American history, the publication of scientific periodicals could be profitable on a large scale. (This did not mean that individual titles were guaranteed to succeed.) Whether they were American or European, the...

Urban Agriculture

Urban Agriculture   Reference library

Paul KAAK

Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Social sciences
Length:
2,780 words

...is for landowners to either loan, rent, or place in long-term trusts blighted spaces that can then be cultivated by community members. The land is divided into plots that are assigned to individuals and families who are interested in cultivating them, and who may pay a nominal fee for water, tools, and maintenance of the space. This model may have its drawbacks, however. Homestead spaces are more likely to thrive if the people working them are growing food for themselves or to sell at market, as opposed to hobby gardeners who may neglect regular maintenance....

Geology

Geology   Reference library

Paul Lucier

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...geology (or any science) was difficult and forced nineteenth-century geologists to cobble together several survey and teaching positions, and often they accepted commissions from companies and capitalists to do private surveys for a fee. These consulting engagements were among the first forms of professional science involving fees for expertise ( Lucier, 2008 ). The summation of antebellum survey geology found its clearest expression in the Manual of Geology ( 1862 ) by James Dwight Dana ( 1813–1895 ), professor of geology at Yale. Dana argued that America,...

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