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establishment fee

A charge levied by a lender to establish a loan. See front-end fee.

education

education   Reference library

Leon Litvack

Oxford Reader's Companion to Dickens

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
2,947 words

...of a casual adult observer, who visits an establishment generally kept by a mature, narrow-minded spinster. The humorous character of these vignettes is evidence of a typically patriarchal perspective: Dickens shared with most men of his time an ideal of femininity which emphasized the teaching of domestic crafts and responsibilities, rather than imaginative or intellectual pursuits—although in real life he encouraged his daughter's career as a painter. When Dickens turns his attention to fee-paying establishments for boys, they are treated far more...

Heger, Pensionnat

Heger, Pensionnat   Reference library

Sue Lonoff

The Oxford Companion to the Brontës

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
822 words

...suggested a school in Lille, but she then heard such favourable accounts of the pensionnat that she recommended going there if the terms were right. Charlotte's subsequent letter to the Hegers so impressed them that they included what were normally extras in a single, reasonable fee. Thus the two sisters and their father left Haworth on 8 February 1842 , visiting London en route to the Continent and arriving at 32 rue d'Isabelle on 15 February. The site of the pensionnat has its own romantic history, as Elizabeth Gaskell first observed. In the 13th century...

Dickens, Elizabeth Barrow

Dickens, Elizabeth Barrow (1789–1863)   Reference library

Michael Slater

Oxford Reader's Companion to Dickens

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
1,943 words

...(Forster 1.2). This sense of having been betrayed by his own mother was a resentment Dickens was to harbour all his life. He did return to school, albeit briefly, and then in 1827 Elizabeth's seventh and last child, Augustus , was born. John could no longer pay the school fees, and it was again Elizabeth who helped Charles to a job. Her aunt kept a boarding house in Berners Street where lodged Edward Blackmore , a partner in the legal firm of Ellis and Blackmore . Elizabeth was a frequent visitor at Berners Street and she persuaded Blackmore to take...

Dickens, John

Dickens, John (1785–1851)   Reference library

Michael Allen

Oxford Reader's Companion to Dickens

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
2,618 words

...country that was to stay with him for the rest of his life ( see Kent ). Recalled to London in 1822 he carried with him not only a baggage of debts, but also a drop in salary, and the strains of his position told heavily. His decision to send Fanny to study music, with annual fees of 38 guineas, seems foolish, though under better conditions it could have been a sensible long-term strategy, leading to good teaching income. Charles 's schooling, though, was discontinued and he felt neglected by his father. Twice in 1823 summonses were issued for...

public readings

public readings   Reference library

Philip Collins

Oxford Reader's Companion to Dickens

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
2,591 words

...Dickens devised a new reading from his latest Christmas story, ‘Doctor Marigold’, the monologue of a market trader, which evoked a highly popular blend of laughter and tears. A similar but longer tour followed, January–May 1867 , with Chappell raising his nightly expenses-paid fee from £50 to nearly £60, further raised to £80 for the 1868–9 farewells. Even at £50 Dickens was earning more than Macready had commanded as leader of the English stage. For the 1867 tour Dickens created three new items from his 1866 Christmas story: ‘Barbox Brothers’, ‘The...

law and legal institutions

law and legal institutions   Reference library

David Sugarman

Oxford Reader's Companion to Dickens

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
5,666 words

...intensified. In A Tale of Two Cities we have portraits of Mr Stryver, the common law pleader and rising lion, and his jackal-like ‘devil’, Sydney Carton , ‘fully half-solvent’ like so many other impecunious barristers of the period, preparing briefs for Mr Stryver at half the fee. It has been suggested that Stryver's cross-examination in the trial episode in A Tale of Two Cities was inspired by Wetherall's cross-examination of Castel in the treason trials associated with the Spa Fields riots of 1816 . Dickens satirized the forensic skills of the...

serialization

serialization   Reference library

J. H. Stape

Oxford Reader’s Companion To Conrad

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
1,819 words

...that was in its final stages of completion. The economic factor in all this was primary since serialization paid extremely well, especially as Conrad’s fame and popularity grew after 1913 , the landmark year of Chance . The serialization of The Arrow of Gold earned him a fee of £1,200 and The Rescue £2,200. It was, however, almost from the outset of his career essential to managing his finances since it meant, except for revisions at the book stage, double payment for the same creative effort. The publication of Conrad’s, short stories in serial form...

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