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establishment fee

A charge levied by a lender to establish a loan. See front-end fee.

establishment fee

establishment fee   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Finance and Banking (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... fee A charge levied by a lender to establish a loan. See front-end fee...

establishment fee

establishment fee  

Reference type:
Overview Page
A charge levied by a lender to establish a loan. See front-end fee.
Education

Education   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,267 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Merchant Taylors', Rugby, and Harrow. It was these very establishments (with the exception of Harrow) which Sydney *Smith named when specifically attacking ‘public schools’, and their pretensions to eminence, in an Edinburgh Review article of 1810 . The fees that wealthier families could afford to pay, or the social lustre attaching to their name, were clearly a strong attraction for school governing bodies. By 1800 fee-paying students at Eton, the most illustrious of these establishments, had come to outnumber the subsidized scholars by as much as...

Viewing

Viewing   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,051 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...following years of independent exhibition. Relations between members in the Society of Artists and between artists in similar bodies were frequently marred by dissension over the selection and arrangement of pictures in exhibition, the question of charging the public an admission fee, and the deployment of the receipts from its events—in short, by practical manifestations of the ongoing debate over the nature and function of art exhibition and the social composition of its viewing public. The boisterous early years of the Society of Artists exhibition are a...

Central Government, Courts, and Taxation

Central Government, Courts, and Taxation   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Family and Local History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
7,750 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...with the collection of revenue as customs officials , rent collectors, or excise men. For the early modern period, it is impossible to produce accurate figures of how large the central establishment was, for much government work was carried out not by its own salaried officers but by clerks and deputies employed by them, and paid out of the officers’ own salaries, fees, and pourboires . (In time the most successful of these deputies might become officers in their own right.) Dr Penry Williams has estimated the number of formal government servants in the...

Education

Education   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Family and Local History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,282 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... 1880 all children were compelled to attend school up to the age of 10. The leaving age was raised to 11 in 1893 and to 12 (except for those employed in agriculture) in 1899 . Fees for poor children were paid by the boards from 1876 until all fees were abolished in 1891 . As with all Acts, there was a time‐lag between what was intended and what happened, but the establishment of board schools had a revolutionary effect on elementary education. From the beginning of the 19th century the bulk of elementary teaching was undertaken by children under a...

Religion

Religion   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,549 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...countryside, tithe was particularly vexing because it was assessed in kind and offered the occasion for bitter disputes between clergymen and farmers, while church rates, an obligation of all occupiers of premises whether Anglican or not, were an added grievance, along with other fees exacted by the clergy. Even one of the presumed advantages of the parochial system, that it secured the presence of a gentleman in every parish, could provoke egalitarian hostility, the more so as increasing numbers of clergymen began to act as magistrates and so became involved...

Publishing

Publishing   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,242 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...distribution grew, it became easier to find them. Books could be bought, hired, or borrowed either from commercial establishments and institutions or from individuals. The humblest literature— *almanacs , *ballads , chap-books, and other forms of *street literature —could be purchased from the itinerant pedlars and chapmen who travelled the countryside selling trinkets, gifts, household goods, and toys. Even the most prosperous establishments stocked items other than books, for book-selling alone was rarely sufficient to make a decent living, and not all the...

The Poor

The Poor   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Family and Local History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,014 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

.... A few workhouses for the able‐bodied poor were founded, from the late 17th century onwards, by local initiatives. More were established under the Acts of 1722 and 1782 . From 1722 parishes were allowed to farm out their responsibility for the poor to a contractor at a fixed fee. Gilbert's Act 1782 allowed parishes to join forces in the erection of a workhouse, in an arrangement whereby each parish paid the cost of maintaining its own poor but achieved savings by sharing the premises, which could be sited up to 10 miles away from a component parish. This...

Law

Law   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,210 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...suits at the provincial assizes, all the common law tribunals and the court of Chancery suffered a massive loss of civil business which reduced them to a nadir around mid-century. While there were various possible reasons for the decline, it is clear that rising legal and clerical fees and the connected problem of labyrinthine process were major deterrents against going to law, not to mention the uncertainty inherent in doctrine which was buried in a mass of case reports. Long-standing criticisms along these lines were multiplied after 1800 , as economic and ...

45 The History of the Book in New Zealand

45 The History of the Book in New Zealand   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
3,017 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

..., however, this subsidy was made available only if an institution imposed an annual borrowing fee of at least 5 s ., although most permitted free on-site reading. This stricture discouraged the establishment of free municipal libraries. It also reinforced a Protestant sense of propriety that regarded the reading of fiction as entertainment, and therefore a personal luxury. Later, the influence of the Carnegie Corporation encouraged a move away from lending fees; eighteen institutions benefited from its support, as did universities and other specialist...

22 The History of the Book in France

22 The History of the Book in France   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,032 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...and circulation. In addition to academic libraries, a book trade appeared, with *stationers operating workshops in the Latin Quarter to furnish students and teachers with copies of MSS. Laymen, responsible to the university’s religious authorities, ran the *pecia system: for a fee, students or professional copyists could borrow MSS established from a model copy (the *exemplar ) previously checked by university commissions. The dealers ( libraires-jurés ), affiliated to the university, were to check the new copies for completeness and accuracy. Like the...

35 The Slavonic Book in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus

35 The Slavonic Book in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
7,008 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...paid fees to contributors. In the 1820s and 1830s , an increasing demand for home-grown literature was met by the works of such authors as Ivan Krylov and Aleksandr Pushkin , The third edition of Aleksandr Pushkin’s Eugene Onegin (St Petersburg, 1837), the last for which he read *proofs . A *thirty-twomo , such *miniature books (it is 11cm tall), were a novelty in Russia at the time. The Museum of the Miniature book, Azerbaijan although all writings were severely censored following the failed Decembrist uprising ( 1825 ). Bookshops and fee-based...

24 The History of the Book in Germany

24 The History of the Book in Germany   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,033 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...became fashionable, Goethe’s * Werther ( 1774 ) becoming the best-seller of the century, with authorized editions far outnumbered by piracies and translations. Translated works were also attractive to publishers, who did not need to pay authors an honorarium, only a translator’s fee. Foreign authors popular in Germany included *Richardson , Sterne, and (earlier) Defoe. Three translations of * Robinson Crusoe ( 1719 ) appeared within a year: one translation saw five editions in 1720 alone. Crusoe precipitated a flood of German imitations, the best of...

42 The History of the Book in Japan

42 The History of the Book in Japan   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
8,089 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
4

...; the only provincial guild was that of Nagoya, which was recognized in 1798 . The shogunal government was not enthusiastic about the establishment of trade guilds, but perceived them to be a necessary evil in order to limit the scope for *copyright disputes. Until the late 19 th century, copyright lay with publishers, not with authors, and the most common cause of legal disputes was copyright infringement. The establishment of guilds reduced the number of cases within any one publishing centre, but did not stop disputes between publishers in different...

48 The History of the Book in America

48 The History of the Book in America   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
12,975 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...most desired. Commercial circulating libraries, often operated by booksellers, filled that gap, offering readers the opportunity to borrow recent, popular fiction for a fee. Other sorts of libraries, founded for specific segments of urban society such as *apprentices , mechanics, and merchants, were torn between their founders’ mission to provide morally and socially edifying fare and their fee-paying members’ wishes for popular literature. By 1875 the largest of these, the New York Mercantile Library, boasted 160,000 books to cater to its members’ tastes....

contingent fee

contingent fee  

Reference type:
Overview Page
A fee payable only if an activity is successful. For example, a UK estate agent only receives commission if a sale is achieved, and some training establishments offer ‘no pass, no fee’ terms. UK ...
establishment book

establishment book  

Reference type:
Overview Page
‘Establishment book’ is a term applied to a formal register or account book listing in detail, with their respective fees and order of precedence, the principal offices of the realm ...
front-end fee

front-end fee  

Reference type:
Overview Page
1 A charge levied by a lender when a loan is set up or when the first payment of the loan is taken. It may be a commitment fee, an establishment fee, or a documentation fee.2 Any payment made at the ...
Chartered Society of Designers

Chartered Society of Designers  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(CSD)(established 1930)The origins of the CSD lay in the formation of the Society of Industrial Artists (SIA) in Britain in 1930, a time when the nature and definition of both designer and the design ...

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