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establishment clause

The 1st Amendment to the U.S. Constitution states, “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion.” This establishment clause has been used by the Supreme Court to ...

National Endowment For the Arts

National Endowment For the Arts   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
6,027 words

...it constitutes the establishment of religion, which is itself prohibited by the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. (“Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion.”) Prayer led by a principal in a public school would violate the establishment clause; a school policy prohibiting the principal from leading such prayers would not violate the right of free speech. In challenging the Wojnarowicz exhibit, plaintiffs argued that the exhibit was critical of their Christian beliefs and thus violated the establishment clause. The plaintiffs...

WEST, Samuel

WEST, Samuel (1730–1807)   Reference library

Stephen A. Wilson

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...however, is not incompatible with a residual social conservatism. He was, for instance, a staunch advocate for state support of religion. Under the pen name Irenaeus, he defended the establishment clauses preserved in drafts of the Massachusetts constitutional convention during 1778–81 against the critiques of Baptist Isaac BACKUS and others. While these clauses did not mean that a single denomination was hegemonically connected to the state, they did allow for the majority denomination in a region to receive tax support. It is important to add,...

BLAND, Richard

BLAND, Richard (1710–1776)   Reference library

Karen D. Hoffman

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...crown for compensation for lost wages. They argued that, although the royal governor signed the Two-Penny Acts, the Virginia Assembly exceeded its powers in passing the legislation. Local government could not repeal an act that the King had approved without including a suspending clause prohibiting the repeal until the will of the King could be determined. More importantly, Bland understood Camm’s invective to include the charge that the Virginia Assembly had acted with traitorous intent in passing the legislation inasmuch as they hoped thereby to lessen the...

MADISON, James

MADISON, James (1751–1836)   Reference library

Shane J. Ralston

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...would have to wait until 1992 to be ratified as the Twenty-seventh Amendment. Madison’s concern that the Bill of Rights should apply not only to the federal government would eventually be accommodated with the passage of the Fourteenth Amendment (especially its due process clause) in 1868 and a series of Supreme Court cases throughout the twentieth century interpreting each of the ten amendments as “incorporated” and thus protecting citizens against state governments as well. Most of Madison’s theoretical writings were in some way related to his...

National Endowment for the Arts

National Endowment for the Arts   Reference library

Julie Van Camp and Julie Van Camp

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
6,298 words

...because it constitutes the establishment of religion, which is itself prohibited by the First Amendment (“Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion”). Prayer led by a principal in a public school would violate the establishment clause; a school policy prohibiting the principal from leading such prayers would not violate the right of free speech. In challenging the Wojnarowicz exhibit, plaintiffs argued that the exhibit was critical of their Christian beliefs and thus violated the establishment clause. The plaintiffs “view the...

Ziff, Robert Paul

Ziff, Robert Paul (1920–2003)   Reference library

The Dictionary of Modern American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
777 words

...creative, unflaggingly analytical, and proudly iconoclastic.” He was an early explorer of various concepts and ideas including functionalism, the role of empirical inferences in philosophy of mind, the importance of pragmatics in a theory of language, ceteris paribus clauses in understanding, and concepts of vagueness. BIBLIOGRAPHY Semantic Analysis (Ithaca, N.Y., 1960). Philosophic Turnings: Essays in Conceptual Appreciation (Ithaca, N.Y., 1966). Understanding Understanding (Ithaca, N.Y., 1972). Antiaesthetics: An Appreciation of the Cow with the...

Hinton, John Howard

Hinton, John Howard (1791–1873)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
2,257 words

...or The Voluntary Principle in the United States ( 1851 ). With other Baptists he withdrew from the society after 1855 , at odds with the increasing aggressiveness of its Secretary, Edward Miall . His voluntary church principles led him to attack in print the education clauses of Graham's Factory Act of 1843 . His temperance commitment, with the movement's increasing recognition of the necessity for intervention once education into temperance was shown to be an unrealistic hope, led him in later life to become critical of absolute voluntaryism in all...

analytic philosophy

analytic philosophy   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
6,076 words

...facts (even implicitly) when they understand the proposition ‘Every economist is fallible’? And even if they did, such a general proposition is only equivalent to a conjunction of statements of individual facts if we add some such clause as ‘and that is all the economists there are’, which raises questions as to how this clause is to be analysed. The idea that every proposition has a unique logical form mirroring a corresponding fact or state of affairs had been one of the guiding ideas of Wittgenstein's Tractatus , and when Wittgenstein returned to...

African Union

African Union   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,984 words

...the Democratic Republic of Congo. The main drawback however, was that the OAU Charter emphasized “national sovereignty” and a consequent prohibition against OAU involvement in the internal affairs of other member states made such initiatives quite difficult. The non-interference clause, in particular, was often invoked as an excuse for inaction. By the early 1990 s, as more conflicts broke out across the region, such notions began to change and, as a result, the idea of national sovereignty underwent reinterpretation in two main ways. First, it became less...

Exodus

Exodus   Reference library

Richard Nelson Boyce

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
5,228 words

...and the final commandment, regarding the issue of coveting that which properly belongs to one’s neighbor, having some priority regarding proper interpretation of the rest); and the particulars of each of the 10 (those stated positively versus negatively, shifts in motivation clauses between this listing and that in Deuteronomy, and specific translations—such as “kill” versus “murder,” in verse 13 ). Further elaboration of these lies beyond the scope of this article. However, a broader question regarding the status of the participants here versus the other...

Sources and Backgrounds

Sources and Backgrounds   Reference library

Daniele Pevarello

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
4,744 words

...specific legal points ( Rogerson, 2004 , p. 26). Numerous parallels exist between the laws of the Hebrew Bible and the legal codes of the ancient Near East both in content and style. The typical style of these texts is that of casuistic law, where the protasis of a conditional clause introduces a specific legal problem that is then solved in the apodosis. Apodictic, or unconditional, laws are more frequent in the Hebrew Bible than in other ancient legal codes, although they are not an exclusive feature of the legal texts of Israel ( Sparks, 2005 , p. 417)....

SACHVERHALT

SACHVERHALT (GERMAN)   Reference library

Dominique Pradelle

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
4,433 words

...ausgedrückt wird…. Ich brauche für diesen spezifischen Urteilsinhalt den Ausdruck Sachverhalt . (to the judgment corresponds a specific content-of-judgment that must be distinguished from the content-of-representation (matter) and that is expressed in language by subordinate clauses with “which” or by nominalized infinitives…. To designate this specific content of judgment, I use the expression “state-of-affairs.”) (Stumpf, Erscheinungen , 29–30) Meinong denied the equivalence between Stumpf’s Sach-verhalt and Bolzano’s Satz an sich , on the one hand,...

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