You are looking at 1-20 of 50 entries  for:

  • All : establishment book x
clear all

View:

Overview

establishment book

‘Establishment book’ is a term applied to a formal register or account book listing in detail, with their respective fees and order of precedence, the principal offices of the realm ... ...

Transgender/Third Gender/Transsexualism

Transgender/Third Gender/Transsexualism   Reference library

Gwynn Kessler

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
5,535 words

...Stryker, 2006 , p. 7; Valentine, 2007 , p. 24). The reasons behind the relative success, establishment, institutionalization, and entrenchment of queer theory and queer studies relative to the “newness” of transgender theory and transgender studies in academic settings need to be interrogated. Transgender Studies. The publication of The Transgender Studies Reader , edited by Susan Stryker and Stephen Whittle, in 2006 marks an important step toward the establishment and institutionalization of transgender studies in academic settings. The compilation’s...

Gender

Gender   Reference library

Deborah F. Sawyer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
6,164 words

...embryonic theory of gender production implicit in Beauvoir’s words. Wittig’s critique of a masculinized culture is profound, positing that heterosexuality orders all human relations and controls how we conceptualize the world. The ultimate means of political resistance is the establishment of a lesbian culture. A lesbian is not a woman, Wittig argues, whether economically, or politically, or ideologically. A woman exists only in a specific social relation to a man, and that relationship, according to Wittig, is one of servitude. Only a lesbian can be a female...

Feminism

Feminism   Reference library

Claudia Setzer, Susanne Scholz, and Surekha Nelavala

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
14,515 words

...feminism in the United States is typically defined as the period from the Women’s Rights Convention in Seneca Falls, New York, in 1848 to the establishment of women’s voting rights in 1920 . Women’s rights, however, arose within a broad international network of relationships that accelerated in the nineteenth century, aided by increased travel, wider distribution of books and magazines, the establishment of telegraph links, reform movements like abolitionism that spanned the Atlantic, and Catholic and Protestant missionary and revival movements. ...

Political Leadership

Political Leadership   Reference library

Saana Svärd, Rachel Havrelock, Gillian Ramsey, Kristina Milnor, Susan E. Hylen, and Robert M. Royalty Jr.

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
23,198 words

...of the female. The category of the female is a component part of the Priestly creation story—“male and female He created them” ( Gen 1:27 JPS) and women also contribute to the establishment of the Tabernacle, a sacred event long recognized as a reflex of creation. The sacred space of the Tabernacle constitutes the center of the nation in the opening of the Priestly book of Numbers. Because the tribes are arranged in fixed positions along the circumference of the Tabernacle, they appear as constituent parts of a larger unified whole. The national...

Education

Education   Reference library

Heather D. D. Parker, Erin E. Fleming, Timothy J. Sandoval, Daniele Pevarello, Michele Kennerly, Pheme Perkins, Sarit Kattan Gribetz, and Lillian I. Larsen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
28,684 words

...the book that she is reading and copy it. In contrast to the apparent literacy of the woman commissioning the work, Hermas seems to be less than fully literate, taking the book and “cop[ying] it all letter by letter, [because he] could not distinguish the syllables” ( Shepherd of Hermas 2.1.4 [Lake]). Later in the narrative, the same female figure adds additional words to the book, then instructs Hermas to “write two little books and send one to Clement and one to Grapte” ( Shepherd of Hermas 2.4.3 [Lake]). Grapte is in turn commissioned to share the book with...

Religious Leaders

Religious Leaders   Reference library

Ilan Peled, Jonathan Stökl, Vanessa L. Lovelace, Ioanna Patera, David M. Reis, J. Brian Tucker, Tal Ilan, Outi Lehtipuu, Bronwen Neil, and Damien Casey

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
31,240 words

...each version of the origins of the judicial system in ancient Israel specifies that only men should hold this office. For example, the book of Exodus, which credits Moses’s father-in-law, Jethro, with its institution, describes Jethro as instructing Moses to appoint upstanding men as officers to sit as judges for the people over minor cases, while Moses handled the major cases ( 18:13–27 ). A similar version in the book of Numbers depicts Yahweh commanding Moses to choose seventy elders to help him with judging the people ( 11:16–25 ). The Deuteronomic...

Children

Children   Reference library

Erin E. Fleming, Jennifer L. Koosed, Pierre Brulé, Christian Laes, Chris Frilingos, Karina Martin Hogan, John W. Martens, and Melvin G. Miller

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
25,560 words

...is for women to be betrothed by the age of twelve and married in their early teens, and for men to marry by the age of twenty ( b. Qidd. 29b). There were economic and cultural reasons for this difference. The Greco-Roman culture of the Mediterranean viewed marriage as the establishment of a new household with the goal of procreation, seen as a social good, and Palestinian Jewish sources share that ideology. The lower economic status of Jews in the Mediterranean world, which made it hard for young men to establish a household before they inherited property...

Race, Class, and Ethnicity

Race, Class, and Ethnicity   Reference library

Herbert Robinson Marbury, Denise Eileen McCoskey, Vassiliki Panoussi, Lynne St. Clair Darden, James K. Aitken, and Gay L. Byron

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
24,382 words

...by the biblical laws themselves. Intermarriage. As noted, intermarriage was a concern in the Bible and continued in postbiblical Jewish literature. The book of Tobit (second century b.c.e. ?), drawing particularly on Numbers 36 , endorses endogamy (e.g., Tob 1:9 ; 4:12–13 ; 7:9–11 ) and especially the marrying of close family members. As a document that focuses on issues of diaspora living, the book seems to present this as a means of defining Jewish identity when among other nations. Exogamy or intermarriage is castigated as “prostitution” ( porneia ,...

Popular Religion and Magic

Popular Religion and Magic   Reference library

Jo-Ann Scurlock, Ann Jeffers, Pauline Hanesworth, Nicola Denzey Lewis, Jared C. Calaway, Mika Ahuvia, and Justin Marc Lasser

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
27,199 words

...human beings ( āšipūtu ). The official cult was meant to benefit the community as a whole and involved both passive and active public participation on festival days but did not extend to life-cycle rites, which were not matters of public performance. The official priestly establishment kept the divinity localized in his shrine or temple and generally in a good mood, allowing the great gods of the pantheon to serve as enforcers for legitimate private magical rites. Private rites served a wide variety of human needs, including healing from illness; avoiding...

Religious Participation

Religious Participation   Reference library

Jo-Ann Scurlock, Jo-Ann Scurlock, Susan Ackerman, Lynn Lidonnici, Darja Šterbenc Erker, Alicia D. Myers, Ross S. Kraemer, and Lily Vuong

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
29,647 words

...was constantly evolving, with new gods or goddesses being discovered or transformed while old cults were never put aside, resulting in a very rich religious environment. The word “cult” has negative modern connotations, but it remains the best term to describe discrete ritual establishments. A cult is a particular liturgy devoted to the divinity that inheres in a particular object or place, and it may be practiced by one member or by thousands. For the most part, any participant in a particular cult may also participate in any number of others. The gods, heroes,...

Legal Status

Legal Status   Reference library

Julye Bidmead, F. Rachel Magdalene, Lauren Caldwell, Robert N. Stegmann, Judith Hauptman, and David M. Reis

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
24,375 words

...continue to support the first one and keep her in his household for as long as she lives. LL 28 provides a similar safeguard for first wife who has become blind or paralyzed. Marriages could be terminated by the death of one of the spouses, desertion, and divorce. Just as the establishment of marriage was a legal proceeding, divorce required the legal dissolution of contractual agreements. The husband possessed the right to initiate divorce on any grounds. Declaring a formulaic statement, “you are/she is not my wife,” effectively dissolved the marriage. Some...

Same-Sex Relations

Same-Sex Relations   Reference library

David Tabb Stewart, Thomas K. Hubbard, Anthony Corbeill, Lynn R. Huber, David Brodsky, and Valerie Abrahamsen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
23,413 words

...(Ulpian, Digest 3.1.1.5–6). Such men received severe restrictions to their civic rights but were not, it should be stressed, hunted down for punishment or considered criminals if penalized. It is apparently only in 559 c.e. that Christian principles contribute to the establishment of the death penalty for any male involved in same-sex relations, regardless of whether he played the insertive or the receptive role (Justinian, Novels 141). For every law there are always exceptions, and in Roman history that would normally be the emperor. Allegations of...

Family Structures

Family Structures   Reference library

Laurie E. Pearce, Jon L. Berquist, Richard Hawley, Judith P. Hallett, Katherine A. Shaner, Shulamit Valler, and Helen Rhee

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
27,740 words

...maternal authority. For example, Emmelia, who bore nine children, including Macrina (the Younger), Basil the Great, and Gregory of Nyssa and outlived her husband by about thirty years, raised her children (with the help of wet nurses and Macrina), ensured their education and establishment in life, and shaped religious life and devotion at home. Her matriarchal role further included administering the family’s considerable possessions as she paid taxes in three different provinces, distributing them among her numerous children, and finally blessing each of her...

managerial revolution

managerial revolution   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
125 words

... corporation from the owner to the professional manager as the controlling figure. This is associated with the declining importance of family ownership and private property in contemporary capitalism . The concept originates in a book of that title by James Burnham ( 1941 ) who asserted that not only industrial establishments but state agencies and all other significant organizations would become dominated by a new ruling class of managerial professionals pursuing their own interests. It is also associated with Adolf A. Berle and Gardiner C. Means (...

Christianity

Christianity   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
387 words

...was originally a social movement in Judaism , emerging in Jerusalem during the Roman occupation. With the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 ce , Christianity became increasingly a religion of Gentiles, partly as a consequence of the preaching of the apostle Paul and his establishment of Gentile churches. In Rome, these Christian groups became the targets of political repression, especially under Nero. This persecution resulted in new institutions of martyrdom and sainthood. Although Christianity spread among the lower classes, it eventually won favour...

King's Book of Sports

King's Book of Sports  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Declarations by James I, and Charles I, kings of England, relating to the permissibility of sports on Sundays. James I issued a royal proclamation in 1618, reissued by Charles I in 1633, authorizing ...
managerial revolution

managerial revolution  

Reference type:
Overview Page
A concept which points to the supposed shift within the modern corporation from the owner to the professional manager as the controlling figure. This is associated with the declining importance of ...
Zāwiyah

Zāwiyah   Reference library

Beverly Mack

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
660 words

...The move from prayer to education is a short step, for the Qurʾān advises that individuals seek knowledge at every step of their lives. Prior to colonial intervention, the zāwiyah was a significant center of learning for affiliates of Ṣūfī brotherhoods. Since the colonial establishment of public schools, which often favored boys’ enrollment, the zāwiyah has continued to function as a venue for women's education in which they attend small, informal classes several times a week. The zāwiyah offers secure space for women to meet to discuss a wide range of...

Coffeehouses and Coffee

Coffeehouses and Coffee   Reference library

Michelle Craig McDonald

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...it to Mecca, Cairo, and Istanbul in the sixteenth century. From there, coffee drinking spread to western Europe: the first coffeehouses appeared in Italy , France , and England by the early 1600s and had spread across the Atlantic to North America by the 1680 s. These establishments quickly distinguished themselves from taverns and bars, pubs, and inns. Though almost all early modern public houses provided food and drink, and many also offered lodging and stabling, coffeehouses positioned themselves as business institutions by hosting currency-exchange...

Tuskegee University

Tuskegee University   Reference library

Dana R. Chandler

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...the school donated land for the Tuskegee Veterans Administration Hospital ( 1923 ), the first and only such hospital staffed by black professionals. Moton continued the institutional relationship with financiers such as Julius Rosenwald ( 1862 – 1932 ), which led to the establishment of a foundation specifically to fund programs for underprivileged portions of society and the education of African Americans. Frederick D. Patterson ( 1901 – 1988 ) was Tuskegee’s third president, serving from 1935 to 1953 . In 1944 he founded Tuskegee’s School of...

View: