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establishment book

‘Establishment book’ is a term applied to a formal register or account book listing in detail, with their respective fees and order of precedence, the principal offices of the realm ... ...

Leopold, Aldo

Leopold, Aldo   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...road-building on North America's remaining wild lands, he led efforts that in 1924 resulted in the designation of the nation's first wilderness area within the Gila National Forest in New Mexico. Leaving the Forest Service in 1928 , Leopold devoted himself to the establishment of wildlife management as a distinct field. First as an independent field researcher ( 1928–1933 ), then as professor at the University of Wisconsin ( 1933–1948 ), Leopold endeavored to apply the insights of ecology (especially as defined by his friend and colleague Charles...

Agassiz, Louis

Agassiz, Louis   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...not referring to Agassiz, the book details how far the concept and elaboration of major climate change has progressed since Agassiz's initial formulation of an ice-age theory less than two centuries ago. Hallam, A. Great Geological Controversies . New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1983. Examinations of five major historical controversies in geology, including, in Chapter 3, the ice-age controversy and Louis Agassiz's role in it. Although writ-ten for professional geologists and geology students, the book is also appropriate for others...

Sustainable Development

Sustainable Development   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...(Resolution 47/191). 22 December 1992. gopher://gopher.un.org:70/00/esc/cn17/enable/a47r191 . Resolution establishing the CSD. Pamela S. Chasek Factor Four In the late 1990s, in various languages, an influential book appeared: Factor Four: Doubling Wealth—Halving Resource Use by Weizäcker, Lovins, and Lovins. The thesis of the book is that “If resource productivity were increased by a factor of four, the world could enjoy twice the wealth that is currently available, whilst simultaneously halving the stress placed on our natural environment.” The...

Environmental Movements

Environmental Movements   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,364 words
Illustration(s):
1

...vast majority of environmental groups adopted legal means to protect the environment and gained widespread public support for their efforts. Indeed, by the early 1980s certain segments of the environmental movement were actively courted by business interests and the political establishment. Environmentalism was no longer a “fringe” movement; it had become mainstream. Many of the larger environmental groups, with memberships in the millions and annual budgets over U.S.$100 million, were now run by professional administrators who controlled entire departments of...

Information Technology

Information Technology   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...Thomas J. Watson Jr., was able to secure IBM's entry into the electronic computer market with the IBM 701, originally known as the Defense Calculator, in part by documenting that a single design for a general-purpose computer could meet many of the needs of the U.S. defense establishment for the Korean War. IBM's lack of foresight in the early years of computing would be repeated in its failure (along with other mainframe computer manufacturers) to recognize early on the importance of the personal computer, as well as in Micro soft Corporation's failure to...

Environmental Movements

Environmental Movements   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
3,195 words
Illustration(s):
1

...majority of environmental groups adopted legal means to protect the environment. They gained widespread public support for their efforts. Indeed, by the early 1980s certain segments of the environmental movement were actively courted by business interests and the political establishment. Environmentalism was no longer a “fringe” movement. It had become mainstream. Many of the larger environmental groups, with memberships in the millions and annual budgets ranging over U.S.$100 million, were now run by professional administrators who controlled entire...

Human Populations

Human Populations   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
7,227 words
Illustration(s):
5

...rates of change of populations in history have been national administrative records, such as the Domesday Book for England ( 1086 ce ). The growth of the economic and political cohesion of European and North American states from the eighteenth century was associated with the first formal national compilations of population data, and the state is now everywhere the prime agency for population enumeration. This takes two forms. First, the establishment of national registration systems for births, deaths and marriages, often as a direct derivative of...

Evolution of Life

Evolution of Life   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...that the expression natural selection was coined. Darwin announced his theory in 1858 , along with Alfred Russel Wallace , who had independently hit upon the same idea. However, it was the publication of Darwin's book On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection the following year that saw the beginning of the establishment of evolution by natural selection as the most important single idea in biology. At first, not all went well. While the general concept of evolution was widely accepted, a number of flaws in the notion of natural selection...

Waste Management

Waste Management   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...recycling. The least favored methods are landfill and incineration without energy recovery (Table 3). Waste Management. Table 3. European Commission Waste Management Hierarchy Prevention Promotion of clean technologies and products Reduction of the hazardousness of wastes Establishment of technical standards Promotion of re-use and recycling Recovery Preference should be given to materials recycling over energy recovery operations Final disposal Care should be taken to avoid incineration without energy recovery and uncontrolled landfill sites sources :...

Human Populations

Human Populations   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
6,837 words
Illustration(s):
3

...rates of change of populations in history have been national administrative records, such as the Domesday Book for England ( 1086 ce ). The growth of the economic and political cohesion of European and North American states from the eighteenth century was associated with the first formal national compilations of population data, and the state is now everywhere the prime agency for population enumeration. This takes two forms. The first was the establishment of national registration systems for births, deaths, and marriages, often as a direct derivative of...

Parks and Natural Preserves

Parks and Natural Preserves   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
5,322 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Functions at Different Scales. In Landscape Linkages and Biodiversity: Defenders of Wildlife , edited by W. E. Hudson , pp. 27–38. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1991. A useful analysis of the spatiotemporal scales of conservation problems and issues related to the establishment of regional corridors. Noss, R. F. , and A. Y. Cooperrider . Saving Nature's Legacy: Protecting and Restoring Biodiversity . Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1994. Noss, R. F. , and J. M. Scott . “Ecosystem Protection and Restoration: The Core of Ecosystem Management”. In ...

Global Change

Global Change   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...of the roles humans have played in global change. The Columbian encounter The pivotal event was the abrupt Columbian Encounter: the effective mutual discovery by the inhabitants of the two hemispheres of the existence of the transoceanic other, resulting in an immediate establishment of tight interconnections between the peoples, biotic, and other resources of the Americas on the one hand, Europe, Africa, and Asia on the other. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands were to enter this extended community some two to three hundred years later. We...

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