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establishment book

‘Establishment book’ is a term applied to a formal register or account book listing in detail, with their respective fees and order of precedence, the principal offices of the realm ... ...

genital stage

genital stage n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

.... The concept was developed by Sigmund Freud ( 1856–1939 ) in a section added in 1915 to his book Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality ( 1905 ), where he suggested that its roots lie in childhood: ‘The only difference lies in the fact that in childhood the combination of the component instincts and their subordination under the primacy of the genitals have been effected only very incompletely or not at all. Thus the establishment of that primacy in the service of reproduction is the last phase through which the organization of sexuality...

psychology

psychology n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...for example, is concerned with behaviour only indirectly, as evidence of mental processes. The establishment of psychology as an independent discipline, separate from the disciplines of philosophy and biology from which it emerged, is attributable to the German psychologist Wilhelm (Max) Wundt ( 1832–1920 ), who stated in the opening sentence of his book Principles of Physiological Psychology ( 1873 ), the first major textbook of experimental psychology: ‘The book that I herewith offer to the public attempts to mark out a new domain of science’, and who...

Dobzhansky, Theodosius

Dobzhansky, Theodosius   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...and treatises largely would follow. The book starts with a consideration of organic diversity and discontinuity. Successively, it deals with mutation as the origin of hereditary variation, the role of chromosomal rearrangements, variation in natural populations, natural selection, the origin of species by polyploidy, the origin of species through gradual development of reproductive isolation, physiological and genetic differences between species, and the concept of species as natural units. The book's organization was largely preserved in the second...

Leopold, Aldo

Leopold, Aldo   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...road-building on North America's remaining wild lands, he led efforts that in 1924 resulted in the designation of the nation's first wilderness area within the Gila National Forest in New Mexico. Leaving the Forest Service in 1928 , Leopold devoted himself to the establishment of wildlife management as a distinct field. First as an independent field researcher ( 1928–1933 ), then as professor at the University of Wisconsin ( 1933–1948 ), Leopold endeavored to apply the insights of ecology (especially as defined by his friend and colleague Charles...

Agassiz, Louis

Agassiz, Louis   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...not referring to Agassiz, the book details how far the concept and elaboration of major climate change has progressed since Agassiz's initial formulation of an ice-age theory less than two centuries ago. Hallam, A. Great Geological Controversies . New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1983. Examinations of five major historical controversies in geology, including, in Chapter 3, the ice-age controversy and Louis Agassiz's role in it. Although writ-ten for professional geologists and geology students, the book is also appropriate for others...

Sustainable Development

Sustainable Development   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...(Resolution 47/191). 22 December 1992. gopher://gopher.un.org:70/00/esc/cn17/enable/a47r191 . Resolution establishing the CSD. Pamela S. Chasek Factor Four In the late 1990s, in various languages, an influential book appeared: Factor Four: Doubling Wealth—Halving Resource Use by Weizäcker, Lovins, and Lovins. The thesis of the book is that “If resource productivity were increased by a factor of four, the world could enjoy twice the wealth that is currently available, whilst simultaneously halving the stress placed on our natural environment.” The...

Gene Families

Gene Families   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
2,228 words
Illustration(s):
2

...In vertebrates, the most convincing evidence that genome duplications have played a role in evolution is provided by the structure and organization of the Hox gene clusters. The Hox genes encode a class of DNA-binding transcription factors that play a crucial role in the establishment of cellular and tissue identity during embryogenesis. The closest relative of vertebrates, Amphioxus (Cephalochordata), displays a single Hox gene cluster, whereas lampreys, representing jawless vertebrates, are endowed with two or three independent sets of Hox gene...

Environmental Movements

Environmental Movements   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,364 words
Illustration(s):
1

...vast majority of environmental groups adopted legal means to protect the environment and gained widespread public support for their efforts. Indeed, by the early 1980s certain segments of the environmental movement were actively courted by business interests and the political establishment. Environmentalism was no longer a “fringe” movement; it had become mainstream. Many of the larger environmental groups, with memberships in the millions and annual budgets over U.S.$100 million, were now run by professional administrators who controlled entire departments of...

Information Technology

Information Technology   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...Thomas J. Watson Jr., was able to secure IBM's entry into the electronic computer market with the IBM 701, originally known as the Defense Calculator, in part by documenting that a single design for a general-purpose computer could meet many of the needs of the U.S. defense establishment for the Korean War. IBM's lack of foresight in the early years of computing would be repeated in its failure (along with other mainframe computer manufacturers) to recognize early on the importance of the personal computer, as well as in Micro soft Corporation's failure to...

Climate Change Communication in Denmark

Climate Change Communication in Denmark   Reference library

Mikkel Fugl Eskjær

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
9,759 words
Illustration(s):
1

...a minor part of Lomborg’s revisionist project. Of the four op-eds, only the last is about climate change; it is authored not only by Lomborg, but also by one of his students ( Larsen, 1998 ). In the book that emerged from the op-eds ( Lomborg, 1998a ), translated into English as The Skeptical Environmentalist ( Lomborg, 2001 ), roughly one-fifth of the book deals with climate change. Later, however, Lomborg became increasingly associated with the climate change debate and how to find “smart” solutions to global warming ( Lomborg, 2007 ), although he...

Communication Strategies of Environmental NGOs and Advocacy Groups

Communication Strategies of Environmental NGOs and Advocacy Groups   Reference library

Steven Yearley

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...the errors in climate science. Critics too had to become science communicators of a sort. In his book, Crichton even went as far as to offer his own estimate of the rate of global warming (0.812436 degrees for the warming over the next century, 2004 , p. 677). Crichton and others have concentrated not only on the scientific conclusions (and their disagreements with them), but also have looked at putative explanations for the persistence of error in “establishment” science and much of the media; these will be considered at the end of this section. At the same...

Punctuated Equilibrium

Punctuated Equilibrium   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
4,124 words
Illustration(s):
1

...for long periods (up to 10 million years) in each species, based on morphometric measures of all standard parts, and not merely on single characters. Implications for Evolutionary Theory But does punctuated equilibrium make a difference to evolutionary theory? Does the establishment of punctuated equilibrium as an important or predominant pattern alter the structure of conventional Darwinian explanation in any major way—especially since the theory has nothing original to say about mechanisms and timings in the microevolutionary origin of species, since...

Experimental Evolution

Experimental Evolution   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
3,999 words
Illustration(s):
1

...evolutionary experiment might proceed in the following way. A large population of organisms is created and placed in a controlled environment in the laboratory. It is important that a great number of individuals (certainly hundreds, preferably millions) be used, to limit the establishment of particular alleles (alternative forms of the same gene) by chance alone. [ See Genetic Drift .] This population is then kept under these conditions for many generations, permitting adaptation to the general laboratory conditions. After this initial period, this population...

Vaccination

Vaccination   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
2,814 words
Illustration(s):
1

... ( 1749–1823 ) pioneered vaccination, in particular, smallpox inoculation. Jenner lived and worked in the village of Berkeley in rural Gloucestershire. He had trained in London with a leading academic surgeon and, despite his country home, was a member of the intellectual establishment. In the decades before his birth, it had become widespread practice to purposefully infect children with pus from smallpox scabs to protect them from subsequent infections. This practice, called variolation, had been widely publicized by Lady Mary Montagu after she had seen...

Environmental Movements

Environmental Movements   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
3,195 words
Illustration(s):
1

...majority of environmental groups adopted legal means to protect the environment. They gained widespread public support for their efforts. Indeed, by the early 1980s certain segments of the environmental movement were actively courted by business interests and the political establishment. Environmentalism was no longer a “fringe” movement. It had become mainstream. Many of the larger environmental groups, with memberships in the millions and annual budgets ranging over U.S.$100 million, were now run by professional administrators who controlled entire...

Human Populations

Human Populations   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
7,227 words
Illustration(s):
5

...rates of change of populations in history have been national administrative records, such as the Domesday Book for England ( 1086 ce ). The growth of the economic and political cohesion of European and North American states from the eighteenth century was associated with the first formal national compilations of population data, and the state is now everywhere the prime agency for population enumeration. This takes two forms. First, the establishment of national registration systems for births, deaths and marriages, often as a direct derivative of...

Agricultural Extension and Climate Change Communication

Agricultural Extension and Climate Change Communication   Reference library

Linda S. Prokopy, Wendy-Lin Bartels, Gary Burniske, and Rebecca Power

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...were prominent in these countries from the 19th century on, with France establishing the first entirely state-funded agricultural extension program in 1879 ( Jones & Garforth, 1997 ). European colonies in South Asia, the Caribbean, and West Africa also saw the early establishment of extension programs, especially in the form of demonstration gardens ( Jones & Garforth, 1997 ). With the initiation of international development after World War II, the delivery of agricultural technology utilized the models from the United States, where the outside experts...

Climate Change Communication in Belgium

Climate Change Communication in Belgium   Reference library

Yves Pepermans and Pieter Maeseele

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
7,483 words
Illustration(s):
1

... 2014 ). A second explanation can be found in the strength of the dominant climate consensus inside and outside academia. The strength of this consensus was illustrated by the release of the book The Myth of the Green Economy by Anneleen Kenis and Matthias Lievens in November 2012 ( Kenis & Lievens, 2012 ; translated and adapted into English in 2015 ). This book had the explicit intention to open up the climate change debate in Flanders over the root societal causes, alternatives, and strategies for change. Written by two critical scholars, it...

Evolution of Life

Evolution of Life   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...that the expression natural selection was coined. Darwin announced his theory in 1858 , along with Alfred Russel Wallace , who had independently hit upon the same idea. However, it was the publication of Darwin's book On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection the following year that saw the beginning of the establishment of evolution by natural selection as the most important single idea in biology. At first, not all went well. While the general concept of evolution was widely accepted, a number of flaws in the notion of natural selection...

Waste Management

Waste Management   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...recycling. The least favored methods are landfill and incineration without energy recovery (Table 3). Waste Management. Table 3. European Commission Waste Management Hierarchy Prevention Promotion of clean technologies and products Reduction of the hazardousness of wastes Establishment of technical standards Promotion of re-use and recycling Recovery Preference should be given to materials recycling over energy recovery operations Final disposal Care should be taken to avoid incineration without energy recovery and uncontrolled landfill sites sources :...

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