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aurum coronarium

Gold crowns were offered to rulers and conquerors in the ancient near east and in the Hellenistic world. Similar offerings were made from the early 2nd cent. bc to Roman generals and ...

aurum coronarium

aurum coronarium   Reference library

Alexander Skinner

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... coronarium A tax payable in gold (traditionally in the form of a golden wreath) on imperial accessions , and every five years thereafter on the imperial anniversaries , and on special occasions. In 362, Julian made it voluntary for cities ( CTh XII, 13, 1) but the practice continued. Alexander Skinner Jones, LRE 430. RAC I,...

aurum coronarium

aurum coronarium   Reference library

Fergus Graham Burtholme Millar

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
122 words

... coronarium Gold crowns were offered to rulers and conquerors in the ancient near east and in the Hellenistic world. Similar offerings were made from the early 2nd cent. bc to Roman generals (e.g. Plut. Aem. 34. 5) and rapidly came to be exacted by them. A law of Caesar ( 59 bc ) enacted that it should not be demanded until a triumph had been formally decreed. Under the empire, aurum coronarium went to the emperor alone and was exacted with increasing frequency, not only for triumphs (see Res gestae 21; Plin. HN 33. 54) but on imperial...

aurum corōnārium

aurum corōnārium   Quick reference

Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
109 words

... corōnārium ( ‘gold for crowns’ ) Gold crowns were offered to rulers and conquerors in the ancient near east and in the Hellenistic world. Similar offerings were made from the early 2nd cent. bc to Roman generals and rapidly came to be exacted by them. A law of Caesar ( 59 bc ) enacted that it should not be demanded until a triumph had been formally decreed. Under the empire, gold for crowns went to the emperor alone and was exacted with increasing frequency, not only for triumphs ( Res Gestae 21 ) but on imperial accessions, anniversaries,...

aurum coronarium

aurum coronarium  

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Overview Page
Gold crowns were offered to rulers and conquerors in the ancient near east and in the Hellenistic world. Similar offerings were made from the early 2nd cent. bc to Roman generals and rapidly came to ...
fiscus

fiscus  

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Overview Page
Originally meant ‘basket’ or ‘money‐bag’ and thence came to denote the private funds of an individual or, in an administrative context, the public funds held by a provincial governor. In the ...
Hadrian

Hadrian  

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(76–138 ad)Roman emperor (117–38). He became emperor as the adopted successor of Trajan, and spent much of his reign touring the provinces of the Empire, promoting good government and loyalty to ...
anniversaries, imperial

anniversaries, imperial   Reference library

Alexander Skinner

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...were customarily renewed. These occasions were marked by major celebrations, including public games, theatrical performances, and processions . Also customary was the distribution of a donative of five solidi per soldier—financed by the ‘voluntary’ payment of aurum coronarium and aurum oblaticium . (A succession of donatives formed part of the Arras hoard .) The nature of the celebrations is thought to have changed under Christian influence, though little is known. In addition, by the early 6th century, both the vota and the donatives had declined...

indiction

indiction   Reference library

Paolo Tedesco

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...an event may be ascribed in a source to a particular year within the fifteen-year span of an indiction, but it may not always be clear which fifteen-year span is envisioned. Not all taxes were collected or tallied on this five-yearly cycle. Some special taxes such as aurum coronarium and aurum oblaticium were collected every five years from the emperor ’s accession, while some such as the collatio lustralis (Gk. chrysargyron ) were collected on a four-yearly basis. These overlapping cycles formed the core of the Late Roman system of taxation , which...

remuneration

remuneration   Reference library

Paolo Tedesco

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...in 534 ( CJust I, 27, 1) respectively. Along with these commuted annonae a donative of 5 solidi was distributed every five years beginning from the emperor ’s accession and usually connected with the indiction of other taxes collected in precious metals ( aurum coronarium , aurum oblaticium , and collatio lustralis or chrysargyron —though the last was usually gathered every four years). The yearly wage was therefore c .5 or 6 solidi plus occasional gifts, and probably left soldiers better off than other workers. In early Islamic Egypt and...

fiscus

fiscus   Reference library

Fergus Graham Burtholme Millar and Graham Paul Burton

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
525 words

...division of the provinces. 2. Fiscus was used originally only of the private funds of the emperor (e.g. Sen. Ben. 7. 6. 3.), by extension from the usage relating to private persons. Its revenues came at first from properties, gifts, and inheritances, plus probably aurum coronarium and manubiae . Its steady acquisition of wider sources of income represents an encroachment of the emperor on the public domain. 3. The fiscus came to operate as the central imperial treasury. Its officials were responsible for the administration and oversight of the...

Hadrian

Hadrian   Reference library

Anthony R. Birley

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,725 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Lusius Quietus, were killed for plotting treason. When Hadrian reached Rome ( 9 July 118 ), the senate was hostile. He claimed not to have ordered the executions but took steps to win popularity. First came a posthumous triumph for Trajan’s Parthian ‘victory’. Crown-gold ( aurum coronarium ) was remitted for Italy and reduced for the provinces; a new, more generous, largess was disbursed to the plebs ; overdue tax was cancelled on a vast scale; children supported by the alimenta received a bounty, bankrupt senators a subsidy; lavish gladiatorial games were...

Hadrian

Hadrian (ad 117–38)   Reference library

Anthony R. Birley

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,727 words

...and Lusius Quietus, were killed for plotting treason. When Hadrian reached Rome (9 July 118), the senate was hostile. He claimed not to have ordered the executions but took steps to win popularity. First came a posthumous triumph for Trajan's Parthian ‘victory’. Crown-gold ( aurum coronarium ) was remitted for Italy and reduced for the provinces; a new, more generous, largess was disbursed to the plebs ; overdue tax was cancelled on a vast scale; children supported by the alimenta received a bounty, bankrupt senators a subsidy; lavish gladiatorial games were...

Tribute and Taxation

Tribute and Taxation   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Religion
Length:
2,185 words

...were so burdensome that a joint deputation from Syria and Judea asked Tiberius for relief ( Tacitus , Annals 2.42.5). We casually hear of other taxes, for example, a house tax in Jerusalem, and we must assume the impositions known from other provinces: the notorious aurum coronarium , originally a contribution to a governor's Roman triumph, but later demanded by emperors on various occasions; lavish free hospitality for governors and their staffs and friends; perhaps quartering of soldiers; and—an item subject to unsuccessful regulation ever since...

Secondary Taxes

Secondary Taxes   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
960 words

...comes sacrarum largitionum . The comes also collected such odd taxes as the aurum coronarium (theoretically voluntary but in fact a regular contribution of the cities for the emperor's accession to the throne) and the aurum oblaticium (a similar payment made by the senate); he also collected city taxes and taxes initiated in the 4th C. such as the collatio glebalis (paid by senators proportionately to their property), the collatio lustralis ( chrysargyron ), and the aurum tironicum , a gold levy in commutation for recruits. The praetorian prefect ,...

Crown

Crown   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
796 words

...Crowns were kept in cases called korniklia ( De cer. , bk.1, ch.1, ed. Vogt, 1:4.17). Client rulers received crowns and other insignia thanks to Byz. diplomacy. The Hellenistic custom of offering golden crowns or wreaths to emperors, as at Adventus , became a tax ( aurum coronarium ) and, in the 9th and 10th C., a symbolic exchange ( McCormick , Eternal Victory 211f). Surviving Examples of Byz. Crowns Michael McCormick Surviving Examples of Byz. Crowns . Whereas representations of Byz. diadems are copious on diptychs, coins, wall paintings,...

Jews

Jews   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,227 words

...in a Jewish graveyard, etc. Part of the communal taxes went to the government, although whether there was a special Jewish tax is undetermined despite much scholarly speculation. Financial support to the nasi was diverted after 429 to the imperial treasury and called aurum coronarium . When and if this tax was abolished is uncertain. Jews contributed to the archipherekitai of the Sanhedrin in Israel, which flourished until the Muslim conquest, and to the 10th- and 11th-C. academies. Jews regularly immigrated into the empire from Muslim and western...

Hadrian

Hadrian   Quick reference

Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,442 words

...Lusius Quietus, were executed for plotting treason. When Hadrian reached Rome ( July 118 ), the senate was hostile. He claimed not to have ordered the executions but took steps to win popularity. First came a posthumous triumph for Trajan's Parthian ‘victory’. Crown‐gold ( aurum coronarium ) was remitted for Italy and reduced for the provinces; a new, more generous, largess was disbursed to the plebs ; overdue tax was cancelled on a vast scale; bankrupt senators received a subsidy; lavish gladiatorial games were held. Hadrian, consul again for 118 , took as...

Synesius of Cyrene

Synesius of Cyrene (Synesios; c. 370–after 413 CE)   Reference library

Dictionary of African Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,382 words

...has traditionally been ascribed to the years 399–402, but recent scholarship has made a strong case for an earlier dating (397–400). Either way, it is also possible that Synesius visited Athens on his way to the imperial court. The purpose of this trip was to bring the aurum coronarium (a tax disguised as a gift for the accession of a new emperor and sometimes as a regular contribution) from the city of Cyrene. Such a ceremonial event involved delivering a speech to the emperor, and therefore the selection of Synesius by his fellow citizens indicates they...

Hadrian

Hadrian   Quick reference

Who's Who in the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,667 words

...Quietus , were killed for plotting treason. When Hadrian reached Rome ( 9 July 118 ), the senate was hostile. He claimed not to have ordered the executions but took steps to win popularity. First came a posthumous triumph for Trajan's Parthian ‘victory’. Crown-gold ( aurum coronarium ) was remitted for Italy and reduced for the provinces; a new, more generous, largess was disbursed to the plebs ; overdue tax was cancelled on a vast scale; children supported by the alimenta (alimentary foundations for feeding children) received a bounty, bankrupt...

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