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artificial intelligence

The theory and development of computer systems able to perform tasks normally requiring human intelligence, such as visual perception, speech recognition, decision-making, and translation ...

artificial intelligence

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A Dictionary of Electronics and Electrical Engineering (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... intelligence ( AI ) The study and development of computing applications for tasks that would be described as requiring intelligence if they were done by people. Many of these applications involve systems that are capable of learning, adaptation, or self-correction. ...

artificial intelligence

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A Dictionary of Physics (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Physics
Length:
46 words

...artificial intelligence ( AI ) A field of computing concerned with the production of programs that perform tasks requiring intelligence when done by people. These tasks include playing games, such as chess or draughts, forming plans, understanding speech and natural languages, interpreting images, reasoning, and...

artificial intelligence

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The Oxford Dictionary of Science Fiction

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007

... intelligence n orig. the name for the science of creating “intelligent” computer programs a sentient, self-aware computer or computer program. 1973 G. R. Dozois Chains of Sea R. Silverberg Chains of Sea 83 While the humans scurried in confusion, the Artificial Intelligence (AI) created by MIT/Bell Labs linked itself into the network of high-speed, twentieth generation computers placed at its disposal. 1991 Locus (Nov.) 21/1 Its science-fictional content is certainly cyber enough: artificial intelligences reaching for true sentience....

Artificial Intelligence

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A Dictionary of Epidemiology (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...Artificial Intelligence A branch of computer science in which attempts are made to duplicate human intellectual functions. One application is in clinical diagnosis, in which computer programs are based upon statistical analyses of data abstracted from clinical records. ...

Artificial Intelligence

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The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Artificial Intelligence ( AI ) . While artificial intelligence has been around for a long time (established in 1956 as a field of study), its role in English language communication has skyrocketed since 2010 when machine learning and natural language processing became widespread around the world. Most applications are typically developed first in the English language and include automatic translation (e.g. Google Translate), voice activated assistance (e.g. Siri by Apple, Alexa/Echo by Amazon), language learning tools (e.g. Duolingo, Babble), automatic...

artificial intelligence

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World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
102 words

... intelligence ( AI ) Science concerned with developing computers and computer programs that model human intelligence. The most common form of AI involves programming a computer to answer questions on a specialized subject. Such ‘expert systems’ are said to display the human ability to perform expert analytical tasks. A similar system in a word processor may highlight incorrect spellings, and be ‘taught’ new words. A closely related science, sometimes known as ‘artificial life’, is concerned with more low-level intelligence. For example, a robot ...

Artificial Intelligence

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David Alan Grier

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... Intelligence Artificial intelligence, a field seeking to express human intelligence through machinery, predates the modern computing age. As a field of computer science, it includes two broad approaches to the study of human intelligence. The first approach attempts to identify laws of reasoning and express those laws in symbols that may be manipulated by a computer. The second approach attempts to use computer hardware and software to model the functions of the human brain. Both approaches have experienced fluctuating fortunes because failures to...

artificial intelligence

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A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... intelligence n. The design of hypothetical or actual computer programs or machines to do things normally done by minds, such as playing chess, thinking logically, writing poetry, composing music, or analysing chemical substances. The most challenging problems arise in attempting to simulate functions of intelligence that are largely unconscious, such as those involved in vision and language. The term was introduced in 1956 by the US computer engineer John McCarthy ( 1927–2011 ). See strong AI , weak AI . See also case grammar , Chinese...

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A Dictionary of Statistics (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

... intelligence Research in which the aim is to construct an intelligent computing machine, including both hardware and software, that can tackle problems that usually require human intelligence. Such problems include expert systems , the playing of games, and language translation. A major success is the chess-playing machine Deep Blue, although this machine does not emulate human analysis of chess, but uses vast computing power at each stage to consider millions of possible subsequent positions. In 1950 , Turing proposed a test for intelligence in a...

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The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
767 words

...algorithm is to be implemented in the hardware. Dr Barry C. Smith See also Chinese room argument ; consciousness, its irreducibility ; mind, syntax, and semantics . M. Boden , Artificial Intelligence and Natural Man , 2nd edn. (Cambridge, Mass., 1987). —— (ed.), The Philosophy of Artificial Intelligence (Oxford, 1990); includes Alan Turing , ‘Computing Machinery and Intelligence’. J. Haugeland (ed.), Mind Design (Cambridge, Mass., 1981). D. Marr , Vision (San Francisco, 1982). A. Turing , The Essential Turing , ed. B. J. Copeland (Oxford,...

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A Dictionary of Computer Science (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

... intelligence ( AI ) A discipline concerned with the building of computer programs that perform tasks requiring intelligence when done by humans. However, intelligent tasks for which a decision procedure is known (e.g. inverting matrices) are generally excluded, whereas perceptual tasks that might seem not to involve intelligence (e.g. seeing) are generally included. For this reason, AI is better defined by indicating its range. Examples of tasks tackled within AI are: game playing, automated reasoning , machine learning , natural-language...

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The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
6,281 words

...both artificial and natural flight could be identified. So also it may be that it is only by creating and interacting with simple (but increasingly complex) artificial systems that we will be able to uncover the general principles that will allow us both to construct artificial intelligence and understand natural intelligence. (Published 2004) Bishop, C. M. (1995). Neural Networks for Pattern Recognition . Brooks, R. (1991). ‘ Intelligence without representation ’. Artificial Intelligence , 47. Chrisley, R. (ed.) (2000). Artificial Intelligence:...

artificial intelligence

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The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
1,223 words

...would have to concede that the computer is “intelligent.” The Turing Test for machine “intelligence,” a concise, simple, and witty definition of a seemingly intractable conundrum, remains valid. No machine has ever passed the test, although in some restricted domains computers come close. Similar interests in machine intelligence arose in the United States. At a seminal conference at Dartmouth College in 1956 , John McCarthy coined the term “artificial intelligence” (later shortened to AI) to describe ways of making computers act “intelligently.” (Some...

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The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
231 words

... intelligence ( AI ) The science of making machines that can do the kinds of thing that humans can do. Topics of research have included speech recognition, visual recognition, and the more familiar problem solving and game-playing. Modelling a psychological phenomenon on a computer is a way of showing how the phenomenon is possible in a physical world, and is also a way of bringing out the complexities involved in apparently simple tasks. A central concept in much AI research is that of a representation, with programs designed to construct, adapt, and...

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Encyclopedia of Semiotics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
1,397 words

... intelligence . As a discipline, artificial intelligence (commonly referred to as AI) has fuzzy boundaries and no clear definition; its goals are practical: “making computers smart” or “building machines capable of performing intelligent behavior and/or cognitive tasks.” Such goals apply to many different situations in our everyday lives: language understanding, generating language and texts, any kind of problem solving from puzzles to scientific discoveries, analyzing visual images in fractions of seconds, planning and learning, representing any kind...

Artificial Intelligence

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Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
6,404 words

... Intelligence This entry explains the meaning of artificial intelligence and how it both relates to traditional aesthetic theories and challenges them. Artificial intelligence (AI) is an area of research and design of “intelligent” computer hardware and software. The term artificial intelligence was coined for a conference at Dartmouth College held in the summer of 1956 (Gardner, 1985 ). The Dartmouth conference brought together the majority of researchers who are today considered the founders of the field including John McCarthy , Marvin Minsky...

Artificial Intelligence

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Warren Sack

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
6,514 words

... Proceedings of the Fifth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence , pp. 268–272. Los Altos, Calif.: Morgan Kaufmann, 1987. Bond, Alan H. , and Les Gasser , eds. Readings in Distributed Artificial Intelligence . San Mateo, Calif.: Morgan Kaufmann, 1988. Brook, Andrew . Kant and the Mind . Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1994. Brooks, Rodney . “Intelligence without Representation.” Artificial Intelligence 47 (1991): 139–160. Brooks, Rodney A. , and Pattie Maes , eds. Artificial Life IV: Proceedings of the Fourth International...

artificial intelligence

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Science, Technology, and Society

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

... intelligence . Artificial intelligence is the attempt to make machines that think like humans. In this article the abbreviation AI will be used to refer to this enterprise, and the phrase artificial intelligence technologies ( AIT ) will be reserved for new technologies that initially grew out of AI but that mimic only some aspects of human abilities, such as a subset of speech recognition or pattern recognition, while avoiding the deep problems. AIT and AI are often confused with one another. AI proper has an important bearing on sociology in...

artificial intelligence

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Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
29 words

... intelligence abbr. : AI; the computational simulation of human intelligence. AI methods try to capture human expertise in explicit rules, or with neural networks trained to recognize complex...

distributed artificial intelligence

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A Dictionary of Computer Science (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...artificial intelligence ( DAI ) An approach to artificial intelligence in which processing takes place not in a single algorithm but is distributed across a number of agents, possibly many. Each agent is autonomous, with its own actions and belief space, and the behaviour of the whole system, which may or may not solve a particular problem, is characterized by its emergent...

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