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Overview

actual and virtual

A modal distinction proposed by French philosopher Gilles Deleuze as a replacement for the problematic real-possible distinction more commonly used in philosophy. The possible is a bad ...

actual and virtual

actual and virtual   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

... and virtual A modal distinction proposed by French philosopher Gilles Deleuze as a replacement for the problematic real-possible distinction more commonly used in philosophy. The possible is a bad concept according to Deleuze because it presupposes that everything that is real must also be possible (which rules out a great number of conceptual inventions, consigning them to the ontologically lesser category of the unreal, or impossible), and it is unable to explain why that which is possible has not already come into being. For Deleuze, both the actual...

actual and virtual

actual and virtual  

A modal distinction proposed by French philosopher Gilles Deleuze as a replacement for the problematic real-possible distinction more commonly used in philosophy. The possible is a bad concept ...
Class

Class   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,846 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...harvests and high food prices. This riotous action was striking for its ritualized forms and limited use of violence. Hardly ever attacking persons, the crowd often seized the grain or bread and sold it at what they considered a ‘fair’ price. The ruling classes had their own theatrical ways of displaying their authority. By and large the actual landowners only met the plebs face to face when cloaked in the majesty of the *law [8] or prepared to shower mercy and charity in order to cool plebeian discontent; otherwise they operated as employers and landlords...

Empire

Empire   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,298 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and Ireland’. However, such counter-revolutionary-inspired attempts to make the Church of England a virtual established church throughout the empire were checked by countervailing forces. In the first place, imperial administrators were well aware that too obvious an alliance with the Church of England could inflame the suspicions both of non-Christian native peoples and of European settlers outside the Anglican fold. The imperial government also had to reckon with the increasingly well- organized political voice of Protestant Dissent both at home and...

Exploration

Exploration   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,825 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...prehistory, suggesting virtual animality and absolute distance. If this racist evolutionism is typically associated with Darwinism, and indeed acquired more systematic theoretical form in the late nineteenth century, most of its familiar elements were nevertheless in place by the beginning of the century, though they jostled with other ways of perceiving human variety. Voyage and exploratory writing should not be understood as limited to the corpus of well-known voyages and descriptive works, but to include less renowned accounts, and even the cheap versions...

Enlightenment

Enlightenment   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
7,794 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...in the form of extracts a virtual synopsis of late-eighteenth-century British and European enlightened thought. The foundations for enlightened radicalism in Ulster had, however, been laid nearly a century earlier, when Lockean ideas of social contract and popular sovereignty were related to the Irish situation by thinkers such as William Molyneux ( 1656–98 ) and Robert , Lord Molesworth ( 1656–1725 ), who also contrasted libertarian Whig principles based on the *Glorious Revolution with those of ecclesiastical and political tyranny. Another...

40 The History of the Book in China

40 The History of the Book in China   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
8,923 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
3

...without reducing the growth of new print publications, and the natural division between modern books and ancient texts has not disappeared. The digitization of new books, of course, is merely a new form of publication, and the digitization of current publications is fraught with legal issues of copyright. On the other hand, the digitization of ancient books and MSS not only provides access to their texts but is closely related to issues of preservation. The future of Chinese digital books and virtual libraries is as unpredictable as the technology that...

5 The European Medieval Book

5 The European Medieval Book   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
9,862 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...between graceful 14 th -century Italian book illustration and the panel paintings and frescos of the early Renaissance; and between the homely, engaging, and sometimes comic miniatures of southern Netherlandish books of around 1500 and the paintings of the Flemish primitives, from the Van Eycks to the Bruegels. That is as one would expect. Often, in fact, they were the same actual craftsmen, working in different media. Most MSS are transcribed from other MSS, and absorb something of their exemplars and of their creator’s own time. The lines of textual...

virtual machine

virtual machine  

1 A collection of resources that emulates the behavior of an actual machine. The virtual machine concept originated in Cambridge, Mass., in the late 1960s as an extension of the virtual memory system ...
Atlas

Atlas  

The first computer to incorporate many features now considered standard, including: a virtual (logical) address space larger than the actual (physical) address space; a one-level memory using core ...

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