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Hawking, Stephen William

Hawking, Stephen William (1942–2018)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Astronomy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

..., Stephen William ( 1942–2018 ) British theoretical physicist . He established a powerful reputation, despite being afflicted by a progressively disabling motor neurone disease for nearly all of his adult life. He drew on the general theory of relativity and quantum mechanics to study singularities in the Big Bang and black holes , showing that small black holes emit Hawking radiation . He turned to popularization with A Brief History of Time ( 1988 ) which sold more copies than any other book on science. Much of Hawking’s work was...

Hawking, Stephen William

Hawking, Stephen William (1942)   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
56 words

..., Stephen William ( 1942 – ) English theoretical physicist . He used the general theory of relativity and quantum mechanics to produce theories on big bang and the formation of black holes . He found the powerful gravitational field around super dense black holes can radiate matter. Hawking wrote the science bestseller A Brief History of Time ( 1988...

Hawking, Stephen William

Hawking, Stephen William (1942–2018)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Physics (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Science and technology, Physics
Length:
68 words

..., Stephen William ( 1942–2018 ) British cosmologist and physicist , who in 1979 became Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge University. Working with Roger Penrose ( 1931 – ), who had shown how a singularity results from a black hole , he postulated that the original big bang must have come from a singularity. He also showed how black holes can emit particles by the Hawking process . See Big-bang Theory ...

Hawking, Stephen William

Hawking, Stephen William (1942–2018)   Quick reference

Who's Who in the Twentieth Century

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History
Length:
274 words

..., Stephen William ( 1942–2018 ) British theoretical physicist whose main work was on black holes and quantum gravity. He became a Companion of Honour in 1989 . Hawking was educated at the universities of Oxford and Cambridge; after working in various institutions he was appointed Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge in 1979 . From 1962 he suffered from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, a rare crippling disease that has left him confined to a wheelchair, unable to write. Hawking's mind, however, remained quite unaffected by his devastating...

Hawking, Stephen William

Hawking, Stephen William (1942–2018)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Scientists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology
Length:
940 words

..., Stephen William (1942–2018) British theoretical physicist and cosmologist Hawking , who was born in Oxford, graduated from the university there and obtained his PhD from Cambridge University. After holding various Cambridge posts, he became professor of gravitational physics in 1977 and, in 1979 , was appointed Lucasian Professor of Mathematics. Hawking worked mainly in the field of cosmology, in particular the theory of black holes. In 1965 Roger Penrose had shown that a star collapsing to form a black hole would ultimately form a singularity –...

Hawking, Stephen William FRS

Hawking, Stephen William FRS (1942–2018)   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Mathematics (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

..., Stephen William FRS ( 1942–2018 ) British mathematician and theoretical physicist who was Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge University. He suffered from motor neurone disease for most of his adult life, but this did not prevent him from becoming one of the most famous scientists in Britain and author of one of the best-selling science books of all time, A Brief History of Time , which was a popular exposition of cosmology. His main contributions relate to the understanding of the nature of black holes, where he showed that black...

Hawking, Stephen William

Hawking, Stephen William (1942– )   Reference library

The New Oxford Dictionary for Scientific Writers and Editors (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

..., Stephen William ( 1942–  ) British theoretical physicist . Hawking...

Hawking, Stephen William

Hawking, Stephen William   Reference library

The New Zealand Oxford Dictionary

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
85 words
48 The History of the Book in America

48 The History of the Book in America   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
12,975 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...works such as the Science Citation Index (now online and part of *Thomson Publishing ); texts for advanced study synthesizing new research (e.g. James Watson ’s Molecular Biology of the Gene , 1965 ); and trade books such as James Gleick ’s Chaos ( 1987 ) and Stephen Hawking ’s A Brief History of Time ( 1988 ), popularizing the activities of the scientific community for lay readers. Even as the scholarly journal, in *digitized form, became entrenched, by the 1990s , as the primary means for the circulation of scientific knowledge, the...

Stephen Hawking

Stephen Hawking  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(1943– )British theoretical physicist whose main work has been on black holes and quantum gravity. He became a Companion of Honour in 1989.Hawking was educated at the universities of Oxford and ...
Roger Penrose

Roger Penrose  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(1931–  ) British mathematician and physicist.Penrose was the first to point out that singularities are inevitable features of the general theory of relativity. He has made other important ...
Penrose, Sir Roger

Penrose, Sir Roger (1931– )   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Physics (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Science and technology, Physics
Length:
65 words

...the general theory of relativity. He has made other important contributions to the theory of relativity and its quantization, including his work on twistor theory. He also discovered Penrose patterns, which are a two-dimensional analogue of quasicrystals. See also Hawking, Stephen William...

Hawking, Stephen

Hawking, Stephen (1942)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
1,052 words

...work provided. In his person, Hawking is an inspiration for the physically handicapped. Sagan inspired searches for extraterrestrial life. It is perhaps possible that early fame and the duties of a popularizer short-circuited Sagan's potential for fundamental scientific advance and the type of respect that Hawking earned. Michael White and John Gribbin , stephen Hawking: A Life In Science (1992). Stephen Hawking , Black Holes and Baby Universes and Other Essays (1993). Keay Davidson , Carl Sagan: A Life (1999). William Poundstone , Carl Sagan: A Life...

slogans from science

slogans from science   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
883 words

...in entropy. 15 The late Victorian term for the miserable situation when the stars go out. 16 The consequence of shutting off the earth's surface from sunlight by dust and dirt thrown into the atmosphere by nuclear explosions, a concept introduced by Carl Sagan (see Hawking, Stephen , and Carl Sagan ) in analogy to the event supposed to have wiped out the dinosaurs. 17 The consequence of the unbridled use of pesticides, a concept introduced by Rachel Carson . 18 The action of atmospheric gases to prevent solar energy, degraded into heat, from...

literature and science

literature and science   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
1,047 words

...of science fiction writers, authors like Kobo Abe , Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn , Thomas Pynchon , Don DeLillo , and Umberto Eco have dealt with contemporary science in realistic novels. Some scientists call for improvements in scientific writing, and a few, notably Stephen Hawking and Stephen Jay Gould , communicate scientific ideas to a wide general audience in polished works of nonfiction. Another conspicuous response to Snow was a new field of literary criticism, “Literature and Science,” devoted not only to explicating literary works in the context of...

science fiction

science fiction   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
1,452 words

...to appeal to wider audiences, many still believe that science fiction should have a strong relationship with the scientific community. In his essay Old Legends ( 1995 ), physicist and writer Gregory Benford reports that many scientists—himself, Freeman Dyson , Stephen Hawking , Edward Teller , Steven Weinberg , and researchers of the Manhattan Project and at Livermore National Laboratory—often read and discussed science fiction stories. Carl Sagan , who later advocated scientific searches for alien life, stood under the stars as a child and longed...

cosmology

cosmology   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
1,817 words

...to seek in the cosmic background radiation the tiny differences from uniformity predicted by the inflationary theory. Eventually the experiment involved more than a thousand people, at a cost of over $160 million. After a decade of work, Smoot announced in 1992 what Stephen Hawking called “the scientific discovery of the century, if not of all time.” Wrinkles in the fabric of space and time showed that matter was not uniformly distributed, but contained the seeds out of which a complex universe could grow. Furthermore, the fifteen-billion-year-old...

Markets and Trade

Markets and Trade   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
3,716 words

...could set up shop. Women often fit these strictures imperfectly and at times found themselves at odds with authorities who had in mind more formal male commercial agents when they set terms of business. At the same time the generations of women traders who bartered and sold, hawking their wares, were essential commercial mediators. Their combination of strategies—selling small quantities, accepting goods in exchange, or acting as informal pawnbrokers—introduced a flexibility to the market essential for working families and ordinary people. The European...

Science

Science   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
8,094 words

...Science-based periodicals such as Omni and Discovery attested to the public's strong interest in science, but also underscored the continuing appeal of sensationalized science. Although books by biologist James D. Watson , paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould , and the British astrophysicist Stephen Hawking topped bestseller lists, serious attention to science never eclipsed the frivolous or fictionalized treatments. Americans incorporated science into the popular culture on their terms, not necessarily those of the scientific community. Early...

Print Culture

Print Culture   Reference library

Scott E. Casper and Joan Shelley Rubin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...scientific thought has also produced books that serve and reflect the priorities of scientists themselves: reference works such as the Science Citation Index , texts for advanced study synthesizing new research, and trade books such as James Gleick 's Chaos ( 1987 ) and Stephen Hawking 's A Brief History of Time ( 1988 ) popularizing the activities of the scientific community for lay readers. Even as the scholarly journal, in digitized form, became entrenched by the 1990s as the primary means for the circulation of scientific knowledge, the science book...

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