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The Winter’s Tale

The Winter’s Tale   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,428 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...by Paulina and her attendants, he accepts the truth of the oracle. He is already repenting when Paulina returns and tells him Hermione too has died: welcoming her bitter reproaches, he promises to mourn his dead wife and son perpetually. 3.3 Antigonus has dreamed of Hermione’s ghost, who told him to call the baby Perdita and leave it in Bohemia, prophesying that Antigonus would never see Paulina again. Believing the child must really be Polixenes’, he has been brought to the Bohemian coast by ship, and as the weather worsens he leaves Perdita there, with a...

Paul and Thecla, Acts of Sts

Paul and Thecla, Acts of Sts   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 rev. ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion
Length:
389 words

...Paul was charged before the civil authorities and beaten, while Thecla was condemned to death by burning, but miraculously saved. Other incidents in various parts of Asia Minor are described in the lives of both Paul and Thecla, and theActs’ conclude with the record of Thecla's death at Seleucia. It is not impossible that theActscontain some elements of historical truth. Gk. text pr. in R. A. Lipsius and M. Bonnet (eds.), Acta Apostolorum Apocrypha , 1 (Leipzig, 1891), 235–72, Eng. tr. in J. K. Elliott , The Apocryphal New Testament ...

Truth

Truth   Reference library

Peter Lamarque and Stein Haugom Olsen

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
9,226 words

...( 1972 , 1460a). These remarks illustrate not only that the question of the verisimilitude of a work of art is different from that of its (literal) truth, but also that it was commonly accepted through the classical period that historical truth and accuracy had lower priority than verisimilitude. The function of poetry, the art in which the question of truth has always arisen in its most acute form, was, in Horace’s words (65–8 bce ), held to be “to do good or to give pleasure—or, thirdly, to say things which are both pleasing and serviceable for life”...

Truth

Truth   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
9,019 words

...Plutarch, the Greeks also held that “poetry owed its charm and honour to its power to express things in a lifelike way: as Homer says [ Odyssey , 19.203], ‘she spoke many lies, resembling truth’ ” ( Moralia , 1972 , 346 f ff.). The concern for verisimilitude also emerges in Aristotle's much-quoted dictum that “one ought to prefer likely impossibilities to unconvincing possibilities” ( 1972 , 1460a ). These remarks illustrate not only that the question of the verisimilitude of a work of art is different from that of its (literal) truth, but that it was...

Fiction

Fiction   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
7,060 words

...focus on sentences that include fictions as nouns with a view toward more precisely establishing two things, the referent of such expressions and the truth or falsity of assertions that incorporate such expressions. In the first case, the problem has been to distinguish between two kinds of objects. On the one hand, the referent of a fictional expression might be taken as a nonactual object of some sort that subsists that might exist (i.e., that is not impossible), but will never exist in the sense of being a spatiotemporal segment of the one actual world....

Pragmatics and Contextual Semantics

Pragmatics and Contextual Semantics   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
14,188 words

...Speech acts are, of course, also of concern to semantics. A few words, like hello , have meanings that may be given by a specification of the speech acts they are used to perform. Other words, like promise , refer to acts the performance of which can be accomplished by sincere utterances of sentences containing them. In some cases, the boundary between pragmatics and contextual semantics is not entirely clear, and certain linguistic phenomena may be the proper concern of both. This is true of some indexicals. Squarely within the domain of contextual...

Fiction

Fiction   Reference library

Peter McCormick and Wolfgang Iser

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
4,354 words

...to focus on sentences that include fictions as nouns with a view toward more precisely establishing two things, the referent of such expressions and the truth or falsity of assertions that incorporate such expressions. In the first case, the problem has been to distinguish between two kinds of objects. On the one hand, the referent of a fictional expression might be taken as a nonactual object of some sort that subsists that might exist (i.e., that is not impossible) but will never exist in the sense of being a spatiotemporal segment of the one actual world....

Derrida, Jacques

Derrida, Jacques   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
15,511 words

...in a direct line to law; that line is a nonpassage, an aporia. Yet justice is disclosed in law, even as its own effacement. This is the peculiar nature of the deconstructive embrace. Ethics as “the experience of the impossible” and politics as the calculus of action are also in a deconstructive embrace. The space of being is the gift of time (so to speak): We fall into time, we begin to “be,” unanticipatably. To call it a gift is to solve that aporia by thinking of some other (one) that “gives” time. Thus life is lived as the call of the wholly other, which must...

History

History   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
7,099 words

.... It is impossible to discuss history without first establishing some terms of reference, since the word is at least as slippery as rhetoric itself. In one of its senses, history means “events that have happened in the past”; in another of its senses, it is equivalent to “historical writing” (for which historiography is often a synonym). This overlap of meaning constitutes a helpful reminder that very often we know of events only because they have been written down. However real an event was at the time when it occurred, the past is an abstraction:...

American Trial Films and the Popular Culture of Law

American Trial Films and the Popular Culture of Law   Reference library

Jessica Silbey

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Crime, Media, and Popular Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
9,335 words

...truth. The other possible ending is a disappointment of justice, when the trial process frustrates the search for truth, not because it is unknown to the audience but because the law cannot or will not accommodate it. These films end with a sense that law is ever present but flawed and that audiences acquiesce to it, because what choice do they have? In these films, viewers are left with hope that another time and a new hero may succeed where the present has failed. Intriguingly, viewers are not left with anarchic thoughts or cursing the impossibility of...

Origin of Life

Origin of Life   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...as the two halves of a double-origin theory.” In essence, Oparin/Haldane described the first origin-of-life event and Eigen the second. Dyson sums up this idea with his usual clarity: “Roughly speaking, Cairns-Smith equals Oparin plus Eigen plus a little bit of clay.” All three theories may turn out to contain essential elements of the truth. The Solar System as an Origin-of-Life Laboratory One of the main problems with investigating the origin of life on earth is the continuous reworking of the earth's surface, which has destroyed any geological traces of an...

Poe, Edgar Allan

Poe, Edgar Allan   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
8,009 words

... The Scythe of Time (earlier called A Predicament ), which are satires of the contemporary literary scene. Another characteristic of Poe's grotesque stories is the introduction of elements of the ludicrous and the absurd. In the tale Loss of Breath , the protagonist literally loses his breath and goes out in search of it. It is a shame that Poe's early grotesques are generally neglected, because not only do they testify to his range and resourcefulness as a writer, but some of them are compelling and funny. The neglect results partly from the fact that, in...

Interpretation, History of

Interpretation, History of   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Religion
Length:
15,530 words

...it is linked with the discipline of biblical theology , which is the synthetic side of the same movement. Biblical theology seeks to see the common elements that run through the texts, whether through a historical or developmental scheme or through the perception of an inner structure. No serious biblical theology has arisen except in conjunction with the critical approach. Biblical theology, like criticism, is an exploratory approach; the true inner theology of the Bible is not already known, but must be discovered. For opponents of critical study, the...

Cultural Representations of Torture

Cultural Representations of Torture   Reference library

Honni van Rijswijk

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Crime, Media, and Popular Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
13,807 words

...is seen through the “enjoying subject”—representing torture on the torturer’s terms—which contradicts the justification of using torture to discover truths ( Neroni, 2015 , p. 70). Post 9/11 and New Horror Representations of torture in films have also been foregrounded through a new genre of horror since 9/11. While horror films have historically dealt with national traumas—such as Auschwitz, Hiroshima, and Vietnam—critics have characterized “a new kind of horror film that is not only dark and vicious in the worlds it depicts, but which is also...

science and philosophy

science and philosophy   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
9,979 words

...we possess concerns the contents of our own ideas rather than matters of fact about the world. But what is the Humean empiricist to say about the apparently a priori elements in physical science? Physicists simply assumed that space was Euclidean, that motion was continuous, that matter was conserved and that the universe was deterministic. But none of these assumptions is analytic, merely a matter of clarifying the meaning of some key concept. On the face of it, these are significant claims about the nature of our world, claims that physicists seemed to...

Genius

Genius   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
10,954 words

...pursuit of the desire for the truth that they called philosophy. Socrates moves us toward a later sense of genius, in part by exemplifying the workings of a daimon , apart from any existing theology ( Apology 26c–e). This moment marks one beginning of the somewhat paradoxical secularization of the divine, without which the idea of genius is impossible. Seeing these separate elements laid out in this way should help to clarify the later history of the concept of genius. Each of the concepts above continues to circulate in the realms of Western thought and...

Essentialism

Essentialism   Reference library

T. J. Diffey and Thomas Leddy

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
7,528 words

...extend it. Art by its nature is expansive, and a closed definition of art would make creativity impossible. This does not mean that aesthetic theory is worthless: traditional definitions should simply be seen as encouraging us to attend to previously neglected qualities in works of art. They are now best seen as honorific definitions of art (see also Weitz 1977 ). William Kennick (1958) similarly asserted that the assumption that there is some common nature to art or some set of necessary and sufficient conditions for something being a work of art is a...

Symbolism

Symbolism   Reference library

Anna Balakian, Victor V. Bychkov, and Oleg V. Bychkov

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
6,280 words

...contains in itself the truth about “more real reality”; myth is a “result not of personal but of collective, or communal, consciousness.” Myth (as sacred reality) was revealed to communal consciousness (“communal soul”) through enactments of ancient mysteries (Eleusinian, Samothracian, etc.). Subsequently, popular mentality got a hold of it; popular–historical memory added various embellishments to it and distorted it, and in this form, myth became myth in the proper sense of the term. True myth is devoid of any personal traits; it is an objective form of...

Nag Hammadi Codices and Related Texts

Nag Hammadi Codices and Related Texts   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...the cosmogonic process in this very obscure narrative seems to include negative effects, in that in some sense it requires the descent of Light and Spirit into Darkness. Various elements of the material cosmos are portrayed as products of impurity—i.e., sexual acts within the realm of aroused Darkness, involving the Womb of Nature and the entities begotten from her. On the other hand, the ultimate result of the process is revelation, a clarification of the distinction between Darkness and the higher elements, and the eventual separation of these. Shem, the...

Kingship

Kingship   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...of the Two Lands, expresses the perfection of a totality and not the contingency of two separate units. Initially associated with two chronological strata of sovereignty, the sedge and the bee were subsequently given territorial meaning with relation to Upper and Lower Egypt; however, the dissociation is purely rhetorical. Similarly, when Queen Hatshepsut is called the “forward rope of Upper Egypt” and the “hind rope of Lower Egypt,” the nautical metaphor, again binary, expresses the impossibility of dividing the kingdom. Egypt, made up of elements...

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