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Georgian

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In England the Georgian period is approximately 1714–1810. Architectural styles of the period were derived from classical and Renaissance Italian architecture.

Spiritual Leaders

Spiritual Leaders   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
10,418 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Press, 1997. Weisner‐Hanks, Merry , ed., and Joan Skocir and Merry Weisner Hanks , trans. Convents Confront the Reformation: Catholic and Protestant Nuns in Germany . Milwaukee, Wis.: Marquette University Press, 1996. Constance Hoffman Berman , Asunción Lavrin , and Georgia S. Maas Priestesses, Preachers, and Teachers Until very recently, feminist historians appeared to dismiss religious women and women who played important roles in religious institutions or in spiritual activities. Perhaps this was because of religious women's connection to...

pilgrimage

pilgrimage   Reference library

Georgia Frank, Oliver Nicholson, Nancy Khalek, and Matthew Canepa

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...events and holy men alive and dead throughout the Christian world. Though Christians continued to undertake long-distance pilgrimages, they could also find holy places closer to home; pilgrimage could be quite a local enterprise, it did not need to be a liminal experience. Georgia Frank ; Oliver Nicholson Texts Itineraria et Varia Geographica , ed. P. Geyer et al. CCSL 175–6 (1965); reprinting P. Geyer et al. CSEL 39 (1898). ed. A.-J. Festugière (annotated with FT, SubsHag 53, 2 1971) Historia Monachorum in Aegypto. ET N. Russell , Lives of the...

Georgia

Georgia   Quick reference

World Maps

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...Georgia Physical map Political map...

Georgia

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World Flags

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

... Georgia first adopted its present flag in 1918. In 1921 Georgia became part of the Soviet Union and the flag was abandoned. It returned when Georgia gained independence in 1991. Dark red/maroon is Georgia's national colour. The canton of black and white juxtaposes Georgia's dark past with the hope for a peaceful...

Georgia

Georgia (USA)   Quick reference

The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Georgia , and USA 1. Georgia (Sakartvelo) since 1998 . Previously the Republic of Georgia following independence from the Soviet Union in 1991 ; the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic ( 1936 ); a part of the Transcaucasian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (with Armenia and Azerbaijan) ( 1922–36 ); independent ( 1918–21 ). Between 1801 , when they abolished the Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti (eastern Georgia), and 1864 the Russians annexed the Georgian kingdoms. The Georgian name, Sakartvelo, means the ‘Land of the Kartvelians’ (also known as Karts,...

Georgia

Georgia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
558 words

... . A former Soviet republic, Georgia declared its independence from the Soviet Union on 9 April 1991 and adopted its current constitution in 1995 . This constitution established a semi-presidential republic; The president acts both as the head of state and the head of government. The Georgian executive dominates the weaker parliament and federal court. Georgia boasts a mixed electoral system, utilizing both proportional representation multimember districts and first-past-the-post single-member districts for parliamentary elections. Georgia has a...

Georgia

Georgia   Reference library

Nikoloz Aleksidze

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... A country in the south-western and central foothills of the Caucasus Mountains. Georgians in Late Antiquity and the early Middle Ages called themselves Kartli . After the final unification of Georgia, Sakartvelo , a more general term, meaning ‘place where Georgians live’, was and is still used to designate Georgia. The term ‘Georgia’ is nowadays usually used to translate Sakartvelo , and refers to both eastern and western Georgia. The etymology of the word ‘Georgia’ is not agreed, but the word is not attested in European languages until the Crusades....

Georgia

Georgia   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,724 words

...republic. Along with other republics Georgia developed industrially and culturally during the Soviet period. Masses were educated in the Georgian language, and Georgian literature and art flourished. From a peasant country, Georgia became an urban society. But Georgia was no longer sovereign; Moscow determined the limits of national expression, and Georgians suffered from the repressions of the Joseph Stalin years ( 1928–1953 ), when thousands were exiled or executed for fabricated political crimes. Some 350,000 Georgians died defending the Soviet Union...

Georgia

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World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
858 words
Illustration(s):
4

...Georgia has a strong national culture and a long literary tradition. From the 6th century bc the two Black Sea kingdoms of Iberia and Colchis developed in E and W Georgia respectively. In 66 bc the Roman Empire conquered both kingdoms. Christianity was introduced in ad 330 and most Georgians are now members of the Georgian Orthodox Church. The area was ruled successively by Romans, Sassanid Persians, Byzantines, Arabs, and Seljuk Turks before Georgia finally freed itself from foreign rule in the 11th century. The 12th century was Georgia's...

Georgia

Georgia   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in the United States

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,443 words

... . Like most other states in the Southeast, Georgia has experienced an influx of Latino and Latina immigrants that is transforming the state's economic, political, and cultural landscapes. The Latino and Latina presence in Georgia dates to the early sixteenth century, when the Spanish nobleman Lucas Vasquez de Ayllon established the first European settlement on what is now the Georgia–South Carolina coast. Spain controlled parts of present-day Georgia until the 1760s. Recent Population Trends More recent settlement of Latinos and Latinas in Georgia began...

Georgia

Georgia   Reference library

Tim Unwin and Julia Harding MW

The Oxford Companion to Wine (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
2,000 words

...However, one of the difficulties Georgia currently faces in exporting wines is that foreign consumers are unfamiliar with the names and flavours of these traditional Georgian grape varieties. The ancient and uniquely Georgian tradition of fermenting, storing, and ageing wines in clay qvevri buried underground has never been lost. Even though qvevri makers are a dying breed, qvevri wines have begun to attract international attention, particularly among proponents of natural wine . Climate and geography Georgia’s topography and geology are complex....

Georgia

Georgia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Food (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

... the northernmost country of the Caucasus, shares with its neighbours ( turkey , armenia , azerbaijan ) a Mediterranean-type climate. Geographically, it can be divided into W. and E. Georgia, with the Suram Gorge marking the division. So far as food is concerned, Turkish influence prevails to the west and Persian to the east. Pokhlebkin ( 1984 ) points out that maize flour bread is eaten in W. Georgia, whereas wheaten bread is preferred in E. Georgia; and there are other differences, e.g. in the choice of animal foods. Taken as a whole, Georgia is...

Georgia

Georgia   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
694 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Georgia A Caucasian state of relative prosperity in the USSR, which since independence has been marked by political instability, territorial disputes, and economic fragility. Early history (up to 1991) Georgia was a protectorate of the Russian Empire from 1783 . Russian attempts to impose its own culture and language upon the Georgians led to a series of uprisings in the nineteenth century, which were brutally suppressed. It declared its independence at the outbreak of the Russian Civil War ( 1918 ), but was subjected again by the Red Army in 1921 . In...

Georgia

Georgia   Reference library

Patrick Goode

The Oxford Companion to Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
326 words

... The most distinguished architecture in the Georgian republic consists of medieval churches and monasteries. The first churches were built following the acceptance of Christianity c .337 bc , following certain already established characteristics of the building tradition. Stone, finely cut, and laid in level courses, had already appeared; a variety of stones were used, such as tufa, granite, sandstone, and limestone; and a range of colours in the stone—yellow, pink, green, blood red, even turquoise—either establish one tone, or are sometimes randomly...

Georgia

Georgia   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,233 words
Illustration(s):
2

... Georgia Basic information Land area: 70,000 sq. km People: Georgian 84%, Azeri 7%, Armenian 6%, Russian 2%, other 1% Language: Georgian, Russian, Armenian, Azeri Religion: Orthodox Christian 84%, Muslim 10%, Armenian-Gregorian 4%, Catholic 1%, other 1% Government: Republic Population (2017 estimate): 3.91 million Percentage urban: 53.6% Population estimate for 2035: 3.66 million Life expectancy at birth 2015: 78.5 (F), 71.3 (M) Capital city: Tbilisi, 1.2 million Currency: Georgian lari Major exports: vehicles, metals...

Georgia

Georgia   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
2,111 words

...immediately. Georgia was annexed by Russia in 1801 . Writers such as Leo Tolstoy and Mikhail Lermontov , and composers such as Mily Balakirev , Aleksandr Borodin , and Petr Tchaikovsky found inspiration in Georgian culture, music, and dance. (The “Arabian Dance” in Tchaikovsky's The Nutcracker is based on a Georgian lullaby.) Later, in the early twentieth century, Georgian dance would be depicted in Serge Diaghilev 's Ballets Russes production Thamar , based on Lermontov's eponymous poem. Russia also influenced the development of Georgian dance. In ...

Georgia

Georgia   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
3,584 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Modern Georgia . 2d ed. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1990. Bayor, Ronald H. Race and the Shaping of Twentieth-Century Atlanta . Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996. Cobb, James C. Georgia Odyssey . Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1997. Coleman, Kenneth , ed. A History of Georgia . 2d ed. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1991. Dittmer, John . Black Georgia in the Progressive Era, 1900–1920 . Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1977. Grant, L. Donald . The Way It Was in the South: The Black Experience in Georgia ....

Georgia

Georgia   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History, 1619–1895: From the Colonial Period to the Age of Frederick Douglass

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
3,025 words

.... Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1989. Lockley, Timothy James . Lines in the Sand: Race and Class in Lowcountry Georgia, 1750–1860 . Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2001. Smith, Julia Floyd . Slavery and Rice Culture in Low Country Georgia, 1750–1860 . Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1985. Wood, Betty . Slavery in Colonial Georgia, 1730–1775 . Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1984. Wood, Betty . Women's Work, Men's Work: The Informal Slave Economies of Lowcountry Georgia . Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1995. Young, Jeffrey...

Georgia

Georgia   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
687 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Throughout the 19th century, Tsarist Russia continued to suppress Georgian nationalism. A strong Social Democrat Party of Mensheviks emerged in Georgia in the early 20th century, which formed a brief republic ( 1918–21 ), under British protection. In 1921 Georgia was conquered by the Red Army from Russia, and became part of the Transcaucasian Soviet Federal Socialist Republic with Azerbaijan and Armenia. A large-scale anti-communist uprising was suppressed in 1924 and in 1936 the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic became a full member of the Soviet Union....

Georgia

Georgia   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
149 words

... State in se USA, on the Atlantic Ocean, n of Florida; the capital is Atlanta . Other major cities are Columbus, Macon, and Savannah. In the s and e of the state is a broad coastal plain. The central area consists of the Piedmont plateau beyond which, in the n , are the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Appalachian plateau. The area is drained by the Savannah, Ogeechee and Altamaha rivers. First settled in 1732 , it was one of the original six states of the Confederacy in the Civil War . Ravaged by the armies of General Sherman in 1864 , Georgia...

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